Defect Detection in Raw Hide and Wet Blue Leather
- FileName: pistori_compimage2006leather.pdf
Defect Detection in Raw Hide and Wet Blue Leather
Hemerson Pistori & William A. Paraguassu & Priscila S. Martins & Mauro P. Conti
UCDB - Dom Bosco Catholic University, Campo Grande, Brazil
GPEC - Research Group in Engineering and Computing
Mariana A. Pereira & Manuel A. Jacinto
EMBRAPA - Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, Campo Grande, Brazil
EMBRAPA Beef Cattle Research Unit
This paper presents an important problem for the Brazilian economy, the classiﬁcation of bovine raw hide and
leather, and argues that this problem can be handled by computer vision and machine learning techniques. Some
promising results, using standard techniques, like color based models and cooccurrence matrix based texture
analysis, are reported. The paper also presents what seems to be the ﬁrst major training and testing dataset of
bovine raw hide and leather digital images.
1 INTRODUCTION that decrease leather value happens (da Costa 2002;
The importance of the bovine production chain for Gomes 2002).
the Brazilian economy is a well acknowledged fact, A fair remuneration system depends on standard-
as it has the largest cattle herd in the world (Matthey, ized, non subjective and reliable classiﬁcation and
Fabiosa, and Fuller 2004). In 2005, Brazil displaced grading schemes. Brazilian government, by 2002,
the United States as the world’s number one beef ex- made a ﬁrst attempt to create a national grading sys-
porter (Valdes 2006). However, only recently govern- tem for bovine raw hide 1 . A recent research con-
ment and private agents started planning proper poli- ducted by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corpo-
cies to improve Brazilian role in the bovine leather ration, EMBRAPA, suggests some improvements to
markets. the system and recommends the pursuing of automa-
The quality of Brazilian leather is far bellow tion to increase reliability. The work described in this
the level of other important players. While in the paper is part of a scientiﬁc research and technological
United States, 85% of the leather are of highest development project, DTCOURO 2 , which envision
quality, in Brazil, only 8.5% acchieve this classiﬁca- the development of a completely automated system,
tion (da Costa 2002). Nonethless, most of the prob- based on computer vision, for bovine raw hide and
lems that affects leather quality, like the use of barbed leather classiﬁcation and grading.
wire, brand marks made from hot iron in improper One of the DTCOURO project’s goal is to
places, wrong transportation and ﬂaying methods, propose and provide comparative studies of pre-
have simple solutions. processing, feature extraction, feature selection, seg-
mentation and classiﬁcation techniques. Among the
Besides some lack of information about the leather
feature extraction algorithms that will be experi-
importance for Brazilian economy, the main problem
mented and compared are the ones based on Ga-
seems to be the absence of clear and fair policies and
bor Filters (Grigorescu, Petkov, and Kruizinga 2002),
practices for raw hide (the untanned hide of a cattle)
Windowed Fourier Transforms (Azencott, Wang, and
and leather commercialization. In most cases, bovine
raw hides are treated as a by-product in the slaughtery,
and for the raw hides, cattle ranchers are paid a ﬁxed Normative instruction number 12, December 18th, 2002,
proportion directly related to the carcass weight. The Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply
DTCOURO is an acronym, in Portuguese, for the project
creation of a remuneration system that rewards higher named Leather Defect Detection System, which has a Por-
quality would stimulate more investments on leather tuguese language website available at http://ommited for blind
care during cattle raising, when 60% of the problems review
Younes 1997), Wavelets (Sobral 2005), Cooccur- spection, are rarely cited in the specialized literature,
rence Matrices (Jobanputra and Clausi 2004), Inter- which concentrates on tanned leather. Furthermore,
action Maps (Chetverikov 2000), Local Binary Pat- some important raw hide defects for the Brazilian
terns (Menp 2002) and Color Models. Figures 1.(a) leather productive chain are not always of interest in
and 1.(b) show images from raw hide and wet blue different countries where this type of defects are not
leather 3 . A large image dataset of defects in hides and so common, and usually not considered.
