• Adjective Phrase


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A study of the Structure of Telugu Phrases Adjective Phrase
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Adjective Phrase
An adjective is a noun modifier. The noun modifier. The noun modifier may be
either a single element or sometimes composed of more than one element which themselves
are structurally linked or formed into a construction. This construction may be termed as an
adjective phrase. An adjective phrase is an endocentric construction and fills the modifier
slot of a head-modifier noun phrase.
In a strict sense of the term ‘phrase’ as an unit filling slots at clause level structure,
the existance of an adjective phrase is doubtful. The reason for this doubtful nature of the
status of adjective phrase is that the adjectives or adjective phrases are optional modifying
elements of noun heads in head-modifier noun phrases. However, this optional modifier slot
filler can stand as an independent adjective phrase, because there exist adjectives which
either act as attributive heads and take sub-modifiers such as intensifiers, comparators,
limiters, numerals, quantifiers, etc., or, are coordinated with other adjectives.
In Chapter 3 under Noun Phrase besides descriptive adjectives all those that modify
the quality of the head noun such as participle adjectives, nouns, etc., were also treated
collectively under ‘noun modifiers’. Also, as a common definition, the adjective phrase can
be defined as that constituent that remains after the deletion of the head in a head-modifier
noun phrase. But, all these modifiers or constituents obtained in such a way are not adjec-
tive phrases always because of the following reasons:
(i) Some of these modifiers are nouns though they act as adjectives to the noun heads,
and in turn are not preceded by other modifiers.
eg.,
idi manisi kannu
‘this’ ‘person’ ‘eye’
‘This is a human eye’
In the above sentence manisi though it is a noun, acts as an adjective modifying the
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head noun kannu ‘eye’. If this modifier is considered as an adjective, this cannot be further
modified as
idi oka cinna manisi kannu
‘this’ ‘one’ ‘small’ ‘person’ eye’
‘This is a small person’s eye’
(ii) Some of the noun modifiers though they act as adjectives are nouns in the nomina-
tive case (non-oblique nouns). They may be preceded by submodifiers, but they still are
noun phrases even after the deletion of the head noun. The reason for this is that these
nouns do not have an oblique form even when they are used in the position of modifiers.
e.g.,
na:ku pedda ko:di gudlu ka:va:li
‘me-to’ ‘big’ ‘chicken’ ‘eggs’ ‘want’
‘I want big chicken eggs’
In the above sentence even after the deletion of the head noun ‘gudlu’, the modifier
pedda ko:di is still a head-modifier noun phrase. The phrase pedda ko:di gudlu is ambigu-
ous since the adjective pedda can be a qualifying modifier of either ko:di or gudlu, and
indicates a dual meaning with the ICs pedda ko:di gudlu as ‘The big eggs of a chicken’,
and with the ICs pedda ko:di gudlu as ‘The eggs of a big chicken’. On the other hand,
when the adjective pedda is replaced by nalla ‘black’, the ambiguity does not arise and
there is only one way of IC writing - nalla ko:di gudlu - is possible. In either case the
modifier is not an adjective phrase.
(iii) Some of these nouns act as adjectives and modify noun heads, and also are pre-
ceded by sub-modifiers, but when the head noun is deleted these modifiers fail to remain
either as adjective phrases or as noun phrases.
e.g.,
iddaru dzabbu manusulu
‘two’ ‘sickness’ ‘persons’
‘Two sick persons’
The reason for this is that the sub-modifier does not belong to the class of the
qualifying modifiers of these nouns. Therefore, though the second modifier (sub-modifier)
precedes the first modifier, it actually modifies directly the head noun and not the modifier
noun. Thus, though the first modifier is a noun in the nominative case (non-oblique noun),
the combination that remains after the deletion of the head noun is neither a head-modifier
adjective phrase nor a head-modifier noun phrase.
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e.g.,
lo:pala iddaru dzabbu manusulu unna:ru
‘inside’ ‘two’ ‘disease’ ‘persons’ ‘are-they’
‘There are two sick persons inside’
In the above phrase the only possible ICs are iddaru dzabbu manusulu and
writing as iddaru dzabbu manusulu is not possible since iddaru does not belong to the
class of qualifying modifiers of dzabbu.
