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UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM
FACULTY OF LAW
DEPARTMENT OF CONSTITUTIONAL AND
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
CONSTITUTIONAL LAW I (LW 100)
COURSE OUTLINE AND READINGS 2000/2001
PREPARED BY DR. AGGREY K. MLIMUKA
COURSE CO-ORDINATOR
1
SEMESTER I
I. THE THEORY OF STATE AND LAW
1. Bourgeois theory
2. Marxist theory
READINGS:
1.Engels, F., The Origin of the Family Private Property and the State Progress
Publishers, Moscow, 1977.
2.Lenin, V.I., State and Revolution, Selected Works, Vol. II, Progress Publishers,
Moscow, 1968
3. Marx, K., The Communist Manifesto
4. Kelsen, H., General Theory of State and Law, Harvard University Press, 1945
5. Denisov, A., Theory of State and Law, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1987
II. MEANINGS AND CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTIONS
1. Definition of constitution
2. Sources of constitution
3. Functions of a constitution
(a) Legitimising
(b) Ideological
2
(c) Organising
4. Classification of constitution
(a) Written and unwritten
(b) Flexible and rigid
(c) Federal and unitary
(d) Presidential and parliamentary
(e) Monarchy and republic
(f) Supreme and ordinary
READINGS:
1. Phillips, O. H., O. Hood Phillips’ Constitutional and Administrative Law, 7th
Ed., Sweet & Maxwell Ltd., 1987
2. Wade, E.C.S., Constitutional Law, 6th Ed., 1960
3. Wade and Bradley, Constitutional Law, 1970
4. Wade and Phillips, Constitutional Law. 1965
5. Wheare, K.C., Modern Constitutions, Oxford University Press, London, 1964
6. Weber, Max, Legal Foundations of Modern Capitalism, in Ghai, Y., et al eds,
The Political Economy of Law, London, 1987, pp. 47-56
7. Gramsci, A., State and Civil Society, in Ghai, ibid, pp. 198-203
8. Ghai, Y., The Rule of Law, Legitimacy and Governance, International Journal
of the Sociology of Law, Vol. 14
9. Kelsen, H., The Basic Norm of a Legal Norm, in Introduction to
Jurisprudence, 4th ed., pp.318-322.
10. Tsikata, Fui, Limits of Constitutional Law, (handout)
11. Tsikata, Fui, The Constitution as an economic document (handout)
3
CASES:
1. Kesavananda v State of Kerala, All India Reports (AIR) 1973 Supreme Court
1461, at 1654, para. 787
2. Cooper v Commissioner of Income Tax (1907_ 4 Commonwealth Law Reports
(CLR) 1304 in Jennings, W.I., Constitutional Laws of the Commonwealth, p. 83,
at pp. 84-85
III. CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF
CONSTITUTION IN SOCIO-ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE
1. Gentile constitution
(a) The gentile constitution in Greek societies
(b) The gentile constitution in ancient Rome
(c) The tribal constitution in Germanic societies
(d) The gentile constitution in selected Tanzanian societies
2. Slave state constitution
3. Feudal state constitution
4. The rise of Bourgeois (liberal) democracy and the contribution of bourgeois
philosophers
(a) Hugo Grotius
(b) Thomas Hobbes
(c) John Locke
4
(d) Rosseau
(e) Montesquieu
READINGS:
1. Anderson, P., Passages From Antiquity to Feudalism, NLB, 1964
2 Engels, F. The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, Progress
Publishers, Moscow, 1977.
3 Engels, F., The Part Played Labour inthe Transition from Ape to Man Selected
Works, Vol. III., Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1977
4.Denisov, A., et al.Theory of State and Law, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1987
5. Leontyev, Political Economy: A condensed course, International Publishers, New
York, 1975
6. Tigar, M.E., Law and the Rise of Capitalism, Monthly Review Press, New York,
1977.