leather is being prepared and used to train and test The next section presents some work directly re-
supervised machine learning algorithms. Classiﬁers lated to leather inspection based on computer vision.
based on Support Vector Machines, Artiﬁcial Neural Section 3 details important aspects of raw hide and
Networks and Bayesian Inference, among others, will wet blue leather defects. A brief review of texture
be implemented and experimented. analysis based on cooccurrence matrices can be found
in Section 4. The following sections explain the ex-
periments, discuss the results and presents the con-
clusions and future developments.
2 RELATED WORK
Yeh and Perng propose and evaluate semi-automatic
methods for wet blue raw hide defects extraction and
classiﬁcation. The system has been tested in a large
tannery for six months with reliable and effective re-
sults, when comparing with human specialists. Their
work also presents an interesting taxonomy for leather
(a) defects classiﬁcation and grading, based on the shape
and size of affected area. The defects are classiﬁed
as (1) thin spots: hair root, pinhole, putrid spot, der-
matitis; (2) circular spots: thorn scratch, nail mark,
chrome stain, slat stain, cured stain, putreﬁed; (3) thin
line: vein, wring felt mark; (4) strips: score knife,
neck wrinkle; (4) holes: dig damage, grub hole, bul-
let mark; (5) patterns: brand mark; and (6) irregu-
lars: wart, contamination, pipe grain, ﬂay mark, putre-
ﬁed, scratch, chafe mark, gear mark, parasitic speck-
led (tick, mange), dung stain (Yeh and Perng 2001).
(b) The main contribution of the work is a fully quantiﬁed
Figure 1: (a) Bovine raw hide and (b) Wet blue leather grading system, called demerit count reference stan-
samples dard for leather raw hides, but the authors also point
out that one of the drawbacks of their proposal is the
need for human, specialized intervention, for count-
In this work, we present the ﬁrst version of the ing the total number of demerits on a wet blue raw
leather defect dataset and the software that makes eas- hide.
ier the creation of ground truth images and automatic A leather inspection method, based on Haar’s
comparison of different computer vision and machine wavelets, is presented by Sobral. The smoothing com-
learning techniques. We also show the results from ponent has been tuned for each kind of defect, using
the ﬁrst defect inspection experiments, using cooccur- a manually classiﬁed defect sample. The system is re-
rence matrices features and supervised learning. The ported to perform in real time, at the same level of
experiments were based on a 2000 samples dataset, an experienced operator (Sobral 2005) and to outper-
taken from 16 different raw hide and wet blue leather form previous methods, based on Gabor ﬁlters, like
pieces and containing 4 defect types: brand marks the one described in Kumar and Pang (Kumar and
made from hot iron, tick marks, cuts and scabies. Pang 2002) . Although not clearly stated in Sobral’s
The results were very promising, with an overall cor- paper, the system seems to have been experimented
rect classiﬁcation rate above 94%. The experiments only on ﬁnished leather, a much simpler problem than
with bovine raw hide images, a much more complex raw hide or wet blue raw hide defect extraction.
problem than wet blue and ﬁnished leather defect in- A dissimilarity measure based on χ2 criteria has
Wet blue leather is a hide that has been tanned using chromi- been used to compare gray-level histograms from
nus sulphate. It is an intermediate stage between untanned and sliding windows (65x65 pixels) of a wet blue raw hide
ﬁnished leather image to an averaged histogram of non-defective sam-
ples in (Georgieva, Krastev, and Angelov 2003). The
results of the χ2 test and an experimentally chosen
threshold are used to segment defective regions of the
raw hide. The approach has not been used to identify
the defect type. The segmentation of defective regions
from wet blue raw hide images, using histogram and (a) (b) (c) (d)
cooccurrence based features, has been investigated
in (Krastev, Georgieva, and Angelov 2004). This work
also proposes the use of fuzzy logic to model leather
defects, but do not give sufﬁcient details or experi-
mental results supporting the proposal.