In view of the above arguments it is evident that all modifiers are not adjectives, but
all adjectives are modifiers, and only those adjectives and oblique nouns which act as modi-
fiers in head-modifier noun phrases and in turn are modified by other elements such as
intensifiers, deictics, possessives, quantifiers, etc., or coordinated with other adjectives only
are dealt with here as adjective phrases.
There are three types of adjective phrases in Telugu, viz., Head-Modifier, Coordi-
nate and Axis-Relator phrases.
4.1 HEAD-MODIFIER ADJECTIVE PHRASE
The head-modifier adjective phrase is an endocentric construction. It consists of
atleast two slots, viz., an optional modifier slot and an obligatory head slot. The modifier
slot is filled by a class of modifying elements such as intensifiers, deictics, possessives,
quantifiers, etc. The head slot is filled by adjectives or adjectively funtioning words. A
typical formula for the head-modifier adjectives phrase is as follows:
Formula:
HMP aj = + Mod. int. + H:aj
Read, the head-modifier adjective phrase consists of an optional modifier slot filled
by a class of modifying elements of which the intensifier is the representative and an obliga-
tory head slot filled by an adjective or adjectively functioning word.
idi tsa:la: manci pustakam
‘this’ ‘very’ ‘good’ ‘book’
‘This is a very bood book’
The Head and the Modifier Slots
The head slot is an obligatory slot and is generally filled by adjectives (manci ‘good’)
and also by participle adjectives (mi: oirigina pustakam ‘your torn book’), oblique
nouns (ma: inti kappu ‘The roof of our house’) and the numerals (a: rendu pustaka:lu
‘Those two books’, a: rendo: pustakam ‘That second book’) - both cardinals as well
as ordinals. The modifier slot is an optional slot and is filled by a class of sub-modifiers. The
class of sub-modifiers includes nouns or noun phrases, descriptive and participle adjectives,
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intensifiers, comparators, pronominal adjectives, possessives/genetives, simple quantifiers,
definite quantifiers (cardinals, fractionals and ordinals), enumeratives, multiplicatives, speci-
fiers, indefinite quantifiers, approximate quantifiers, limiters and relative clauses (embedded
clauses).
The cooccurrence of these modifier slot fillers along with their sub-categories and
the head slot fillers is presented in detail in the following matrix.
4.1.1. MODIFIER AND HEAD CO-OCCURRENCE RESTRICTION
TABLE 4.1
MODIFIER AND HEAD CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX
Sl. Head Des. Part. Obl.
Adj. Adj. Nouns Numerals
No. Modifier
H1 H2 H3 H4
1. Noun/Np X
2. Descriptive Adjectives X
3. Participle Adjectives X X
4. Intensifiers X X X X
5. Comparators X X X X
6. Pronominal Adjectives X X X X
7. Possessives/Genitives X X X
8. Simple Quantifiers X X X
9. Cardinals X
10. Ordinals X
11. Fractionals X
12. Enumeratives X X X
13. Multiplicatives X X X
14. Specifiers X X X X
15. Indefinite Quantifiers X X X
16. Approximate Quantifiers X X X
17. Limiters X X X X
18. Embedded Clauses X X X X
NOTE: X - indicates occurrence and empty cell indicates non-occurrence.
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I. Nouns
Nouns occur as modifiers only with oblique nouns.
va:du burada ni:ti guntalo: sna:nam ce:sa:du
‘he’ ‘mud’ ‘water’ ‘pond-in’ ‘bath’ ‘did-he’
‘He took bath in a muddy water pond’
II. Descriptive Adjectives
Like nouns the descriptive adjectives also precede and modify only the oblique
nouns.
pedda inti go:dalau ba:gunna:yi
‘big’ ‘house-of’ ‘walls’ ‘nice-are-they’
‘The walls of the big house are good’
Sometimes the descriptive adjectives are found preceding other descriptive adjec-
tives, both in such cases these descriptive adjectives act as modifiers of a modifier noun
phrase whose modifier is another descriptive adjective, rather than behaving in a coordinate
relationship with another descriptive adjective.
pedda tella ka:gitam ti:suko:ndi
‘big’ ‘white paper’ ‘take (pl.)’
‘Take a gig white paper’
In the above sentence, pedda modifies tella ka:gitam, and note that it neither
modifies only tella nor occurs in co-ordination with it.