7. Kozlov, G.A., Political Economy: Capitalism, 1977
8. Friedmann, Legal Theory, 5th Ed., Stevens and Sons, London. 1967
9. Dias, R., Jurisprudence, 2nd Ed., Butterworths, London, 1964
10. Bodenheimer, Jurisprudence: The Philosophy and Methods of the Laws, 1962
11. Allen, Stephen Raley, The evolution of governments and laws, Princeton
University Press, Princeton, 1919
12. Friedrich, C.J., Constitutional Government and Democracy, theory and practice in
Europe and America, New York, 1950
13. McIlwain, Charles Howard, Constitutionalism, Ancient and Modern, Great Seal
Books, New York, Rev. ed. 1961
5
14. McIlwain, C.H., Constitutionalism and the changing world, Collected Papers,
Cambridge university Press, London, 1969
15. Rose Grahan H., Questions and Answers on Constitutional Law and Legal
History, Sweet & Maxwell, London, 8th Ed, 1964,
IV. CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLES AND DOCTRINES
1. Separation of powers and checks and balances
(a) Meaning
(b) Its application in selected countries
(c) Critique
2. The concept of Sovereignty and Parliamentary sovereignty
(a) Definition of sovereign and sovereignty
(b) Historical development
(c) Sovereign power
(d) People
(e) Parliamentary sovereignty
(f) Its application in different states
3. Parliamentary Supremacy
(a) Definition
(b) Historical development
(c) Parliamentary supremacy
(d) Party supremacy
(e) Supremacy of the constitution
6
(f) Supremacy of the Law
(g) Its applicability in several countries
4. Ministerial responsibility
(a) Meaning
(b) Aspects
(c) Accountability and responsibility in a parliamentary government
(d) Accountability and responsibility in a presidential type of government
5. Rule of Law
(a) Meaning
(b) Principles
(c) Equality before the law
(d) Supremacy of the law
(e) Historical development
(f) The contribution made by the ICJ
(g) Application in selected countries
(h) Modern conception
6. Independence of the Judiciary
(a) Meaning
(b) Historical development
(c) Principles
(d) Constitutional guarantees in selected countries
7
READINGS:
1. Phillips, O. H., O. Hood Phillips’ Constitutional and Administrative Law,
2. Wade E.C.S. Constitutional Law, 6th Ed., 1960
3. Wade and Bradley, Constitutional Law, 1970
4. Wade and Phillips, Constitutional Law. 1965
5. Wheare, C. Modern Constitutions, Oxford University Press, London, 1965
6. Friedrich, Carl Joachim, Constitutional Government and Democracy, theory and
practice in Europe and America, New York, 1950
7. McIlwain, Charles Howard, Constitutionalism, Ancient and Modern, Great Seal
Books, New York, Rev. ed. 1961
8. McIlwain, C.H., Constitutionalism and the changing world, Collected Papers,
Cambridge university Press, London, 1969
9. Rose Grahan H., Questions and Answers on Constitutional Law and Legal
History, Sweet & Maxwell, London, 8th Ed, 1964.
10. Harris, David, Study Guide to Constitutional Law, Sweet & Maxwell, London,
1967.
11. Yardley D.C.M., Introduction to British Constitutional Law, Butterworths,
London, 4th ed,. 1974
12. Phillips, O.H., Leading cases in constitutional and administrative law, 4th ed,
sweet & Maxwell, London, 1973
13. Fawcett James, The British Commonwealth in International Law, Stevens,
London, 1973
14. De Smith, S.A., The Commonwealth and its Constitutions, Stevens, London, 1964
8
15. Jennings, Sir Wiliam Ivor, Constitutional Laws of the Comonwealth, 3rd ed.,
Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957
16. Zurcher, Arnold, Constitutions and Constitutional Trends since World War II,
with special reference to the new constitutions of Western Europe, New York
University Press, New York, 1951
17. Ghai & McAuslan, Public Law and Political Change in Kenya
18. Wolf Phillips, Constitutions of Modern States, Praeger, New York, 1968
19. Cole, J.S.R. and Denison, W.N., The British Commonwealth, The Development
of its Laws and Constitutions, Tanganyika, Stevens & Sons, London, 1964.
20. Msekwa, P., Towards Party Supremacy, 1977
21. –“- The transition to multi-party democracy, 1995
22. Mtaki, C.K., “The Doctrine of Separation of powers and constitutional
developments in Tanzania,” in Mtaki, C.K. and Okema, M., (eds), Constitutional
Reforms and Democratic Governance in Tanzania, Friedrich Naumann Stiftung &
Faculty of Law, Dar es Salaam, 1994.
23. Dicey, A.V., Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, 10th edn,
1959
24. Srivastava, B.P., The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania: Some
Salient Features – Some Riddles, Professorial Inaugural Lecture Series, No. 34,
University of Dar es Salaam
25. Mwakyembe, H.G., “The Parliament and the Electoral Process,” in Shivji, I.G.,
The State and the Working People in Tanzania, CODESRIA Book Series,
London, 1986.
26. Mlimuka, A.K.L.J. and Kabudi, P.J.A.M., “The State and the Party,” in Shivji,
I.G., The State and the Working People in Tanzania, 1986.
9
27. Seaton and Warioba, “The Constitution of Tanzania: An Overview,” in EALR
Vols 11-14, 1978-1981
28. Mwaikusa, J.T., “The Limits of Judicial Enterprise. Judicial powers in the Process
of Political Change in Tanzania, Journal of African Law, Vol. 40 No.2, 1996
29. Fimbo, G.M., “Transformation of the National Assembly in Tanzania: From
Rubber Stamping to Supremacy?” in THE LAWYER, TANZANIA, Special Issue,
1995
30. Wade, H.W.R., “The Basis of Legal Sovereignty,” Cambridge Law Journal, 1955,
p.172
31. Nyerere, J.K., Freedom and Unity, Oxford Unity Press, Dar es Salaam, 1966
32. – “ - Freedom and Socialism, Oxford University Press, Dar es Salaam,
1968
33. Nwabueze, B., Presidentialism in Commonwealth Africa, C. Hurst & Company,
London, 1974
34. Chakravetti, S., Administrative Law and Tribunals, 2nd ed. 1988
35. Ghai, Y., “Constitutions and the political Order in East Africa,” in 211, I.C.L.Q
36. McEldowey, Public Law, London, 1994
37. Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws, Chapter 6
38. Kumar, U., “Some Preliminary Observations on the Administration of Justice in a
One-Party African State: The Tanzanian Experience,” in Lesotho Law Journal,
Vol. 2, 1986
39. Shivji,I.G., “Thechanging state From an extra-legal to an intra-legal state in
Tanzania,” in Mtaki, C.K. and Okema, M., (eds), Constitutional Reforms and
Democratic Governance in Tanzania, Friedrich Naumann Stiftung & Faculty of
Law, Dar es Salaam, 1994.
