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For Composite Resins Solutions
2 0 0 0 E D I T I O N
HETRON® and AROPOL TM
Resin Selection Guide
For Corrosion Resistant FRP Applications
I N T E R N AT I O N A L
2 0 0 0 E D I T I O N
Composite Polymers Division
WE HAVE A HETRON® AND AROPOLTM RESIN FOR YOUR FRP
Resin Series Characteristics Suggested Applications
HIGH PERFORMANCE EPOXY VINYL ESTER
HETRON 942/35 High performance epoxy vinyl ester resin Equipment requiring superior thermal
with improved resistance to hydrocarbon properties to HETRON 922 resin or less
solvents and superior thermal properties. than 35% styrene. Meets FDA regulation
Title 21 CFR.177.2420.
HETRON 980/35 High performance epoxy vinyl ester resin Equipment requiring maximum corrosion
formulated to provide maximum heat and resistance to bleach chemicals.
corrosion resistance to strong oxidizing
HETRON FR998/35 Flame retardant epoxy vinyl ester resin. Equipment requiring superior corrosion
Class I (ASTM E84) without antimony addi- resistance and thermal properties to
tives. Improved resistance to hydrocarbon standard flame retardant epoxy vinyl
solvents and oxidizing media. Superior ester resins. Flame retardant applications
thermal properties. where translucency is required.
HETRON 970/35 Best solvent resistance of any styrenated Equipment where maximum thermal
epoxy vinyl ester resin. Improved thermal properties or solvent resistance is required.
HETRON FR990ZX Styrene-free, epoxy vinyl ester. Exceptional Field applications where styrene odors
resistance to organic solvents. Class I are unacceptable.
(ASTM E84) with 3% antimony trioxide.
EPOXY VINYL ESTER
HETRON 922 Series Corrosion resistant to both strong acids and Equipment where strong acids and bases
bases. Inherent toughness provides fabrica- are encountered. Marine applications
tion advantages and resistance to both requiring Lloyd’s approval. Meets FDA
impact and thermal shock damage. regulation Title 21 CFR.177.2420.
HETRON 922 Medium viscosity version.
HETRON 922L Low viscosity version.
HETRON 922L-25 Low viscosity, promoted version.
HETRON FR992 Flame resistant version of HETRON 922 Flame resistant equipment requiring the
epoxy vinyl ester resin. Class I (ASTM E84) corrosion resistance and toughness of
with the addition of 3% antimony trioxide. HETRON 922 resin.
HETRON 980 Superior corrosion resistance to HETRON Equipment requiring superior thermal prop-
922 resin. Improved thermal properties. erties and corrosion resistance to that of
HETRON 922 resin.
HETRON 92 Series Flame resistant resin providing good Equipment handling corrosive fumes.
corrosion resistance to vapors.
HETRON 92 High viscosity version.
HETRON 92FR Class I (ASTM E84) without antimony trioxide.
HETRON 92AT Class I (ASTM E84) with the addition of
3-5% antimony trioxide.
Resin Series Characteristics Suggested Applications
HETRON 197 Series Highly corrosion and heat resistant. Equipment where maximum corrosion and
Low flame spread can be achieved heat resistance to wet chlorine and other
with appropriate version. oxidizing chemicals is desired. Not for
HETRON 197 Medium viscosity, non-thixotropic,
unpromoted version, Class II (ASTM E84)
with the addition of 3-5% antimony trioxide.
HETRON 197-3 Low viscosity, thixotropic, unpromoted
version, Class II (ASTM E84) with the
addition of 5% antimony trioxide.
HETRON 197P Low viscosity, thixotropic, promoted
version, Class II (ASTM E84) with the
addition of 5% antimony trioxide.
HETRON 197G Solid ground version, Class II (ASTM E84)
with the addition of styrene and 5%
HETRON 72G Highly corrosion and heat resistant. Used for linings, coatings, and pre-impreg-
Available in solid only. nated applications.
FURFURYL ALCOHOL RESIN
HETRON 800 Excellent resistance to both organic solvents Equipment requiring corrosion and heat
and aqueous systems. Not recommended for resistance beyond the capabilities of stan-
strong oxidizers. dard FRP equipment. Requires special man-
ufacturing and equipment handling tech-
niques. Call our technical service line at
(800) 327-8720 or (614) 790-4399 for proper
resin usage and suggested applications.