III. Participle Adjectives
Participle adjectives precede oblique nouns and both cardinal and ordinal numbers.
eg.,
ku:lipo:yina inti go:dalu balanga: unna:yi
‘collapsed’ ‘house-of’ ‘walls’ ‘strongly’ ‘are-they’
‘The walls of the collapsed house are strong’
ku:lipo:yina rendu illu: va:llave:
‘collapses’ ‘two’ ‘houses-too’ ‘their -only’
‘Both the collapsed houses belong to them’
ku:lipo:yina rendo: illu va:lladi ka:du
‘collapsed’ ‘second’ ‘house’ ‘their-it’ ‘not-it’
‘The second one of the collapsed houses does not belong to them’
Here also it appears that the participle adjectives modify descriptive adjectives, but
in fact they modify head-modifier noun phrases whose modifiers are descriptive adjectives.
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cirigina tella ci:ra a:medi
‘torn’ ‘white-sari’ ‘hers’
‘The torn white sari belongs to her’
IV. Intensifiers
tsa:la:, ba:ga:, mari:, ento:, bale:, maha: parama, ati, etc., are the
intensifiers that modify the adjectival heads in Telugu. Out of these parama, ati, and maha
are Sanskrit adjectives and precede mostly other Sanskrit adjectives though sometimes
they precede non-Sanskrit adjectives though sometimes they precede non-Sanskrit words
also (cf. ati telivaina, ‘very intelligent’, parama cedda ‘very bad’, etc.).
The intensifiers modify all the four types of adjectival heads, viz., descriptive and
participle adjectives and oblique and numeral nouns.
e.g.,
ra:ma:ra:vu tsa:la: manci manisi
‘Rama Rao’ ‘very’ ‘good’ ‘person’
‘Rama Rao is a very good person’
idi ba:ga: balisina eddu
‘this’ ‘well’ ‘fed’ ‘ox’
‘This is a well fed ox’
Similarly examples with oblique and numeral nouns as phrase heads can be given.
bale: is generally used when the head adjective indicates positive meaning though
sometimes it is used with head adjectives indicating negative meaning also.
e.g.,
a:yana bale: manci manisi
‘he’ ‘much’ ‘good’ ‘person’
‘He is a very good person’
In some parts of Rayalaseema nere: is used as an intensifier, but only with the
adjectival headds indicating negative meanings. And in Karnataka dialect of Telugu ninda:
is used in similar circumstances.
e.g.,
ravi nere:/ninda: anya:yamaina manisi
‘Ravi’ ‘much/fully’ ‘injust’ ‘person’
‘Ravi is a person of great injustice’
V. Comparators
The comparators are words of particles used to compare two different things, generally
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, certain quality with that of a noun or a pronoun. These comparators in Telugu include
atuvanti, ituvanti, etuvanti, kante, atti, itt, etti, canti, la:nti, la:ti, ma:diri, la:,
samanamaina, etc. Depending on their semantic and structural distinctiveness these
comparators can be grouped into the following categories.
(a) atuvanti, ituvanti, etuvanti, atti, itti, etti
These comparator words precede all the four types of head adjectives.
e.g.,
ituvanti manci pustakam ni:ku malli: dorakadu
‘this type-of’ ‘good’ ‘book’ ‘you(sg.)-to’ ‘again’ ‘will not be available’
‘You cannot get this type of good book again’
atuvanti pa:de mansi panikira:du
‘that type-of’ ‘singing’ ‘person’ ‘will not be useful-he’
‘Such singing person is not useful’
Examples with oblique and numeral nouns as head adjectives also can be given
These comparator words can also be added to personal pronouns.
mi:(y)atti manci manisini ne:nu
‘your (pl.)-like’ ‘good’ ‘person-to’ ‘I’
sariga: artham ce:suko:le:du
‘properly’ ‘understand-did not’
‘I did not understand a person like you properly’
(b) kante:/kanna
kante or kanna precedes the adjective which is in turn preceded by a noun or
pronoun whose quality is compared. kante: or kanna does not precede participle adjectives.