10
40. Lobulu, B., “The Rule of Law in Zanzibar,” in Dar es Salaam University Law
Journal, Vol. 5, 1973
41. United States of America Constitution
42. Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany
43. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996
44. The Constitution of the Republic of Namibia
45. The Constitution of Kenya
46. Katiba ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania ya mwaka 1977 (The Constitution
of the United Republic of Tanzania of 1977)
47. Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, 1995
48. Katiba ya Zanzibar ya 1984
CASES:
1. Liyanage v R (1967) A.C. 259
2. Hinds v R (1971) A.C. 195
3. Dupport Steel Ltd. (1980) 1 WLR 142
4. Abse and Smith (1986) QB 536, 553
5. Malone v Metropolitan Police (1979) Ch.D 344
6. Ally Juu ya Watu v Loserian Mollel and another (1979) L.R.T. n. 6
7. James Bitta v Iddi Kambi (1979) L.R.T. n. 9
8. Hamisi Masisi and others v R (1985) T.L.R. 24
9. Ibingira v Uganda E.A. 306
10. Ram Jawaya v State of Punjab (A.I.R 1955 S.C. 549)
11. Asif Hameed v State of J. & K. (A.I.R. 1989 S.C. 1899)
11
12. Chumchua Marwa v Officer i/c of Musoma Prison & A.G. Misc. Cr. Cause No. 2
of 1988, High Court at Mwanza, unreported
13. Daudi Pete v R Misc, cr. Cause No. 41 of 1989, High Court at Mwanza,
unreported
14. Kazembe v Msangi Cr. Cause No. 41 of 1989, High Court at Dar es Salaam
V. CONSTITUTIONALISM
1. Definition
2. Essential features
3. Constitutions and constitutionalism
READINGS:
1. de Smith, Constitutional Law, 1962
2. Shivji, State and Constitutionalism, SAPES, Harare, 1991
3. Okoth-Ogendo, H.W.O, Constitutions without Constitutionalism: An African
Paradox, in Shivji, Ibid.
4. Shivji, The State of the constitution and the Constitution of the State in
Tanzania, in E.A.L.R., Vols 11/14
5. Ghai, Limits of Constitutionalism: Third World Perspectives,1989
6. McLlwain, Charles Howard, Constitutionalism Ancient and Modern, Great
Seal Booksork, Rev. ed. New York, 1961
7. McLlwain,C.H., Constitutionalism and the changing world, Collected Papers,
Cambridge university Press, London, 1969
12
8. Andrews, William G, Constitution and Constituitionalism, van Nortstrand,
Princeton, 1961
9. Suba Rao Koka, Some constitutional problems, University of Bombay, 1970
10. Nwabueze, B., Constitutionalism in the Emergent States, C. Hurst &
Company, London, 1974.
VI. CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEMS
1. Parliamentary V Presidential
2. Unitary V Federal
READINGS:
1. Dicey, A.V., Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution
2. Dike, C., The Case against Parliamentary Sovereignty, Public Law, 1976m 283
3. Nwabueze, B.O., Presidentialism in Commonwealth Africa, 1974, Chapt. III
4. De Smith, The New Commonwealth and its Constitutions, London, 1964, Chapts
6&7
5. Ghai, Y. & McAuslan, Public Law and Political Change in Kenya, 1970, Chapt.
VI
6. Wheare, K.C., Federal Government, 4th edn. , Oxford, 1963
7. Srivastava, B.P., The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania: Some
Salient Features – Some Riddles, Professorial Inaugural Lecture Series, No. 34,
University of Dar es Salaam. (Reproduced also in E.A.L.R. Vols. 11-14, 1978-81)
13
8. Shivji, I.G., The Legal Foundations of the Union, Dar es Salaam, 1990
9. Mwakyembe, H.G., Tanzania’s Eighth Constitutional Amendment and Its
Implications on Constitutionalism, Democracy and the Union Question, LIT
Verlag, Muenster/Hamburg, 1995
10. The Constitution of India
11. The Constitution of Nigeria, 1979
12. Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany
13. The United States of America Constitution
14. The Constitution of Kenya
15. Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, 1995
16. The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania of 1977
17. Katiba ya Zanzibar, 1984
SEMESTER II
VII. SOURCES OF CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE
1.Popular uprising
2.Military coups
3. External imposition
4. Amendment
14
5. Judicial interpretation
READINGS:
1. Ghai, Y., et al (Eds), Political Economy of Law, pp. 262-271
2. Ghai, Y., Coups and Constitutional Doctrines: The role of courts
3. Agresto, J., The Supreme Court and Constitutional Democracy, New Delhi, 1986
4. McWhinney, E., Judicial Review, 4th edn., Toronto, 1968
5. Morgan, G., The Indian ‘Essential Features’ Case, I.C.L.Q. Vol. 30. 1981, pp.
307-37
6. Elias, T.O., Judicial Processes in the Newer Comonwealth, Lagos, 1990, chapt. 4
7. Dhavan, R., (Ed.)., Judges and Judicial Power, London, 1985
CASES:
1. Uganda v Commissioner of Prisons, ex parte Matovu (1966) E.A. 514
2. Pakistan case
3. Madzimbamuto v Lardner Burke (1969) 1 a,C, 645
4. Mitchell v D.P.P. (1986) LRC (Const) 127
5. Mokotso & Others v H.M. King Moshoeshoe II and Others (1989) LRC (Const)
[Case Note by Read, J., in J.A.L., Vol. 35, p. 209]
15
VIII. CONSTITUTION MAKING AND CONSTITUTIONAL
LEGITIMACY
1. By Referenda
2. National conference
3. White paper
4. Constituent Assembly
5. Constitutional amendment and Constitutional reform
READINGS:
1. McEldowey, J,F,, Public Law, Ch. 1, London, 1994
2. Singh, M.P., Constitution of India, Introduction
3. Fimbo, G.M., Constitution making and courts in Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, DUP,
1992
4. Shivji, I.G., (Ed.) State and Constitutionalism: An African Debate on Democracy,
Harare, 1991
5. Okoth-Ogendo, H.W.O., “Constitutions without Constitutionalism: An African
Paradox,” in Shivji, (Ed.) State and Constitutionalism. Ibid.
6. Makaramba, R.V., A New Constitutional Order for Tanzania? Why and How, Dar
es Salaam, 1998.
7. Taarifa na Mapendekezo ya Tume Kuhusu Mfumo wa Siasa Nchini Tanzania,
1991, Kitabu cha Kwanza. (Report and Recommendations of the Commission
on the Democratic System in Tanzania Vol. I, 1991)
16
8. Msekwa, P., The Transition to Multiparty Democracy, Dar es salaam, 1995
9. Mukholi, D., A Complete Guide to Uganda’s Fourth Constitution, 1995
10. Jennings, I., Constitutional Laws of the Commonwealth, London, 1957, Chapt. IX
11. Bennion, F.A.R., The Constitutional Law of Ghana, London, 1962
12. Robinson, K., “Constitutional Autochthony in Ghana,” in 1 Journal of
Commonwealth Political Studies, 41 (1961-63)
13. Slinn, P., “A Fresh Start for Africa? New African Constitutional Perspectives for
the 1990s,” in Journal of African Law (J.A.L.), Vol. 35, 1991, p.1
14. Reyntjens, F., “The Winds of Change: Political and Constitutional Evolution in
Francophone Africa,” J.A.L., Vol. 35, 1990/91, p. 44
15. Hatchard, J., “The Constitution of Zimbabwe: Towards a Model for Africa,? In
J.A.L., Vol. 35, p. 79
16. Cottrell, J., “The Constitution of Namibia: An Overview,” in J.A.L., Vol. 35, p.56
17. Shezi, S and Bradshav, (Eds), Constitution/making in the New South Africa,
London, 1993
18. Uganda, Report of the Constitutional Commission, 193
19. Uganda, The Constituent Assembly Statute, 6/1993
20. Pogany, I., Constitutional Reform in Central and Eastern Europe: Hungary’s
Transition to Democracy, I.C.L.Q., Vol, 42, 1993, p. 332
21. Wapakhabulo, J.F., “Constitution Making – Uganda’s Experience,” in
Multipartism and the Parliament in Tanzania, Workshop proceedings of Bunge
standing committees on Standing Orders and Legal and Constitutional Affairs,
held on 2nd to 6th June, 1997 at Karimjee Hall, BUNGE DIGEST, pp.1-22
17
IX. CONSTITUTIONS OF SELECTED AFRICAN STATES
1.Preamble and political system
2. National objectives and directive principles of state policy
3. The Executive
4. The Judiciary
5. The Legislature
READINGS:
1. The Constitution of Kenya
2. Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, 1995
3. The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania of 1977
4. Katiba ya Zanzibar, 1984
5. Ojwang, J.B., Constitutional Development in Kenya: Institutional Adaptation and
Social Change, Nairobi, 1990
6. Mukholi, D.A., A Complete Guide to Uganda’s Fourth Constitution, 1995
7. Shivji, I.G., (ed.), The State and the Working People in Tanzania, 1986
8. – “ - The Legal Foundations of the Union, 1990
9. Ghai & McAuslan, Public Law and Political Change in Kenya
10. Seaton, E.E. & Warioba, J.S., “The Constitution of Tanzania: An Overview, in
E.A.L.R., Vols 11-14, 1978-81
18
11. Srivastava, B.P., The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania – Some
Salient Features, Some Riddles, in E.A.LR., Vols. 11-14, 1978-81
12. Othman, H. & Shaidi, L., Zanzibar’s Constitutional Development, in E.A.L.R.,
Vols. 11-14, 1978-81
13. Cole, J.S.R. & Denison, W.N., Tanganyika: The Development of its Laws and
Constitution, London, 1964, Chapt. 3
14. McAuslan & Ghai, “Constitutional Innovation and Political Stability in Tanzania:
A Preliminary Assessment,” in Journal of Modern African Studies, 44, 1966, pp.