3 RAW HIDE AND WET BLUE LEATHER DE- (e) (f ) (g) (h)
Bovine leather undergoes a long way from cattle rais-
ing to ﬁnal industrial production of leather goods, like
furniture, footwear, belts and so on. The problems
that affect leather quality begin when the animal is
still alive, and include, (1) cuts resulting from barbed (i) (j) (k) (l)
wired, in-ﬁghting among male members and thorn Figure 2: Examples of defects in raw hides: (a) vac-
scratches and cuts; (2) brand marks made for owner- cine abscess (b) bot ﬂy open wounds (c) bot ﬂy
ship purposes, using hot iron; (3) holes and spots from closed wounds (d) ticks marks (e) wrinkles (f) photo-
infections and infestations, caused by ticks, horn ﬂies, sensibility (g) ﬂay mark (h) brand marks made from
manges and bot ﬂies, among others; (4) abscesses re- hot iron (i) horn ﬂy wounds (j) open cuts (k) closed
sulting from wrong vaccination techniques and nat- cuts (l) scabies
ural growth marks or excess weight related prob-
lems, like furrows and wrinkles (Barlee, Lanning, and
McLean 1999; Roberts and Etherington 1981). fects that happens in Brazilian raw hides and leather,
During transportation, the animal skin may suffer decreasing their market value. Images from raw hides,
deep injures from nails and wood splints in the truck. taken after skinning and before tanning, are shown in
Before tanning, three important process, which can Figure 2. Figure 3 shows images from leather in the
also cause leather damage, happen: bleeding, skin- ﬁrst stage of the tanning process, which are called wet
ning and curing. Insufﬁcient bleeding can cause vain blue leather.
marks, while wrong skinning techniques may result
in ﬂaying cuts that, in some cases, may turn unus-
able otherwise valuable parts of the leather. As the
raw hide is subjected to putrefaction, as soon as the
animal dies, the raw hide must suffer a curing pro-
cess to protect it until the tanning process begins, (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
which can take months. Improper curing may lead to
rotting and putrefaction. Defects during tanning and
post-processing are much less common, as they are
controlled by the tanneries, which have in the leather
quality their main business. (f ) (g) (h) (i) (j)
Even without defects, bovine raw hide has a very Figure 3: Examples of defects in wet blue leather: (a)
complex surface, presenting different textures, colors, vaccine abscess (b) bot ﬂy wounds (c) ticks marks
shapes and thickness. Besides, in order to be use- (d) wrinkles (e) brand marks made from hot iron (f)
ful, automatic classiﬁcation system should function Haematobia irritans wounds (g) open cuts (h) closed
in very different environments, like farms, slaughter- cuts (i) scabies (j) veining
ies and tanneries. Blood or water drops may turn the
task even more difﬁcult if the raw hide is to be clas-
siﬁed just after skinning or cleaning. Classiﬁcation of
living animals must deal with shadows from hair and 4 GRAY SCALE COOCCURRENCE MATRICES
the natural bovine anatomy. Image segmentation based on features extracted from
Figures 2 and 3 illustrate the diversity of shapes, gray-scale coocurrence matrices, GLCM, is a com-
colors and texture that arise from some important de- mon and largely used technique in texture analy-
sis (Singh and Singh 2002; Jobanputra and Clausi from hot iron, cuts and scabies. These defects have
2004; Latif-Amet, Ertuzun, and Ercil 2000). As been chosen because they are very common in Brazil.
wavelets, windowed Fourier or Gabor ﬁlter ap- Sixteen images, both from raw hide and wet blue
proaches, coocurrence matrices can represent infor- leather, containing these defects (two image for each
mation related to the frequential distribution content defect, both in raw hide and wet blue leather), were
of the original, spatially represented, image. Several used. The defects were manually segmented with the
GLCMs must be constructed for each sliding win- help of a specialist and small samples from defec-
dow that scans the image during segmentation. Each tive and non-defective areas have been extracted, us-
GLCM has an associated angle and displacement, re- ing the software developed in DTCOURO’s project.