ni: kante: andamaina pilla a: amma:yi
‘your (sg.)-than’ ‘beautiful’ ‘girl’ ‘that’ ‘girl’
‘That girl is more beautiful than you’
a: amma:yi kante: rendu idli:lu ekkuva tinna:nu ne:nu
‘that’ ‘girl’ ‘than’ ‘two’ ‘idlies’ ‘more’ ‘ate-I’ ‘I’
‘I ate two idlies more than her’
Instead of the numeral noun an indefinite quantifier follows kante when the quantity
is not exactly known.
ni: kante: ekkuva bi:ru ta:gaenu ne:nu
‘you (sg.)-than’ ‘more’ ‘beer’ ‘drank-I’ ‘I’
‘I drank more beer than you’
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(c) vanti/la:nti/la:ti
These comparators are used in the sense of equating two different persons or things.
Nouns, noun phrases or pronouns including deictics precede these comparators. In such a
construction the noun or the noun phrase of the pronoun that precedes the comparator is the
unit of comparison, the qualitative adjective following the comparator in the measurable
quality and the noun modified by the qualitative adjective is the item of comparision. These
comparators also do not precede participle adjectives.
e.g.,
kavita la:nti andamaina amma:yi ni:ku
‘Kavitha’ ‘like’ ‘beautiful’ ‘girl’ ‘you (sg.)-to’
dorakadu
‘will not be available’
‘You cannot get a beautiful girl like Kavitha’
ni: vanti mu:rkhapu manisito: ne:nu ma:tla:danu
‘you(sg.)’ ‘like’ ‘foolish’ ‘person-with’ ‘I’ ‘will not talk-I’
‘I will not talk to a foolish person like you’
(d) la:/ma:diri
These comparators also express the sense of equating two different persons or
things as in (c), but these are adverbials. Therefore, unlike the quantifiers of (c), these
precede only the participle adjectives.
a:yana la:/ma:diri ma:tla:de: manusulu arudu
‘he - like’ ‘talk’ ‘persons’ ‘rare’
‘People who talk like him are rare’
(e) sama:namaina
Semantically the use of sama:namaina is not different from the comparators of (c),
i.e., la:nti, la:ti and vanti. But sama:namaina is an adjective itself, and before this is
used the noun or pronoun that precedes takes either the dative case marker -ku/-ki or the
sociative marker -to: as suffix. This precedes all the four categories of head adjectives i.e.,
H1, H2, H3 and H4.
eg.,
sivuniki/to: sama:namaina tsallani de:vudu le:du
‘Siva-to/with’ ‘equivalent’ ‘cool’ ‘God’ ‘no-he’
‘There is no God so kind like Lord Siva’
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VI. Pronominal Adjectives
(a) Deictics
The diectics precede all the four types of adjectival heads, viz., descriptive and
participle adjectives, oblique and numeral nouns.
e.g.,
i: tella tsokka: evaridi?
‘this’ ‘white’ ‘shirt’ ‘whose-it’
‘To whom this white shirt belongs?’
a: cirigina pustakam na:di
‘that’ ‘torn’ ‘book’ ‘mine’
‘That torn book is mine’
Similarly, examples with oblique nouns and numerals as head adjectives can be
given.
(b) Indefinites
Only personal pronouns like eva:do:, evaro:, evato:, edo:, e:vo: and e:mito: act
as adjectival modifiers and they precede all the four types of adjectival heads.
e.g.,
evado: potti: pillava:du vacca:du
‘some’ ‘short’ ‘boy’ ‘came-he’
‘Some short boy came’
e:vo rendu pustaka:lu tsa:lu
‘some’ ‘two’ ‘books’ ‘enough’
‘Some two books are sufficient’
Similarly examples with participle adjectives and oblique nouns as head adjectives
can be given.
VII. Possessives/Genitives
In genitives or possessives the oblique forms of nouns and pronouns precede the
head adjective. The genetives/possessives precede all the four types of head objectives.
va:lla inti kappu ku:lipo:yindi
‘their’ ‘house-roof’ ‘collapses-it’
‘The roof of their house collapsed’
na: rendo: pustakam nuvvu ti:suko:
‘my’ ‘second’ ‘book’ ‘you(sg.)’ ‘take(sg.)’
‘You take my second book’
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Similarly examples with descriptive and participle adjectives and cardinal numbers
as head adjectives can be given.