HETRON 99P Flame resistant resin providing moderate corrosion Equipment handling corrosive fumes.
resistance, Class I (ASTM E84) with the addition of For process equipment enclosures.
3% antimony trioxide.
AROPOL 7241 Series Good corrosion resistance at moderate tempera- General purpose corrosion resistant
tures, including hydrocarbon solvent resistance. equipment. FDA versions are available.
AROPOL 7241 Low viscosity, unpromoted version.
AROPOL 7241T-15 Thixotropic, low viscosity, promoted, FDA version.
AROPOL 7241T-25 Thixotropic, low viscosity, promoted, FDA version.
AROPOL 7334 Series Resilient. Moderate heat and corrosion resistance. General purpose corrosion resistant
equipment. FDA versions are available.
AROPOL 7334 Low viscosity, unpromoted version.
AROPOL 7334 T-15 Thixotropic, low viscosity, promoted, FDA version.
AROPOL 7334 T-30 Thixotropic, low viscosity, promoted, FDA version.
BISPHENOL A FUMARATE POLYESTER
HETRON 700 Broadest corrosion resistance to both acids Equipment where maximum resistance to
and bases. caustic environments is required.
Consult Technical Data Sheets for each resin‘s cure system, physical properties, and flame spread capabilities. Consult this Resin Selection
Guide for temperature and concentration limits for specific environments. For any clarification or specialty applications call our technical
service line at (800) 327-8720 or (614) 790-4399.
ADVANTAGES • All chemicals to which the equipment will be
exposed: feedstocks, intermediates, products
Fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) has been used for and by-products, waste materials, and
various types of equipment in the chemical processing cleaning chemicals
industry since the early 1950s. Its use has continued • Normal operating concentrations of chemicals,
to grow in pulp and paper, power, waste treatment, maximum and minimum concentrations
semi-conductor, metals refining, petrochemical, (including trace amounts)
pharmaceutical, and other industries. Process vessels
of all shapes and sizes, scrubbers, hoppers, hoods, • pH range of the system
ducts, fans, stacks, pipes, pumps, pump bases, valve • Normal operating temperatures of the equipment,
bodies, elevator buckets, heat-exchanger shells and maximum and minimum temperatures
tube sheets, mist-eliminator blades, grating, floor
coatings, and tank lining systems are just a few • Duration of normal, maximum and upset operating
examples of products made of FRP. temperatures
• Abrasion resistance and/or agitation requirements
The chief reason for the popularity of these materials is
their excellent resistance to corrosion. When choosing • Equipment size
the best material of construction, FRP is often chosen
• Manufacturing methods
due to its:
• Flame resistance requirements
• Corrosion resistance to a wide range of acids, bases,
chlorides, solvents, and oxidizers • Thermal insulation requirements
• Heat resistance
For questions regarding any of the recommendations
• Electrical and thermal insulation listed in this guide, for recommendations for a particu-
• High strength-to-weight ratio lar application not listed, or to request a test kit or
additional literature, contact Technical Service
• Low maintenance Phone: (800) 327-8720 or (614) 790-4399
• Requires no cathodic protection, rust-free FAX: (614) 790-6157
E-mail: [email protected]
• Ease of repair Mail: Ashland Specialty Chemical Company
Composite Polymers Division
Industry must deal with many different corrosion Box 2219
environments. THAT’S WHY ASHLAND SPECIALTY Columbus, Ohio 43216, USA
CHEMICAL COMPANY PROVIDES FIVE DIFFERENT
TYPES OF RESINS FOR FRP EQUIPMENT. The full INTERNET
range of resins is available through one source,
Ashland Specialty Chemical Company, to provide the For the most up-to-date corrosion information, product
corrosion resistance required to handle the many different data sheets, and HETRON Newsletters, visit our web
corrosion environments encountered by industry. site at: www.hetron.com
TESTING AND TECHNICAL SERVICE INTRODUCTION
INFORMATION Liquid polyester and epoxy vinyl ester resins, as
purchased from the resin supplier, are actually poly-
Ashland’s materials evaluation laboratory in Columbus, mers dissolved in styrene monomer. The fabricator
Ohio, constantly evaluates the performance of cures these resins to a solid state, reacting the polymer
HETRON and AROPOL resin laminates for corrosive together with the styrene in the presence of glass
service both in the field and in the laboratory. reinforcements to produce a fiber reinforced rigid
Additional evaluations are currently being conducted. structure. The standards for these structures are
Standard test laminate kits are supplied by Ashland defined by organizations such as ASTM and ASME.