lated to the direction and frequency that will be rep- The samples used in these experiments are of win-
resented by this GLCM. The number of different an- dows of 10x10, 20x20, 30x30 and 40x40 pixels. A to-
gles and displacements, and consequently, the number tal of 2000 samples have been generated in this way,
of GLCMs to be constructed depends on the problem 400 for each defect and 400 for non-defective regions.
and computer power available. Figure 5 illustrates some of the 40x40 size samples,
from wet blue leather (ﬁrst line) and raw hides (sec-
ond line), that were used in the experiments.
(a) (b) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
Figure 4: Construction of a GLCM: (a) Angle and dis- Figure 5: Examples of 40x40 image windows used in
placement parameters in spatial domain (original im- the wet blue leather (ﬁrst line) and raw hide (second
age) (b) Gray-level coocurrence matrix line) experiments: (a) ticks (b) brand marks (c) cuts
(d) scabies (e) non defective
Figure 4 illustrates the construction of a GLCM for From each sample, a set of 63 texture and 3 color
a ﬁxed angle, θ, and displacement, d. The GLCM, G, features were extracted. The color features are the
is an m × m accumulator, where m is the number of mean values of the histograms for the hue, saturation
gray levels. For each pixel, (x, y), of the original im- and brightness in HSB color space. The texture fea-
age (or image window), the accumulator cell (i, j) is tures are the entropy, inverse difference moment, dis-
incremented, where i = I(x, y), j = I(x + dx, y + dy) similarity, correlation, contrast, angular second mo-
and I(.) is the pixel gray level. Interpolation must be ment and inverse difference entropy, calculated from
used for certain angles and displacements, as dx = the grey level coocurrence matrices, with angles 0, 45
d × cos(θ) and dy = d × sin(θ) may be non- inte- and 90 (in degrees) and displacements 1, 5 and 10 (in
gers. Usually, the values of the GLCMs are not di- pixels). A 10-fold cross-validation scheme was used
rectly used as texture features, but some statistics and to train and test three supervised learning approaches
indices calculated from them, like entropy, contrast, for this ﬁve class classiﬁcation problem: (1) support
angular second moment, inverse difference moment, vector machines (Keerthi, Shevade, Bhattacharyya,
energy and homogeneity. and Murthy 2001), (2) normalized Gaussian radial
basis function network (Figueiredo 2000) and (3) k-
5 LEATHER DATASET AND EXPERIMENTS nearest neighbours (Aha, Kibler, and Albert 1991).
The DTCOURO’s dataset includes, currently, images The experiment was repeated 5 times, resulting in a
from 258 different pieces of raw hide and wet blue total of 50 runs, for each learning approach and each
leather showing 17 different defect types. The images window size. The implementations for the machine-
have been taken using a ﬁve megapixel digital camera learning algorithms were taken from the Weka free-
during technical visits to slaughteries and tanneries software, which were also used to produce perfor-
located in the region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, mance statistics (Witten and Frank 2005).
by September 2005. A total of 66 pictures are from The sequential minimal optimization algo-
tanned leather in the wet blue stage, the other ones rithm (Keerthi, Shevade, Bhattacharyya, and Murthy
are from the raw hide stage. 2001), implemented in Weka, has been used to train
For this ﬁrst experiment, a set of four types of de- the support vector machines, with a third-order
fect has been chosen: tick marks, brand marks made polynomial kernel. Pairwise classiﬁcation were used
to enable the application of this 2-class classiﬁca- directions. It is very important to note that processing
tion algorithm to our multi-class problem. Ridge time were not an issue in these initial experiments and
estimators and logistic regression (Cessie and van the parameter extraction phase, applied to high reso-
Houwelingen 1992) were used to learn the normal- lution images of the full leather or hide piece, can take
ized Gaussian radial basis functions, clustered by almost half an hour.
k-means, with k=5 (4 defects and 1 clean leather).