Sometimes some locative postpositions which also act in certain cases as noun
follow the genitives/possessives.
e.g.,
a:me ma: daggari bandhuvu
‘she’ ‘our’ ‘near’ ‘relative’
‘She is our close relative’
VIII. Simple Quantifiers
The simple quantifiers precede only the descriptive and participle adjectives and the
oblique nouns, i.e., H1, H2 and H3.
eg.,
inta manci pustakam ne:nu tsadavale:du
‘this much’ ‘good’ ‘book’ ‘I’ ‘did not read’
‘I did not read such a good book like this’
indaru/intamandi pa:de: pa:ta ba:gundadu
‘these many’ ‘singing’ ‘song’ ‘will not be good-it’
‘The song sung by so many people will not be good’
Similarly, examples with oblique nouns as head adjectives can be given.
IX. Cardinals
Cardinal numbers precede only the oblique nouns.
e.g.,
rendu pustaka:la attalu cinigipo:ya:yi
‘two’ ‘books-or’ ‘covers’ ‘torn - they’
‘The covers of two books are torn’
X. Ordinals
Like cardinals , ordinals also precede only the oblique nouns.
e.g.,
rendo: inti kappu egiripo:yindi
‘second’ ‘house-or’ ‘roof’ ‘jumped-away-it’
‘The roof of the second house was blown away’
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Sometimes special words like modati and toti ‘first’, and kadapati and civari
‘last’ which can also be iterated for emphasis are also used..
e.g.,
modati inti kappu egiripo:yindi
‘The roof of the first house was blown away’
mottamodati inti kappu egiripo:yindi
‘The roof of the very first house is blown away’
NOTE: modati + modati = motta modati ‘the very first’
XI. Fractionals
Like cardinals and ordinals, fractionals also precede only the oblique nouns.
e.g.,
ara angulam mandam undi adi
‘half’ ‘inch-of’ ‘thickness’ ‘is-it’ ‘that’
‘It has half an in inch thickness’
XII. Enumeratives
The enumeratives precede only the participle adjectives, the oblique nouns and the
derived descriptive adjectives.
e.g.,
angulam cirigina gudda e:di?
‘inch’ ‘torn’ ‘cloth’ ‘which one’
‘Which is the cloth in which an inch of it is torn?’
mu:radu ettaina benci: mi:da ku:rtsonna:nu
‘fore arm-or’ ‘high’ ‘bench’ ‘on’ ‘sat-I’
‘I wat on a bench of a fore arms height’
Similarly examples with oblique nouns are head adjectives can be given
When numerals and fractionals precede,
oka/ara adugu mandapu cekka ka:va:li
‘A wooden plank of one/half a foot thickness is needed’
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XIII. Multiplicatives
Multiplicatives precede the descriptive and the participle adjectives and the oblique
nouns.
eg.,
ninna rendu retlu tinna pillava:du evaru vi:llalo:
‘yesterday’ ‘two-three times’ ‘ate’ ‘boy’ ‘who’ ‘them-in’
‘Wo is the boy among these who ate twice the quantity yesterday’
di:niki rendu retlu mandapu gudda adi
‘it-to’ ‘two-times’ ‘thick-of’ ‘cloth’ ‘that’
‘That cloth is twice in thickness to this’
XIV. Specifiers
The only specifiers in Telugu are prati ‘every’ and prate okka ‘every one’. These
specifiers precede all the four types of adjectival heads.
e.g.,
prati manci pustakam na:ke ka:va:li
‘every’ ‘good’ ‘book’ ‘me-to-only’ ‘want’
antundi a:me
‘will say-she’ ‘she’
‘She asks for every good book’
prati veltunna bassunu a:puta:du a:yana
‘every’ ‘going’ ‘bus-to’ ‘will-stop-he’ ‘he’
‘He stops every going bus’
prati okka inti go:da mi:da pu:lamokkalu
‘every one’ ‘house-of’ ‘wall’ ‘on’ ‘flower-plants’
unta:yi
‘will he-they’
‘There will be flower plants on the walls of evey house.
Similarly, examples with cardinals and ordinals as head adjectives can be given.
