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    • Abstract: Modern Biology ®Study Guide About the Modern Biology Study GuideThe Section Review worksheets can be used in a number of ways to guide you throughyour textbook: as a pre-reading guide to each section, as a review of the chapter’s main

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Modern Biology ®
Study Guide
About the Modern Biology Study Guide
The Section Review worksheets can be used in a number of ways to guide you through
your textbook: as a pre-reading guide to each section, as a review of the chapter’s main
concepts after you read each section, or even as test preparation for your biology exams.
No matter how your teacher chooses to use these worksheets, the Modern Biology Study
Guide will help you succeed in your study of biology.
In each Section Review worksheet, you will encounter four types of exercises:
Vocabulary Review exercises help you to review important terms in each section.
Multiple Choice questions test your understanding of important concepts and terms
introduced in each section.
Short Answer (with Critical Thinking) questions help you to synthesize and write
your own conclusions using information in the section.
Structures and Functions questions provide opportunities to label major structures
and processes or to interpret data or figures in order to examine the section material
in a larger context.
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Teachers using MODERN BIOLOGY may photocopy blackline masters in complete pages in sufficient
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Printed in the United States of America
ISBN 0-03-036718-2
1 2 3 4 5 6 862 08 07 06 05 04
CONTENTS
Chapter 1: The Science of Life
Section 1-1 Review The World of Biology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Section 1-2 Review Themes in Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Section 1-3 Review The Study of Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Section 1-4 Review Tools and Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life
Section 2-1 Review Composition of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Section 2-2 Review Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Section 2-3 Review Water and Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Chapter 3: Biochemistry
Section 3-1 Review Carbon Compounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Section 3-2 Review Molecules of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Chapter 4: Cell Structure and Function
Section 4-1 Review The History of Cell Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Section 4-2 Review Introduction to Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Section 4-3 Review Cell Organelles and Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Section 4-4 Review Unique Features of Plant Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Chapter 5: Homeostasis and Cell Transport
Section 5-1 Review Passive Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Section 5-2 Review Active Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Chapter 6: Photosynthesis
Section 6-1 Review The Light Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Section 6-2 Review The Calvin Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Chapter 7: Cellular Respiration
Section 7-1 Review Glycolysis and Fermentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Section 7-2 Review Aerobic Respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Chapter 8: Cell Reproduction
Section 8-1 Review Chromosomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Section 8-2 Review Cell Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Section 8-3 Review Meiosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Chapter 9: Fundamentals of Genetics
Section 9-1 Review Mendel’s Legacy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Section 9-2 Review Genetic Crosses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Modern Biology Study Guide iii
Chapter 10: DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis
Section 10-1 Review Discovery of DNA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Section 10-2 Review DNA Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Section 10-3 Review DNA Replication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Section 10-4 Review Protein Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Chapter 11: Gene Expression
Section 11-1 Review Control of Gene Expression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Section 11-2 Review Gene Expression in Development
and Cell Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Chapter 12: Inheritance Patterns and Human Genetics
Section 12-1 Review Chromosomes and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Section 12-2 Review Human Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Chapter 13: Gene Technology
Section 13-1 Review DNA Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Section 13-2 Review The Human Genome Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Section 13-3 Review Genetic Engineering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Chapter 14: History of Life
Section 14-1 Review Biogenesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Section 14-2 Review Earth’s History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Section 14-3 Review The First Life-Forms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Chapter 15: Theory of Evolution
Section 15-1 Review History of Evolutionary Thought . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Section 15-2 Review Evidence of Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Section 15-3 Review Evolution in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Chapter 16: Population Genetics and Speciation
Section 16-1 Review Genetic Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Section 16-2 Review Disruption of Genetic Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Section 16-3 Review Formation of Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Chapter 17: Classification of Organisms
Section 17-1 Review Biodiversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Section 17-2 Review Systematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Section 17-3 Review Modern Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Chapter 18: Introduction to Ecology
Section 18-1 Review Introduction to Ecology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Section 18-2 Review Ecology of Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Section 18-3 Review Energy Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Section 18-4 Review Ecosystem Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