479-515
15. Ong’wamuhana, K., “Party Supremacy and the State Constitution in Africa’s One-
Party States: The Kenya-Tanzania experience, in Third World Legal Studies,
1988, p. 77
CASES:
1. Henrietta Muir Edwards v A.G. for Canada (1930) A.C. 124
2. A.G. for Nova Scotia v A.G. for Canada (1951) S.C.R. 31
X. STATE STRUCTURE AND ORGANS
1. The Court System of Tanzania Mainland
A. History of the Courts.
19
The Colonial background. The Court System of Tanganyika in the period of German
administration; The Court System of Tanganyika during British rule – the Dual.
B. Present Court System
STATUTES:
1. Tanganyika Law Reports, Vol. I (1921-1952) (Revised) pp. v. vi
2. The Foreign Jurisdiction Act, 1890 (53 & 54 Vict. C.37)
3. Tanganyika Order in Council 1920, Law of Tanganyika, 1928 vol. 3 p.6 H/out.
4. Courts Ordinance, 1920, No.6 of 1920, Cap.3, Laws of Tanganyika, 1928, H/out
5. The Application of Laws Ordinance, 1920, no.7 of 1 20,
6. The Application of Laws Ordinance, 1922, No.17 of 1922 cap.2 Laws of
Tanganyika,1928.
7. Eastern Africa Court of Appeal Order in Council Laws of Tanganyika, 1920 vol.3
p.39.
8. Eastern Africa (Appeal to the privy Council) order in council, 1921, Laws of
Tanganyika, 1928 vol. 3 p.46
9. Appeals to the court of Appeal Ordinance, 1922 No.II of 1922 Cap.5 Laws of T.
1928.
10. Native Courts Proclamation 1925 No.7 of 1925, Laws of Tanganyika, 1928, Vol.3
86 H/out.
11. Native Courts Ordinance, 1929 No.5 of 1929, Cap.73 Laws of Tanganyika, 1947,
H/out.
20
12. Subordinate Courts Ordinance, 1941 No.15 of 1941, Cap.3 Law of Tanganyika
1941.
13. Legal Courts ordinance, 1951, No.14 of 1951, Cap 299 H/out
14. Magistrates’ Courts Act. 1963 No.55 of 1963, Cap.537 – in force on 1.7 1964 (as
amended).
15. H./out Magistrates’ courts Act 1984 No.2 of 1984. Judicature and Application of
Laws ordinance No.57 of 1961, Cap. 453. H/out.
16. Eastern Africa Court of \Appeal order in council, 1961.
17. Appellate Jurisdiction ordinance, 1961 no.55 of 1961, Cap.431.
18. Court of Appeal for Eastern Africa, Act 1962 (PACSO), No.13 of 1992) and Act 5
of 1964
19. Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1979 No.15 of 1979.
READINGS:
1. Native Administration Memorundum No. VI-Supervision and Jurisdiction of
Native Courts, Dar es Salaam 1927.
2. Native Administration Memorandum No.11: Native Courts, dated 15th January,
1930, Dar es Salaam.
3. Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Administration of Justice in Kenya,
Uganda and Tanganyika Territory in Criminal Matters, May, 1933 (Bushe
Commission) CMD 4623, 1934.
4. African conference on Local Courts and Customary Law, Record of Proceedings
of the Conference held in Dar es Salaam, Tanganyika, 18th September, 1963
21
5. J.S.R. Cole and W.N. Denison, the British Commonwealth: The Development of
its Laws and Constitutions: Tanganyika, Stevens & Sons, London, 1964.
6. R.I. Martin, Personal Freedom and the Law in Tanzania, Oxford University Press,
Nairobi, 1974
7. L.L. Kato, Legal Systems of East Africa, Draft Essays (Mimeo) Dar es Salaam,
1970/71.
8. G.F.A. Sawyerr (Ed). East African Law and Social Change, East African
Publishing House, Nairobi, 1967.
9. *H.F. Morris and J.S. Read, Indirect Rule and the Search for Justice – Essays in
East African legal History, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1972.
10. *D.W. James and F.M. Kassam (ed) Law and its Administration in a one party
state – selected speeches of Telford Georges, E.A.L.B, Nairobi, 1973
11. W.B. Harvey, An Introduction to the Legal Systems in East Africa, EALB.
Nairobi, 1973
12. *J.P. Moffat, Native Courts in Tanganyika: A History of the Development of
Native Courts from German Times, (1952) 4 J.A.A. p.17-25.
13. *E. Cotran, Integration of Courts and Application of Customary Law in Tanzania,
E.A.L.J. (1965) Vol. 1 No.2 p.108.
14. T.O. Beidelman, Intertribal Tensions in Some Local Government Courts, in
Tanganyika (1966)10 J.A.L. 118, cont. in (1967)II J.A.L. 84
15. A.J. Loveridge, The Future of Native Courts (1949) 1 J.A.A. 77
16. African Studies Branch, A Digest of Tanganyika Local Courts Ordinance, 1951
(1952)4 J.A.A. 22
17. J.P.W.B. Mc. Auslan The Problems of Representation in the Primary Courts
(1966) 2 E.A.L.J.. 197
22
18. L.L. Kato, The Court of Appeal for East Africa: From a Colonial Court to an
International Court (1971) 7 E.A.A.L. 1.