XV. Indefinite Quantifiers
Indefinite quantifiers do not specify anything definitely. These include phrases
indicating large quantities such as (a) nu:rlakoladi, ve:lakoladi, ko:tlakolado. etc., and
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words like (b) ekkuva, takkuva, koncem, koddi, marinta, konta, etc. Out of these, the
quantifiers given in (a) are countable and they modify only the participle adjectives though
this is also not much frequent, and the quantifiers indicated in (b) are uncountable and modify
the descriptive and participle adjectives and the oblique nouns. This classification is as far
as the adjectival modification is concerned. As far as the noun modification is concerned
ekkuva and takkuva are both countable and uncountable.
(a) Countables
ve:la koladi vaccina janamte
‘thousands-together’ ‘came’ ‘people-with’
sabha:bhavanam nindipo:yindi
‘meeting hall’ ‘filled-it’
‘The meeting hall is filled with people who came in thousands’
(b) Uncountables
This group includes ekkuva ‘more’, takkuva ‘less’, ja:sti, marinta ‘more’,
koncem, koddi ‘ a little’ and konta ‘some’.
koncem viccina pu:lu ko:yandi tsa:lu
‘little’ ‘bloomed’ ‘flowers’ ‘pluck (pl.)’ ‘enough’
‘Pluck only a little bloomed flowers, that is enough’
konta pallapu prade:same: adi
‘some’ ‘hallow’ ‘region-emphatic’ ‘that’
‘It is some what hallow region indeed’
Similarly, examples with descriptive adjectives as head adjectives can be given.
XVI. Approximate Quantifiers
The approximate quantifiers include da:da:pu, intsumintsu: rama:rame and
daggara daggara, and these modify the descriptive adjectives, participle adjectives and
the numeral nouns.
e.g.,
intsu mintsu ce:rina tarva:ta telsindi i: ma:ta
‘almost’ ‘reached’ ‘after’ ‘known-it’ ‘this’ ‘word’
‘This matter came to be known after reaching almost’
daggara daggara padi pustaka:lu ti:sukkona:du
‘near’ ‘near’ ‘ten’ ‘books’ ‘took-he’
a:yana
‘he’
‘He took nearly ten books’
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Similarly examples can be given with descriptive adjectives and ordinal numbers
as head adjectives.
XVII. Limiters
Only ke:valam ‘only’ and kani:sam ‘at least’ come under this category. These
limiters indicate closure of the phrase, and there will be no further expansion of the phrase
after the limiters are added. The limiters precede all the four types of head adjectives.
e.g.,
ke:valam inti go:dala mi:dane: ra:yandi
‘only’ ‘house-of’ ‘walls-on-only’ ‘write (pl.)’
‘Write only on the house walls’
kani:sam rendo: pustakam tsadavandi
‘at least’ ‘second’ ‘book’ ‘read (pl.)’
‘Read at least the second book’
Similarly, examples with descriptive and participle adjectives and cardinal numbers
as head adjectives can be given.
These limiters also precede iterated adjectives, iterated cardinal numbers and
indefinite coordinate numerals indicating a range or an alternative such as padi padile:nu
‘ten to fifteen’, rendo: mu:do: ‘two or three’, etc.
e.g.,
kani:sam manci manci pa:ta pustaka:lu iyyandi
‘at least’ ‘good - good’ ‘old’ ‘books’ ‘give (pl.)’
‘At least give all the good old books’
ke:valam rendu rendu pa:ta pustaka:lu icca:du
‘only’ ‘two - two’ ‘ole’ ‘books’ ‘gave-he’
‘He gave only two old books per head’
The limiters also precede the adjective phrases already modified by nenitives,
deictics, etc., which will be discussed latter.
XVIII. Relative Clauses (Embedded Clauses)
Like many of the other adjectival modifiers, the relative clauses also modify all the
four types of adjectival heads, viz., descriptive adjectives, participle adjectives, oblique
nouns and numerals (both cardinals and ordinals). However, the internal structure of the
modifying relative clauses is not analysed as it is beyond the scope of this study, because it
belongs to clause level analysis.
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eg.,
a:me tsadivi teccina cirigina pustakam ne:nu
‘she’ ‘having-read’ ‘brought’ ‘torn’ ‘book’ ‘I’
ti:suko:le:du
‘did not-take’
‘I did not take the torn book which she read and brought’
ninna vella ve:sina inti go:dalu appude:
‘yesterday’ ‘white-washed’ ‘house-of’ ‘walls’ ‘already’
velisipo:ya:yi tsu:dandi
‘faded-they’ ‘see (pl.)’