iv Modern Biology Study Guide
Chapter 19: Populations
Section 19-1 Review Understanding Populations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Section 19-2 Review Measuring Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Section 19-3 Review Human Population Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Chapter 20: Community Ecology
Section 20-1 Review Species Interactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Section 20-2 Review Patterns in Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Chapter 21: Ecosystems
Section 21-1 Review Terrestrial Biomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Section 21-2 Review Aquatic Ecosystems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Chapter 22: Humans and the Environment
Section 22-1 Review An Interconnected Planet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Section 22-2 Review Environmental Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Section 22-3 Review Environmental Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Chapter 23: Bacteria
Section 23-1 Review Prokaryotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Section 23-2 Review Biology of Prokaryotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Section 23-3 Review Bacteria and Humans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Chapter 24: Viruses
Section 24-1 Review Viral Structure and Replication. . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Section 24-2 Review Viral Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Chapter 25: Protists
Section 25-1 Review Characteristics of Protists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Section 25-2 Review Animal-like Protists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Section 25-3 Review Plantlike and Funguslike Protists . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Section 25-4 Review Protists and Humans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Chapter 26: Fungi
Section 26-1 Review Overview of Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Section 26-2 Review Classification of Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Section 26-3 Review Fungi and Humans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Chapter 27: The Importance of Plants
Section 27-1 Review Plants and People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Section 27-2 Review Plants and the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Chapter 28: Plant Evolution and Classification
Section 28-1 Review Overview of Plants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Section 28-2 Review Nonvascular Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Section 28-3 Review Vascular Plants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Modern Biology Study Guide v
Chapter 29: Plant Structure and Function
Section 29-1 Review Plant Cells and Tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Section 29-2 Review Roots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Section 29-3 Review Stems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Section 29-4 Review Leaves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Chapter 30: Plant Reproduction
Section 30-1 Review Plant Life Cycles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Section 30-2 Review Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants. . . . . 167
Section 30-3 Review Dispersal and Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Chapter 31: Plant Responses
Section 31-1 Review Plant Hormones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Section 31-2 Review Plant Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Section 31-3 Review Seasonal Responses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Chapter 32: Introduction to Animals
Section 32-1 Review The Nature of Animals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Section 32-2 Review Invertebrates and Vertebrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Section 32-3 Review Fertilization and Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Chapter 33: Sponges, Cnidarians, and Ctenophores
Section 33-1 Review Porifera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Section 33-2 Review Cnidaria and Ctenophora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Chapter 34: Flatworms, Roundworms, and Rotifers
Section 34-1 Review Platyhelminthes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Section 34-2 Review Nematoda and Rotifera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Chapter 35: Mollusks and Annelids
Section 35-1 Review Mollusca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Section 35-2 Review Annelida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Chapter 36: Arthropods
Section 36-1 Review Phylum Arthropoda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Section 36-2 Review Subphylum Crustacea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Section 36-3 Review Subphyla Chelicerata and Myriapoda . . . . . . . 199
Chapter 37: Insects
Section 37-1 Review The Insect World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Section 37-2 Review Insect Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Chapter 38: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates
Section 38-1 Review Echinoderms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Section 38-2 Review Invertebrate Chordates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
vi Modern Biology Study Guide
Chapter 39: Fishes
Section 39-1 Review Introduction to Vertebrates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Section 39-2 Review Jawless and Cartilaginous Fishes . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Section 39-3 Review Bony Fishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Chapter 40: Amphibians
Section 40-1 Review Origin and Evolution of Amphibians . . . . . . . . 215
Section 40-2 Review Characteristics of Amphibians . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Section 40-3 Review Reproduction in Amphibians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Chapter 41: Reptiles
Section 41-1 Review Origin and Evolution of Reptiles . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Section 41-2 Review Characteristics of Reptiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Section 41-3 Review Modern Reptiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Chapter 42: Birds
Section 42-1 Review Origin and Evolution of Birds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Section 42-2 Review Characteristics of Birds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Section 42-3 Review Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Chapter 43: Mammals
Section 43-1 Review Origin and Evolution of Mammals . . . . . . . . . . 233