19. Sir, John Gray, Opinion of Assessors in Criminal Trials in East Africa as to native
custom (1958)2 J.A.L. 5.
20. O.T. Hamlyn, The Selection of Assessors in Cases of Provocation, (1966) J. of the
Denning Law Soc. Vol.1 No.2 p.110
21. J.S. Warioba, The Role of Assessors in Criminal Trials in Tanganyika, J. of the
Denning Law Soc. (1966) Vol. 1 No.3 p.65
22. R.W. Moisey the Role of Assessors in the Courts of Tanzania (1967) E.A.l.j. Vol.
3 No.4 p.348.
23. P.W.J. Odero, The Role and Status of Assessirs ub East African Judicial System
(1971) Vol.3 of the Denning Law Soc. P.189.
24. A.O. Obilade, Reform of Customary, Court Systems in Nigeria under the Millitary
Government (1969) J.A.L. Vol.1 No.1 p.28.
25. A.O. Obilade Jurisdiction in Customary Law Matters in Nigeria: Acritical
examination [1973] 17 J.A.L. 27.
26. *G. Mgongo Fimbo, Constitution Making in Tanzania: Some Thoughts on the
Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar (Mimeo), 1982 H/out.
CASES:
1. Poole v.R. [1960] E.A. 645
2. *Land Officer v. Motor Mart and Exchange (1956) 2 T.L.R.
3. Rajabali Alidina v. Fida Hussein Fazal (1942)1 TLR ® 600
23
4. Sebastian Luzibukya Kakilo v. Mwami Relix Lugakingila Musikule (1953)
Dig.21
5. *Benjamin Chinjate Kassambara v. Rex (1940)1 T.L.R. ® 249.
6. Bhag Singh v. Rex 1 T.L.R. ® 133
7. Sirusi Nyegoto v. Native Authority, North Mara (1958) Dig. 142.
7. Burahim Alimasi v. Masudi Alimsi (1958) Dig. 121
8. Clemence Ndeolanjana v. Rep. (1963) Dig. 258
9. Shiv. J. Kumar Sofat VR [1957] E.A. 469
10. Murimi V. Rep. [1967] E.A. 542
11. Pandya V.R. [1967] E.A. 336
12. Rioba Nyanchancha v. Rep. 1973 L.R.T. b.31.
13. Ratansi v. Khamis (1925) 1 TLR ® 435
14. Mohamed Versi v. Sheikh Elttarthi (1951)1 TLR(T) 547.
15. Hasham v. Nasser El Harthi (1955)2 TLR® 220.
16. Sembatwa Ndatuya v Maria Kisukari, 1975 L.R.T. n.65
17. *Re hermann Milde (1937) 1 T.L.R. ® 129.
18. Andreas s/o Mathias v.R. (1954)21 E.A.C.A. 285.
19. Ernest s/o Ndesangio v.R. [1980] TLR 332
20. *Kitenge binti Hamis v. Ali bin Said (1937) 1 T.L.R. p.402
21. Fatuma d/o Kazi v. District Commissioner, Bukoba (1957) Dig.94
22. Salehe Arepi v. Mohamed Khan (1969) H.C.D. n. 273
23. Felalon(father) v. Kalinga (1970 H.C.D. n. 259
24. Mrisho s/o Pazi v. Tatu d/o Juma (1969) H.C.D. n. 119
25. Songora v. Khalfan(1972) H.C.D. n.73
26. Chacha Gikaro v. Marwa Marono (1968) H.C.D. n. 119
24
27. Bicoli v. Matemba (1971) H.C.D. n.42.
28. Endoshi v. Lema (1971) H.C.D. n.416
29. Daniel v. Kanyok (1971) H.C.D. n.325
30. *Ali Zanda v. Mohamed Ngago (1973) L.R.T. n.16
30. Jan Mohamed v. Registrar of Buildings (1972) H.C.D.
31. Rep. V. Gabriel Meti (1976) L.R.T. N.II
32. Mackrey Kingu s/o Nakala v.R (1968) H.C.D. n.105
33. Umbwa Mbegu v.R. (1969) H.C.D. n.312
34. Dominico Simon v.R. (1972) R.C.D. n.152
35. Andrea s/o Kimbuli v. Rep. (1968) H.C.D. n.312
36. Hassan v. Rep. (1970) H.C.D. n. 146
37. “Jamal Manji v.R. (1970) H.C.D. n. 338
38. Mbolye Mhurula v. Sanya Mbolye (1974) L.R.T. n. 48
39. Rioba Nyachancha v. Rep. 1973 LRT n.31
40. Mwendwa Mtinangi v Juma Mahumbi High Court (Singinda) Civil Appeal No.25
of 1984 (Unreported).