for exposure in your laboratory or under your actual
field conditions in accordance with ASTM C581. After The development and manufacture of HETRON and
exposure, they can be returned to Ashland for physical AROPOL polyester and epoxy vinyl ester resins has
and visual examination and evaluation. Subsequently, been a continuing process since 1955. They have
a report will be issued with our recommendations been used to fabricate thousands of different types of
based on the test results. corrosion resistant FRP equipment. Many versions of
HETRON and AROPOL resins have been developed
When requesting resin recommendations for corrosion for ease of handling during hand lay-up, spray-up,
resistant FRP equipment applications, users or speci- filament winding, pultrusion, centrifugal casting,
fiers should be prepared to supply the following data: resin transfer molding and most other methods of
BASIS FOR RECOMMENDATIONS HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE
MADE IN THIS GUIDE
This Guide is a tabulation of the latest information
Through our experience since 1955 with corrosion regarding the resistance of HETRON and AROPOL
resistant resins, we have learned that several resin resin-based FRP equipment under various corrosive
chemistries are required to satisfactorily handle the operating conditions.
wide range of corrosive chemicals found throughout
industry. No single resin can be expected to perform Special consideration should be given to fumes and
well in all environments. That is why Ashland makes all splash and spill applications. In many cases where a
five generic types of resins. recommendation for liquid service is given, that same
resin can be used in fume service at temperatures and
Resin recommendations must be conservative, reliable, concentrations higher than that shown for the liquid.
and firm. Recommendations are based on a variety of Tank lining applications also require special considera-
sources, including evaluations of actual field service tion due to the possibility of permeation by the corro-
performance, laboratory (ASTM C581) and field tests sive material. However, extrapolations of this type
of FRP laminate construction, and the combined must be made with caution and it is recommended
knowledge of an experienced staff. Much of the infor- that Technical Service Information be contacted at
mation in this guide is based on field experience and (800) 327-8720 or (614) 790-4399 for specific resin
recommends the right resin for the job –not a resin for recommendations.
all jobs. This guide is updated periodically to make use
of the most recent available data. This usually results in The following definitions will aid readers using
the addition of chemical environments and resins. It this guide.
may also result in raising or lowering the temperature or
concentration at which a particular resin is recommended. Temperature - Temperature data is NOT necessarily
the maximum service temperature. It is the upper
Unless otherwise noted, the recommendations are temperature at which a resin has been tested, used
based on ASTM C581 standard laminate construction or evaluated. A resin may be suitable for higher
utilizing glass surfacing mat and no additives or fillers. temperature operation but additional information
For press molded, pultruded and other parts fabricated or testing would be required in order to establish
without an ASTM C581 corrosion resistant liner, it such performance.
is important to establish their corrosion resistance
through testing. Synthetic surfacing mat is suggested
for environments known to attack glass fiber reinforce- A Dash (–) - Showing no tested temperature
ment. Care must be taken with other resin types recommendation indicates that data is not available.
(HETRON 197 series) as some synthetic surfacing It does not mean that the resin is unsuitable for that
mat/environment combinations may result in reduced environment. Ashland recommends coupon testing
corrosion resistance. Fillers should never be used for confirmation.
without corrosion testing a representative laminate.
Additives such as antimony oxide for enhanced flame
retardance should not be added to the corrosion barrier. LS - Indicates that limited service life can be expected.
This means that a greater than normally acceptable
chemical attack will occur. FRP may be the most
FDA APPLICATIONS economical material of construction for this type
of equipment but further study including life-cycle
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not cost analysis comparisons with other materials of
approve specific resins. However, the agency does construction is recommended.
publish a list of acceptable raw materials which can
be used to make resins. Raw materials used to manu-
facture AROPOL 7241T-15, AROPOL 7334T-15, NR - Resin is not recommended.
HETRON 922, HETRON 942/35 and selected other
resins are listed as acceptable under FDA regulation
21 CFR.177.2420. Halogenated raw materials are not
listed under FDA regulation 21 CFR.177.2420.
EPOXY VINYL ESTER RESIN • HETRON 980/35: A phenolic novolac epoxy vinyl
COMPOSITES ester resin formulated with less than 35% styrene.