Section 43-2 Review Characteristics of Mammals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Section 43-3 Review Diversity of Mammals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Section 43-4 Review Primates and Human Origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Chapter 44: Animal Behavior
Section 44-1 Review Development of Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Section 44-2 Review Types of Animal Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Chapter 45: Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems
Section 45-1 Review The Human Body Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Section 45-2 Review Skeletal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Section 45-3 Review Muscular System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Section 45-4 Review Integumentary System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Chapter 46: Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
Section 46-1 Review The Circulatory System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Section 46-2 Review Blood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Section 46-3 Review The Respiratory System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Chapter 47: The Body’s Defense Systems
Section 47-1 Review Nonspecific Defenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Section 47-2 Review Specific Defenses: The Immune System . . . . . . 261
Section 47-3 Review HIV and AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Modern Biology Study Guide vii
Chapter 48: Digestive and Excretory Systems
Section 48-1 Review Nutrients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Section 48-2 Review Digestive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Section 48-3 Review Urinary System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Chapter 49: Nervous System and Sense Organs
Section 49-1 Review Neurons and Nerve Impulses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Section 49-2 Review Structure of the Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Section 49-3 Review Sensory Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Section 49-4 Review Drugs and the Nervous System. . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Chapter 50: Endocrine System
Section 50-1 Review Hormones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Section 50-2 Review Endocrine Glands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Chapter 51: Reproductive System
Section 51-1 Review Male Reproductive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Section 51-2 Review Female Reproductive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Section 51-3 Review Gestation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
viii Modern Biology Study Guide
Name Class Date
SEC T I O N 1 - 1 R E VIEW
T HE W ORLD OF B IOLOGY
VOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.
1. development
2. reproduction
3. organ
4. tissue
MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.
1. Biology is the study of
a. animals. c. all living things.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
b. plants and animals. d. energy transfer.
2. A short segment of DNA that contains instructions for the development of a single trait of
an organism is known as a
a. DNA loop. b. gene. c. library. d. membrane.
3. As the cells in a multicellular organism multiply, they become specialized for different
functions in a process called
a. sexual reproduction. c. photosynthesis.
b. descent with modification. d. cell differentiation.
4. Homeostasis refers to the
a. organization of cellular structures.
b. stable level of internal conditions in organisms.
c. organized structure of crystals.
d. destruction of tropical rain forests.
5. Photosynthesis is part of a plant’s
a. metabolism. c. development.
b. homeostasis. d. response to stimuli.
Modern Biology Study Guide 1
Name Class Date
SHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.
1. Explain why the cell is called the basic unit of life.
2. Give a specific example of homeostasis.
3. Why is it important to study biology?
4. Contrast the reproduction of bacteria with that of frogs.
5. Critical Thinking The organization of a rock is much simpler than that of living things.
By what other criteria can a rock be distinguished from living things?
STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Explain how the drawing below illustrates the
characteristics of life.
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2 Section 1-1 Review
Name Class Date
SEC T I O N 1 - 2 R E VIEW
T HEMES IN B IOLOGY
VOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following groups
of terms.
1. domain, kingdom
2. diversity of life, unity of life
3. adaptations, evolution
4. ecosystem, ecology
MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.
1. A “tree of life” explains
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a. how organisms are related to each other.
b. how organisms differ from each other.
c. the lineages of various organisms.
d. All of the above
2. Which of the following is NOT an important unifying theme in biology?
a. the diversity and unity of life
b. the relationship between organisms and society
c. the interdependence of living organisms
d. the evolution of life
3. An example of a domain is
a. Animalia. b. Protista. c. Fungi. d. Eukarya.
4. A trait that improves an individual’s ability to survive and reproduce is a(n)
a. mutation. b. natural selection c. adaptation. d. domain.
5. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Destruction of rain forests has no effect on living things.
b. Destruction of rain forests increases the rate of evolution of rainforest organisms.
c. Humans have had no impact on the world’s environment.
d. Humans have had a large impact on the world’s environment.
Modern Biology Study Guide 3
Name Class Date
SHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.
1. Give an example of how two organisms are interdependent.
2. Why must an adaptation be inheritable if it is to cause a population to evolve?
3. What is natural selection?
4. If two organisms share the same kingdom, must they also share the same domain? Explain.
5. Critical Thinking A female frog has a genetic trait that prevents it from producing eggs. How
likely is it that this trait will spread through the frog population? Explain your answer.
STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Briefly describe the interactions among the panther, the
deer, and the grass in the drawing below.
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4 Section 1-2 Review
Name Class Date
SEC T I O N 1 - 3 R E VIEW
T HE S TUDY OF B IOLOGY
VOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.