41. Dotto d/o Malamla v. Lukelesha Lyaku [1981] TLR 29.
42. Ally Kaguru v Halima Tanga High Court, DSM (PC) Civil Appeal No.45 of 1983
(unreported)
43. Mariam Ally Ponda v Kherry Kissinger Hassan High Court, Dodoma(PC)
Matrimonial Appeal No.1 of 1983(Unreported)
44. Anastazia Kabetwa v John Yowela [1982] TLR 103
45. Esrom W. Gunzar v. Daudi Kamanga 1974 LRT n.37
46. Francis v Arobogasti (1971) HCD n.160
25
47. Selemani Ramadhani v. Ally Juma, High Court Singida, Civil Appeal No.27 of
1984(Unreported).
48. Bonto Nusura Mchopa v Chambali Ahmad High Court, Mtwara, (PC)
Civil Appeal No.26 of 1986 (Unreported)
48. Susana Shija v Paulinus Kazulunga, High Court Mwanza, Civil Appeal No.4 of
1984 (unreported)
49. Rep. V. Akutenda Mwaipopo, [1980 TLR 152. Rep. V. Juma Masaga 1974 LRT
n.17
3. The Court System of Zanzibar: Past and Present
A. Court System before Independence
B. Court system after Independence
C. Court System after Revolution
D. People’s Court system
E. Present Court System
READINGS:
1. R.N. Ben Lobulu, The Rule of Law in Zanzibar, (1973) Vol.5 D.U.L.J. p.74
2. H.F. Morris, Some Recent Changes in the Judicial Systems of East Africa (1967)
11. J.A.L. 46
3. *H. Mbwezeleni and S. Kumbuka peoples’ court in Zanzibar (Mimeo) 1978.
H/out
4. Zanzibar order in Council 1906
26
5. Zanzibar Courts Degree, No.8 of 1908.
6. Courts Decree 1923 No.20 of 1923 (Cap 3 Laws of Zanzibar 1924)
7. Public Land Decree 1921, No.32 of 1921, Cap.93
8. Presidential Decree No.1 of 1964 (The Existing Laws Decree).
9. Confiscation of Immovable Property Decree, 1964
10. Presidential Decree No.13 of 1965 (Government Land Decree, 1965)
11. Presidential Decree No.5 of 1966 (Land Distribution Decree).
12. High Court Degree 1964, No.2 of 1964
13. Peoples’ Courts Decree No.11 of 1969
14. Revolutionary Council Degree No.3 of 1972
15. Supreme Council Decree 1970
16. The Constitution of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar 1979
17. The Constitution of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar, 1984.
18. Magistrates’ Courts Act 1985, Act No.6 of 1985
19. High Court Act, 1985, No.2 of 1985,
20. Kadhis Courts Act, 1985 No.3 of 1985
21. Ramadhani, A.,“Judicial System of Tanzania, Zanzibar”, in EALR, Vols 11-14,
1978-1981, pp 225-239
22. Makaramba, R.V., “The Status and Application of Islamic Law in Tanzania” in
E.A.L.R., Vol. 18, December, 1991, pp 277-310.
4. Appointment, Tenure and Disciplinary Control over Judicial Officers in
Tanzania Mainland
READINGS:
27
1. Judicial Service Act 1962 Cap 508, H/out
2. Judicial Service, (General, Termination of Service and Disciplinary) regulations
1965 GN No.175 of 1965.
3. Civil Service Act 1962 Cap 509 Civil Service Act 1989, Act No16/1989
4. Civil Service Regulations, 1970, GN. No.288 of 1970
5. Security of Employment Act, 1964, Cap 574
6. Severance Allowance act 1962, Cap 487
7. Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania 1977
8. N.S. Mnzavas, The Administration of Justice in Tanzania, (Mimeo)1981. H/out.
9. R.H. Kisanga The Challenges of the professional and the Academic in Tanzania,
(Mimeo) 1983 H/out.
28
DEPARTMENT OF CONSTITUTIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
LW 200: ADMINITRATIVE LAW.
COURSE OUTLINE
General Outline
The course is designed to impart to the law student basic concepts in Constitutional and
Administrative Law; reasons for the establishment of administrative agencies and for
delegation to these bodies powers of legislation and adjudication. The law students
should emerge out of the course with a clear understanding of powers of the courts to
control administrative actions and how and when such powers of control may be
excluded.
The course is also designed to draw an onsight into other informal controls of
administrative action, like the ombudsman and to enable students to understand the
process of administrative litigation and remedies available at law to aggrieved persons.
The civil service which occupies a significant place in the administrative process is
approached not only generally, but also to draw comparative perspective within the
commonwealth as a way of understanding better the development of the civil service law
in Tanzania.
Introduction: Nature and Function of Administrative Law
Wade, Administrative Law, Chapter One
Foulkes, Administrative Law, Chapter One
Garner, Administrative Law, pp. 1-12
Jain, A Treatise on Administrative law, Chapter One
Chakraverti, Administrative Law, & Tribunals, Chapter One
Friedmann, The Rule of Law and the Welfare State
1
BASIC CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLES
Separation of Powers
Colin Munro, “The Separation of Powers” 1981 Public Law 19
W.B. Glyn, The Meaning of Separation of Powers (1965)
M.J.C. Vile Constitutionalism and the Separation of Powers (1967)
G. Marshall, Constitutional Theory (1971). Chapt.5
O. Hood Phillips, “A Constitutional Myth: Separation of Powers” in (1977) 93 Law
Quarterly Review, 11.