Provides maximum heat and corrosion resistance to
Bisphenol A based epoxy vinyl ester resins are strong oxidizing chemicals.
methacrylated epoxy difunctional polyesters. Novolac • HETRON FR998/35: Highly flame retardant epoxy
modified epoxy vinyl ester resins have higher function- vinyl ester resin formulated with less than 35%
ality. Vinyl esters are classified separately from poly- styrene. Excellent thermal properties and superior
esters due to their enhanced mechanical properties. corrosion resistance to hydrocarbon solvents and
They offer excellent physical strength and, in general, oxidizing media. See Table 7 for ASTM E84 flame
much better impact and thermal shock resistance than spread values for this and other flame retardant
polyester resins. While the standard epoxy vinyl ester resins.
resins are limited to 105-120˚C in most applications,
other versions with higher-density crosslinking are • HETRON 970/35: Highly crosslinked novolac
suitable for temperatures above 120˚C. epoxy vinyl ester resin with superior solvent and
These resins exhibit excellent resistance to acids,
alkalis, hypochlorites, and many solvents. They are also
suitable for flakeglass and fiberglass reinforced linings, EPOXY VINYL ESTER RESIN
coatings, and monolithic topping for tanks, vats, floors, COMPOSITES
troughs, and similar applications.
These resins offer excellent corrosion resistance to
acids, alkalis, and some solvents.
HIGH PERFORMANCE EPOXY VINYL
ESTER RESIN COMPOSITES • HETRON 922: Provides excellent corrosion
resistance up to 105˚C.
Manufactured under a patented process, these resins • HETRON FR992: A flame retardant resin suitable
offer maximum corrosion and temperature resistance to for use to 105˚C. HETRON FR992 is an excellent
acids, alkalis, hypochlorites, and many solvents. These choice for applications requiring both chemical and
products have been formulated for maximum perform- flame resistance. See Table 7 for ASTM E84 flame
ance with methyl ethyl ketone peroxides. It is well doc- spread values.
umented that these catalysts provide optimal cure and
thus maximum corrosion resistance. • HETRON 980: A novolac modified epoxy vinyl ester
resin with excellent corrosion resistance to about
• HETRON 942/35: A bisphenol A epoxy vinyl ester 120˚C. Can be used when organic chemicals such
resin with improved thermal properties, formulated as benzyl chloride, chlorobenzene, phenol, and
with less than 35% styrene. Provides superior divinyl benzene are present.
corrosion resistance to hydrocarbon solvents.
TABLE 1-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES1 OF HETRON AND AROPOL RESINS
LAMINATES2 AT TEMPERATURES
TENSILE STRENGTH, MPa TENSILE MODULUS, GPa
Temp. °C -43 25 65 95 120 150 -43 25 65 95 120 150
HETRON 942/35 156 124 135 142 157 102 9 12 11 11 11 6
HETRON 980/35 128 101 98 107 106 115 13 12 10 11 10 7
HETRON FR998/353 120 98 100 119 140 121 12 11 11 10 10 8
HETRON 970/35 169 130 127 134 145 148 12 12 12 12 10 8
HETRON 922 117 109 147 147 121 74 9 10 9 8 6 5
HETRON FR9923 127 119 117 140 119 93 11 11 9 9 6 6
HETRON 980 101 98 139 132 116 126 13 11 10 8 7 7
HETRON 197-33 138 112 97 105 104 112 8 10 10 10 8 9
AROPOL 7241T-15 166 110 135 150 135 104 15 12 11 13 9 8
AROPOL 7334 139 102 131 133 124 110 13 10 7 6 5 5
HETRON 800 105 101 100 97 86 84 9 10 9 7 7 7
HETRON 92FR3 146 119 146 126 97 76 10 11 8 6 4 4
HETRON 99P3 121 106 106 127 131 110 13 9 9 8 7 6
HETRON 700 90 87 106 117 111 119 9 9 7 8 6 6
Properties of production laminates will vary.
Laminate sequence V M M Wr M Wr M. V=Veil M=Chopped Mat 0.5 kg/m2 Wr=Woven Roving 0.8 kg/m2, 6mm thickness, post cured
CHLORENDIC POLYESTER RESIN ISOPHTHALIC POLYESTER RESIN
Chlorendic resins are unsaturated, halogenated poly- Isophthalic polyester resins are a broad class of products
ester resins. They are particularly well suited for equip- of isophthalic acid, glycols, and maleic anhydride. The
ment operating at elevated temperatures or in highly specific raw materials are selected to impart desired
oxidizing environments such as hot, wet chlorine. properties and corrosion resistance. These resins can be
used for moderate corrosion resistance applications to
These resins are known for their ease of fabrication and a maximum temperature of 80˚C. They exhibit good
are available in several user-friendly versions. They are resistance to water, acids, weak bases, and hydrocar-
particularly well suited for chimney liners, flue gas ducts, bons such as gasoline and oil.
chrome plating tanks, pickling tanks, and chlorine headers.