1. prediction
2. control group
3. dependent variable
4. independent variable
5. theory
MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.
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1. A field biologist who studies the behavior of birds in a rain forest most likely collects
data through
a. experimenting. b. modeling. c. observing. d. inferring.
2. Constructing a graph is an example of
a. measuring. b. organizing data. c. observing. d. predicting.
3. Of the following steps in a scientific investigation, the last to be done is usually
a. experimenting. c. producing a model.
b. observing. d. hypothesizing.
4. A statement that explains observations and can be tested is called
a. a hypothesis. b. an inference. c. a theory. d. a model.
5. A visual, verbal, or mathematical explanation that is supported by data is called
a. a hypothesis. b. an inference. c. a theory. d. a model.
Modern Biology Study Guide 5
Name Class Date
SHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.
1. What are quantitative data? Give two examples of quantitative data.
2. What is an advantage of a peer review of a scientific paper?
3. How are a hypothesis, a prediction, and an experiment related?
4. What are some of the things scientists might do to analyze data?
5. Critical Thinking A scientist wanted to study the effect of a drug on the blood pressure of rats.
She set up an experiment in which the experimental group consisted of rats that were injected
with a salt solution containing the drug. What should the control group have consisted of?
What were the dependent and independent variables in her experiment?
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STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Examine the drawing of the owl. In each space below,
provide an observation that would support the inference given or provide an inference
that could be derived from the observation given.
Observations Inferences
Owls live in trees.
Owls feed on mice.
Owls kill prey with
their talons.
The owl has wings.
Both of the owl’s
eyes face forward.
It is night.
6 Section 1-3 Review
Name Class Date
SEC T I O N 1 - 4 R E VIEW
T OOLS AND T ECHNIQUES
VOCABULARY REVIEW Circle the term that does not belong in each of the following
groups, and briefly explain why it does not belong.
1. compound light, transmission electron, light electron, scanning electron
2. base unit, stage, nosepiece, objective lens
3. magnification, power of magnification, resolution, mass density
4. second, minute, meter, kilogram
5. meter, square meter, cubic meter, kilogram per cubic meter
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MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.
1. The ability of a microscope to show details clearly is called
a. enlargement. b. magnification. c. reduction. d. resolution.
2. One limitation of the scanning electron microscope is that it cannot be used to
a. examine specimens smaller than cells.
b. view living specimens.
c. produce an enlarged image of a specimen.
d. produce an image of the surface of a specimen.
3. A microscope with a 10× ocular lens and a 25× objective lens has a total power of magnifi-
cation equal to
a. 2.5×. b. 35×. c. 250×. d. 2,500×.
4. The SI base unit for time is the
a. second. b. minute. c. hour. d. day.
5. The SI prefix that represents 1,000 times the base unit is
a. deci. b. centi. c. kilo. d. micro.
Modern Biology Study Guide 7
Name Class Date
SHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.
1. Arrange the following parts in the order that matches the light path through a light microscope:
specimen, ocular lens, objective lens, light source.
2. What are the maximum magnifications of the LM, TEM, and SEM?
3. Write the abbreviation for each of the following units: meter, kilometer, centimeter, millimeter,
micrometer. What is the mathematical relationship between these units?
4. Critical Thinking A group of scientists want to determine whether the bacteria they are study-
ing have viruses inside them. Which type of microscope should they use? Explain your answer.
STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Label each part of the figure in the spaces provided.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
a
b
c
d
e
8 Section 1-4 Review
Name Class Date
SEC T I O N 2 - 1 R E VIEW
C OMPOSITION OF M ATTER
VOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.
1. atom
2. neutron
3. compound
4. covalent bond
5. ion
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MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.
1. The atomic number of carbon is 6. Therefore, the number of protons in a carbon atom equals
a. 3. b. 6. c. 7. d. 12.
2. One of the kinds of particles found in the nucleus of an atom is the
a. proton. b. electron. c. ion. d. boron.
3. The maximum number of electrons that can be held in the orbitals in an atom’s second
energy level is
a. 2. b. 4. c. 6. d. 8.
4. Of the following elements, the one that is most likely to form ionic bonds is
a. hydrogen. b. carbon. c. sodium. d


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