K.C. Davis Administrative Law Text, pp.29-30
Holdsworth, History of English Law, Vol. X, pp.713 et seq.
K.C. Wheare, Modern Constitutions, pp. 7-29; 280-304
Yash Ghai, “Constitutions and the Political Order in East Africa” 211
International and Cimparative Law Quarterly
Massey, I.P. Administrative Law, pp. 35-42
O. Hood Phillips & P. Jackson, Constitutional and Administrative Law pp. 13-14, 29-31
Chakraverti, Administrative Law and Tribunals pp. 21-24
Okema & Mtaki (eds), Constitutional Reform and Democratic Governance in Tanzania
pp. 95-117
Mwaikusa, (1996) “The Limits of Judicial Enterprises”, Journal of African Law
Jain, A Treatise on Administrative Law, pp. 30-37
Case Law: - Liyanage vR [1967] lac 259
- Duport Steels Ltd. V. Sirs [1980]1 W.L.R. 142, 157
- Hinds v. The Queen [1977] A.C. 195
- Chokolongo v. Attorney General [1981] 1W.L.R. 106. (110 – Lord
Diplock)
- Abse v. Smith [1986] Q.b. 536 (553 – Sir John Donalds.
- Sherdley v. Sherdley [986] W.L.R. 732 – Sir, John Donaldson.
- Mtikila v. Attorney General, [1995] T.L.R. 31
2
- Mabere Marando & Edwin Mtei v. Attorney General, High Court
at Dar es salaam, Civil Case No.168 of 1993
- Lujuna Shubi Ballonzi v. Chama cha Mapinduzi, [1996] T.L.R.
203
- Mwalimu Paul John Mhozya v. The Attorney General (No.1)
[1996] T.L.R. 130
Supremacy of Parliament
A.L. Morton A People’s History of England, Chap. 7 & 8
O. Hood Phillips & P. Jackson, Chapters 3, 4 and 11.
R.F.V. Heuston, Essays in Constitutional Law, pp.1-31
T.C. Hartley & J.A.C. Griffith, Government and Politics, pp. 12, 26.
Harvey & Bather, The British Constitution, pp. 83-111
H.W.R., Wade, “The Bases of Legal Sovereignty, (1955) Cambridge Law journal,
172
R.W.M. Dias, “Legal Politics: Norms Behind the Grundnorm”, (1968) 26
Cambridge Law Journal, 233
Parliament in the African State:
R.F. Hopkin, “The Role of the M.P. in Tanzania, “in the American Political
Science Review, Vol. LXV, No.3, 1970, p.754
Yash Ghai & J.P.W.B., McAuslan, Public Law and Political Change in Kenya, Chapter
Eight (pp. 310-358).
Robert martin, Personal Freedom and the Law in Tanzania, Chap.2
William Tordoff, Government and Politics in Tanzania, pp.1-29
J.K. Nyerere, Freedom and Unity, pp.193-203
Eastern Africa Law Review, Vol.. 11-14 (1978-1981) Special Issue on the Constitution
and the state in Tanzania
3
B.U. Mwansasu, “The Changing Role of TANU in B.U. Mwansasu & C. Pratt,
Towards Socialism in Tanzania, T.P.E., Dar 1979.
Robert Martin, in (1968) (1) Eastern African Law Review, 68
P. Msekwa, Towards Party Supremacy, E.A.P. Arusha 1977
B.P. Srivastava The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania DUP; also in
Vol. 11-14 Eastern Africa Law Review.
L. Cliffe, “Democracy in a One-Party State: The Tanzanian Experience”, in
Cliffe & Saul (eds) (1972), at p. 241.
Thoden van Velzen & Sterkenburg “Stiirrings in the Tanzania National Assembly,” in
Cliffe & Saul (eds) (1972), at p.248.
Thoden van Velzen 7 Sterkenburg, “The Party Supreme” in Cliffe & Saul (eds) (1972)
at p.247.
Harry Goulbourne, “The Role of the Political Party in Tanzania since the Arusha
Declaration” in Harry Goulbourne (ed.), Politics and State in the
third World, MacMillan Press, London 1979.
Mwaikusa, J.T. (1990), “Government Powers…” in (1990) Vol.6 Lesotho Law
Journal, p.75.
H.G. Mwakyembe “Parliament and the Electoral Process”, in Shivji (ed) (1986), p.16
Mlimuka & Kabudi “The State and the Party,” in Shivji (ed) (1986), p.58
Some Caselaw:
- Nakkuda Ali v. Jayaraine [1951] A.C. 66
- Ellen Tree Etate v. Minister of Health [1934]1 K.B. 590
- A.G. New South Wales v. Trethowan [1932] A.C. 316
- A.G. Ontario v AG: Canada [1937] A.C. 355
- Kenya Aluminim v. Minister for Agriculture, 1961 E.A. 248.
- Uganda v. Commissioner of Prisons, 1966 E.A. 514
- Mtikila v. Attorney General [1995] T.L.R. 31
- Attorney General v. Kabourou [1996] T.L.R. 156 at 176
- Peter Ng’omango v. Gerson Mwangwa [1993] T.L.R. 77


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