The k-nearest neighbour approach was tested with 5 7 CONCLUSION
neighbours, weighted by the inverse of their distance. Some experiments have been conducted in order to
All the parameters were experimentally chosen to verify the applicability of texture analysis and ma-
enhance percentage correct classiﬁcation rates for chine learning techniques to the problem of defect de-
each learning scheme, using Weka’s implementation. tection and classiﬁcation in bovine hides and leather.
Support vector machines trained with the sequen-
6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION tial minimal optimization algorithm using attributes
The correct classiﬁcation rates, for each classiﬁer, extracted from cooccurence matrices presented the
using defective (in four different types) and non- highest correct classiﬁcation rates. The detection of
defective images from wet blue leather and raw hides defects in bovine raw hides was not, as far as the au-
are shown, respectively, in Tables 1 and 2. A two- thors are concerned, handled in previous work, at least
tailed, t-student test, was used to infer improvement using computer vision approaches. One of the main
or degradation using support vector machines (SVM) contributions of this work is to present an important,
performance as the null hyphoteses. It is clear, from but not extensively studied, problem.
the tables, that all three classiﬁers achieve excellent The dataset will be enlarged, in the near future,
correct classiﬁcations rates when 20X20 or larger with images from defects in live animals and skins
window size were used. Support vector machines with longer hair from the southeast regions of Brazil.
achieved good results (above 94%) even with 10X10 Experiments with the complete dataset and other at-
windows. tributes extraction and learning techniques should
also be conducted. It must be investigated if the same
Table 1: Percentual of correct classiﬁcation in wet
classiﬁcation accuracy could be achieved with less
blue leather, for the three learning approaches experi-
computationally expensive approaches, other than
mented: Support Vector Machines (SVM), Radial Ba-
sis Functions Networks (RBF) and Nearest Neigh-
Data Set SVM RBF KNN This work has been funded by the Dom Bosco
10X10 97.44 87.40 • 90.42 • Catholic University, UCDB, and the Brazilian Stud-
20X20 99.82 98.40 • 99.36 ies and Projects Funding Body, FINEP. The author of
30X30 100.00 99.58 99.66 this paper and some of his advisees hold scholarships
40X40 100.00 99.74 100.00 from the Brazilian National Counsel of Technological
◦ - improvement, • - degradation and Scientiﬁc Development, CNPQ
Aha, D. W., D. Kibler, and M. Albert (1991).
Table 2: Percentual of correct classiﬁcation in raw Instance-based learning algorithms. Machine
hides Learning 6, 37–66.
Data Set SVM RBF KNN
10X10 94.32 81.18 • 91.56 • Azencott, R., J. Wang, and L. Younes (1997,
20X20 99.88 96.50 • 99.20 • February). Texture classiﬁcation using win-
30X30 100.00 99.06 99.90 dowed Fourier ﬁlters. 19(2), 148–153.
40X40 100.00 99.92 100.00 Barlee, R., D. Lanning, and W. McLean (1999).
◦ - improvement, • - degradation The manufacture of leather. Journal of De-
signer Bookbinders 19, 48–59.
These results must be considered with some care
Cessie, S. L. and J. C. van Houwelingen (1992).
and as a ﬁrst, initial, experiment that, nonetheless,
Ridge estimators in logistic regression. Applied
should encourage further research. Each defect were
Statistics 41(1), 191–201.
taken from only two different pieces of leather and do
not represent, mainly in the case of raw hides, all the Chetverikov, D. (2000). Structural defects: General
possible conﬁguration in which the defect could ap- approach and application to textile inspection.
pear, as, for instance, different hair sizes, colors and In ICPR00, Volume 1, pp. 521–524.
da Costa, A. B. (2002, Dezembro). Estudo da com- Menp, M. P. T. O. T. (2002). Multiresolution gray
petitividade de cadeias integradas no brasil: scale and rotation invariant texture classiﬁca-
Impactos das zonas de livre comrcio. Technical tion with local binary patterns. In IEEE Trans-
report, Instituto de Economia da Universidade actions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intel-
Estadual de Campinas. ligence 24, pp. 971–987.