Refer to Table 7 for specific flame spread values. • AROPOL 7241 Series: Generally used for aqueous
environments. AROPOL 7241T-15 offers the best
• HETRON 197 Series: These resins are particularly corrosion and heat resistance of the isophthalic
good for acidic and oxidizing environments. resins. AROPOL 7241T-15 is the widest used resin
Fabricators may choose the thixotropic HETRON and is manufactured from raw materials listed as
197-3 resin or the thixotropic and promoted acceptable in FDA regulation Title 21 CFR.177.2420.
• AROPOL 7334 Series: A higher elongation resin
• HETRON 72G: The original solid ground chlorendic used for applications such as tank linings and
resin still continues to be the best for chromic filament winding small diameter piping where
acid service. toughness is required. It has a maximum service
temperature of 65˚C.
• HETRON 92 Series: These resins combine the
maximum flame retardancy and moderate chemical • HETRON 99P: A flame retardant, brominated resin
resistance that are often required for the types of gas that provides moderate corrosion resistance for fume
and fume service encountered in hood and duct handling applications with flame retardant require-
equipment. HETRON 92AT and HETRON 92FR are ments such as hoods and ducts. See Table 7 for
thixotropic and promoted. HETRON 92 resin is flame spread values. Please consult HETRON
suitable for compression molding. Technical Service for other corrosion resistant,
flame retardant resins.
LAMINATES2 AT TEMPERATURES CASTINGS4
TENSILE TENSILE ELONGA- FLEXURAL FLEXURAL HDT BAR-
STRENGTH MODULUS TION STRENGTH MODULUS ˚C COL
FLEXURAL STRENGTH, MPa FLEXURAL MODULUS, GPa MPa GPa BREAK MPa GPa HARD-
-43 25 65 95 120 150 -43 25 65 95 120 150 25 25 25 25 25 – 25
202 152 165 175 177 150 10 7 7 7 6 6 92 3.6 5.5 152 3.5 120 45
136 127 134 120 124 138 7 7 6 6 6 5 88 3.3 4.5 150 3.4 132 45
197 157 151 156 146 101 8 7 6 6 6 4 93 3.5 4.0 151 3.8 135 40
209 183 193 168 149 138 8 8 8 7 6 5 78 3.7 3.5 111 3.9 149 45
160 154 163 150 82 23 7 6 6 6 4 0 86 3.2 6.5 141 3.5 105 30
171 165 167 168 134 21 8 7 7 7 5 1 90 3.5 6.5 145 3.6 108 35
149 162 135 147 143 117 8 7 7 6 6 5 90 3.3 5.5 138 3.5 120 35
160 123 127 137 144 146 8 7 6 6 5 6 38 3.5 1.4 69 3.8 140 40
220 195 204 176 80 55 8 8 7 7 3 4 63 3.7 2.5 105 4.1 99 40
197 180 167 152 85 53 8 7 6 5 4 3 86 3.5 4.5 138 3.7 94 40
223 124 151 128 119 90 7 8 6 6 5 5 36 3.9 1.0 72 4.0 149 45
152 156 196 80 28 26 8 7 8 4 1 1 55 4.1 1.4 83 4.1 82 45
179 132 133 155 90 44 9 7 7 7 4 2 52 3.8 1.5 79 4.1 93 45
157 167 128 133 137 91 7 7 6 7 5 3 69 3.2 3.2 114 3.5 142 35
Non-reinforced, post cured
FURFURYL ALCOHOL RESIN BARCOL HARDNESS
Barcol hardness values are taken as an indication of
Furfuryl alcohol resin is based on a furan polymer surface cure. ASTM standards indicate that FRP equip-
derivative of furfuryl alcohol. It exhibits excellent resist- ment should have a Barcol hardness of at least 90%
ance to strong alkalis and acids containing chlorinated of the manufacturer’s published value for each resin.