‘See, the walls of the house that were white-washed yesterday are faded
already’
Similarly, examples with descriptive adjectives and cardinal and ordinal numbers as
head adjectives can be given.
COOCCURRENCE RESTRICTIONS
When the itnernal structure of the modifier slot is analysed it is observed that the
modifier slot is filled either by a single constituent, or it can be expanded to a maximum of
three constituents (Though structures with four or five constituents are found sometimes
because of their negligible frequency they are not discussed here).
These three constituents are either in the subordinate structure to each other in
which case one modifies the othe, or in coordinate structure directly modifying the head
adjective. If the three attributive constituents that modify the head adjective are called M1,
M2, and M3 towards the left-ward direction of the head, then M1 slot is filled by all those
presented in Table 4.1 and discussed so far. M2 slot is filled again by all those that fill M1
slot but with the following restrictions.
Examples only for two or three combinations are given below each table, but it
should be noted that examples for other combinations are also possible.
M2 and M1 cooccurrence Restrictions with Adjectival Heads, H1, H2, H3 and H4
(i) M2 is filled by descriptive adjectives when M1 is filled by cardinal numeral nouns followed
by only H3 in the head slot.
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A study of the Structure of Telugu Phrases Adjective Phrase
TABLE 4.2
M2 M1 H
Descriptive Cardinal
H3
Adjectives Numerals
andamaina iddaru amma:yila ci:ralu baga: le:vi
‘beautiful’ ‘two(hum.)’ ‘girls-of’ ‘saries’ ‘well’ ‘no-they’
‘The saries of both the beautiful girls are not good’
(ii) M2 is filled by intensifiers when nouns/noun phrases, descriptive adjectives, cardinals
and fractionals are in M1 followed by H3 in the head slot; enumeratives and indefinite quantifiers
are in M1 followed by H1, H2 and H3 in the head slot; and embedded clauses are in M1
followed by H1, H2, H3 and H4 in the head slot.
TABLE 4.3
M2 M1 H
Noun/NP
Descriptive Adj.
H3
Cardinals
Intensifiers
Fractionals
Enumeratives
H1, H2 & H3
Indef. Quan.
Embedded Clause H1, H2, H3 & H4
inka: buruda ni:ti guntalu unna:yi ma:
‘still’ ‘mud’ ‘water-of’ ‘ponds’‘are-they’ ‘our’
u:llo:
‘village-in’
‘There are water ponds in my village which are more muddier’
165
A study of the Structure of Telugu Phrases Adjective Phrase
mari: pa:tabadina illa go:dalu padipo:ya:yi
‘much’ ‘old-become’ ‘houses-of’ ‘walls’ ‘fell down-they’
‘The walls of very old houses have collapsed’
(iii) M2 is filled by comparators when nouns/noun phrases and descriptive adjectives are in
M1 followed by H3 in the head slot; simple quantifiers are in M1 followed by H1, H2 and H3
in the head slot; and deictics, genitives/possessives, specifiers and embedded clauses are in
M1 followed by H1, H2, H3 and H4 in the head slot.
TABLE 4.4
M2 M1 H
Nouns/NPs
H3
Descriptive Adj.
Simple Quantifiers H1, H2 & H3
Comparators
Deictics
Gen. / Poss.
H1, H2, H3 & H4
Specifiers
Embedded Clause
ituvanti andamaina inti kukka ku:da
‘this type-of’ ‘beautiful’ ‘house-of’ ‘dog’ ‘also’
andanga:ne: untundi
‘beautifully (Emp.)’ ‘will be-it’
‘The dog of this beautiful house also will be beautiful’
ni: la:nti inta manci amma:yini va:du
‘your-type-of’ ‘this much’ ‘good’ ‘girl-to’ ‘he’
pella:dadu
‘will not marry-he’
‘He will not marry a beautiful girl like you’
(iv) M2 is filled by deictics when nouns/noun phrases, descriptive adjectives, cardinals,
fractionals and ordinals are in M1 followed by H3 in the head slot; enumeratives and indefinite
quantifiers are in M1 followed by H1, H2 and H3 in the head slot; and specifiers and embedded
clauses are in M1 followed by H1, H2, H3 and H4 in the head slot.
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