Figueiredo, M. A. (2000). On gaussian radial basis Roberts, M. and D. Etherington (1981). Bookbind-
function approximations: Interpretation, exten- ing and the Conservation of Books: A Dic-
sions, and learning strategies. In Proceedings tionary of Descriptive Terminoloy. Library of
of the 15th International Conference on Pattern Congress.
Recognition, Volume 2, pp. 2618–2622. Singh, M. and S. Singh (2002). Spatial texture
Georgieva, L., K. Krastev, and N. Angelov (2003). analysis: a comparative study. In ICPR02, pp.
Identiﬁcation of surface leather defects. In I: 676–679.
CompSysTech ’03: Proceedings of the 4th in- Sobral, J. L. (2005, September). Optimised ﬁlters
ternational conference conference on Com- for texture defect detection. In Proc. of the
puter systems and technologies, New York, NY, IEEE International Conference on Image Pro-
USA, pp. 303–307. ACM Press. cessing, Volume 3, pp. 565–573.
Gomes, A. (2002). Aspectos da cadeia pro- Valdes, C. (2006, April). Brazil emerges as major
dutiva do couro bovino no Brasil e em force in global meat markets. Amber Waves -
Mato Grosso do Sul. In Palestras e proposies: The Economics of Food, Farming, Natural Re-
Reunies Tcnicas sobre Couros e Peles, 25 a 27 sources and Rural America.
de setembro e 29 de outubro a 1 de novembro
de 2001, pp. 61–72. Embrapa Gado de Corte. Witten, I. H. and E. Frank (2005). Data Mining:
Practical Machine Learning Tools and Tech-
Grigorescu, S., N. Petkov, and P. Kruizinga niques. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.
(2002). Comparison of texture features based
on Gabor ﬁlters. IEEE Trans. on Image Pro- Yeh, C. and D. B. Perng (2001). Establishing a de-
cessing 11(10), 1160–1167. merit count reference standard for the classi-
ﬁcation and grading of leather hides. Interna-
Jobanputra, R. and D. Clausi (2004). Texture anal- tional Journal of Advanced Manufacturing 18,
ysis using gaussian weighted grey level co- 731–738.
occurrence probabilities. In Proceedings of the
Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot
Vision - CRV, pp. 51–57.
Keerthi, S., S. Shevade, C. Bhattacharyya, and
K. Murthy (2001). Improvements to platt’s
SMO algorithm for SVM classiﬁer design.
Neural Computation 13(3), 637–649.
Krastev, K., L. Georgieva, and N. Angelov (2004).
Leather features selection for defects’ recogni-
tion using fuzzy logic. In CompSysTech ’04:
Proceedings of the 5th international confer-
ence on Computer systems and technologies,
New York, NY, USA, pp. 1–6. ACM Press.
Kumar, A. and G. Pang (2002, March). Defect de-
tection in textured materials using gabor ﬁl-
ters. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applica-
Latif-Amet, A., A. Ertuzun, and A. Ercil (2000,
May). An efﬁcient method for texture de-
fect detection: Sub-band domain co-occurrence
matrices. Image and Vision Computing 18(6),
Matthey, H., J. F. Fabiosa, and F. H. Fuller (2004,
May). Brazil: The future of modern agriculture.
- Related pdf books
- You maybe like
- iartv specialist maths
- Koululaitoksen toimintaa ohjaa mm
- repair manual excavator volvo ec360
- District Wide Applications
- ford tempo repair manual
- transcript of a first counselling session
- Kapila HeightS
- fishers of men bible story for children
- ENERGIEKOSTEN STIJGEN FORS
- 1981 ford escort workshop manual
- paper piercing