organics and is superior to polyesters and epoxy vinyl Experience indicates that Barcol hardness values are
esters in solvent resistance. Furfuryl alcohol resin is subject to a number of variables. In the case of a
suitable for use up to about 120˚C for many corrosive molded surface, these factors may be post cure, the
applications. However, the furfuryl alcohol material is curvature of a part or the use of one or more plies of
not suitable for oxidizing chemicals and should not be synthetic surfacing veil. For non-molded resin surfaces,
used for chromic or nitric acids, peroxides or these factors may be paraffin wax, UV inhibitors,
hypochlorites. pigments, or other materials added to the resin. On
a severely curved or irregular surface, an accurate
Generally, the furfuryl alcohol resin is considered to be Barcol hardness value may be impossible to obtain.
the best for all-around corrosion resistance. Fabrication In such cases, a flat sample using identical fabrication
and installation of equipment made with HETRON 800 techniques should be monitored for cure during the
resin requires special techniques that differ from those manufacture of the actual part.
used with polyester and epoxy vinyl ester resins. Please
contact HETRON Technical Service at (800) 327-8720 Experience indicates that Barcol hardness values of
or (614) 790-4399 for assistance. molded surfaces incorporating synthetic surfacing veil
are less than the values of a comparable glass veil
• HETRON 800: Requires the use of HETRON laminate. Reductions in Barcol hardness values of
803L-1 catalyst. five units or more can be expected. Barcol hardness
determination is used to check surface cure and is
often accompanied by an acetone sensitivity test. The
BISPHENOL A FUMARATE POLYESTER acetone sensitivity test is also valuable in judging cure
when the use of the Barcol instrument is impractical.
RESIN COMPOSITE In this test, acetone solvent is liberally wiped over the
test surface and allowed to evaporate. A tacky or soft
Bisphenol A fumarate polyester resin is made by react-
surface during evaporation indicates under-cure.
ing bisphenol A with propylene oxide and fumaric acid
to provide a resin that is particularly resistant to alkali
environments. This resin is recommended primarily for THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY (K-VALUE)
applications involving hot caustic solutions. It can also
handle acids, selected organic solvents and salt solu- The thermal conductivity of a glass reinforced laminate
tions to a maximum temperature of 120˚C. For specific increases with glass content. The glass has a higher
recommendations regarding HETRON 700 resin, thermal conductivity than that of the resin. See
contact HETRON Technical Service at (800) 327-8720 Table 2 for thermal conductivity values.
or (614) 790-4399.
• HETRON 700: A non-thixotropic unpromoted resin. TABLE 2
(TYPICAL K-VALUES: W/(m •˚C)
Resin Casting M/M M/Wr/M/Wr
The properties in this guide are typical values. These
values, which vary from sample to sample, are based % GLASS 0 25 40
on tests conducted in our laboratories. Typical values HETRON 942/35 0.18 0.17 0.19
should not be construed as a guaranteed analysis of HETRON 970/35 0.18 0.20 0.24
any specific lot or as specification items. HETRON 922 0.18 0.20 0.22
HETRON 197-3 0.15 0.16 0.19
Additional data on each individual resin including liq- AROPOL 7240 0.17 0.15 0.19
uid properties and curing information is contained in HETRON 800 0.22 0.18 0.23
the Technical Data Sheet for that resin. Ashland main- HETRON 700 0.17 0.18 0.20
tains Material Safety Data Sheets for all of its products. M = Chopped Mat 0.5 kg/m2 WR = Woven Roving 0.8 kg/m2
Material Safety Data Sheets contain health and safety
information for assisting you in developing appropriate
product handling procedures to protect your employees
and customers. Our Material Safety Data Sheets should
be read and understood by all of your employees
before using Ashland’s products in your facilities.
GLASS CONTENT THERMAL EXPANSION/CONTRACTION
Mechanical properties increase with greater reinforce- The thermal expansion of a composite decreases with
ment content. Laminate properties can be tailored by increasing reinforcement content. This property is
the choice of resin, type of reinforcement (chopped dependent on the type of reinforcement (chopped glass
glass mat, unidirectional roving, woven roving, etc.), mat, unidirectional roving, woven roving, etc.), the ori-
orientation of the reinforcement, and reinforcement entation of the reinforcement, and reinforcement con-
content. Mechanical properties of these constructions tent. See Table 4 for thermal expansion values.
can be predicted by micro mechanics (lamination
schedule) and the actual properties confirmed by
testing. See Table 3 for composite physical properties TABLE 4
versus glass content. COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION1
(TYPICAL VALUES: x 10-5 mm/mm/°C)
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