• Transonic Flow-QC


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    • Abstract: Dilution," Nephrology Dialysis Transplant, Vol 16, p. 395-399, 2001. ... Flow Measurements," Nephrol Dial Transplant, Vol. 17, No. 12, p. 2244 ...

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Transonic Flow-QC
Selected
Publications
VII
A. Vascular Access Patency
1. Methodology and Validations “Krivitski Method”
Krivitski, N.M., “Theory and Validation of Access Gleed, R.D., Harvey, H.J., Dobson, A., “Validation in
Flow Measurement by Dilution Technique during the Sheep of An Ultrasound Dilution Technique for
Hemodialysis,” Kidney International, Haemodialysis Graft Flow,” Nephrology, Dialysis,
Vol. 48, No. 1, p. 244-250, 1995. (HD1T) Transplantation, Vol. 12, No. 7, p. 1464-1467,
Krivitski, N.M., “Novel Method to Measure Access 1997. (HD24V)
Flow during Hemodialysis by Ultrasound Velocity Bosman, P.J., “Secondary Vascular Access for
Dilution Technique,” ASAIO Journal, Vol. 41, No. Hemodialysis,” University of Utrecht Doctoral
Thesis, 1997. (HD41A)
3, p. M741-M745, 1995. (HD4T)
May, R.E., Himmelfarb, J., Yenicesu, M., Knights, S.,
Krivitski, N.M., MacGibbon, D., Gleed, R.D.,
Ikizler, T.A., Schulman, G., Heranz-Schulman, M.,
Dobson, A., “Accuracy of Dilution Techniques for
Shyr, Y., Hakim, R.M., “Predictive Measures of
Access Flow Measurement During
Vascular Access Thrombosis: A Prospective
Hemodialysis,” American Journal of Kidney
Study,” Kidney International, Vol. 52, No. 6, p.
Diseases, Vol. 31, No. 3, p. 502-508, 1998.
1656-1662, 1997. (HD42A)
(HD31V)
Sands, J.J., Glidden, D., Miranda, C., “Access Flow
Krivitski, N.M., Depner, T.A., “Development of a
Measured during Hemodialysis,” ASAIO Journal,
Method for Measuring Hemodialysis Access Flow:
Vol. 42, No. 5, p. M530-M532, 1996. (HD6A)
From Idea to Robust Technology,”
Lindsay, R.M., Bradfield, E., Rothera, C., Kianfar, C.,
Seminars in Dialysis, Vol. 11, No. 2, p. 124-130,
Malek, P., Blake, P.G., “A Comparison of Methods
1998. (HD7T)
for the Measurement of Hemodialysis Access
Depner, T.A., Krivitski, N.M., MacGibbon, D.,
Recirculation and Access Blood Flow Rate,”
“Hemodialysis Access Recirculation (Rc)
ASAIO Journal, Vol. 44, No. 1, p. 62-67, 1998.
Measured by Ultrasound Dilution,” ASAIO
(HD44A)
Journal, Vol. 41, No. 3, p. M749-M753, 1995.
Schneditz, D., Wang, E., Levin, N.W., “Validation of
(HD6V)
Haemodialysis Recirculation and Access Blood
Depner, T.A., Krivitski, N.M., “Clinical Measurement
Flow Measured by Thermodilution,” Nephrology,
of Blood Flow in Hemodialysis Access Fistulae
Dialysis, Transplantation, Vol. 14, No. 2, p. 376-
and Grafts by Ultrasound Dilution,” ASAIO
383, 1999. (HD86A)
Journal, Vol. 41, No. 3, p. M745-M749, 1995.
Besarab, A., "Preventing Vascular Access
(HD7V)
Dysfunction: Which Policy to Follow," Blood
Sands J.J., Glidden, D., Miranda, C., “Hemodialysis
Purification, Vol. 20, No. 1, p. 26-35, 2002.
Access Flow Measurement-Comparison of
(HD253A)
Ultrasound Dilution and Duplex Ultrasonography,”
Leypoldt, J.K., "Standards for Reproducible Access
ASAIO Journal, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. M899-M901,
Flow Measurement," Blood Purification, Vol. 20,
1996. (HD14V)
No. 1, p. 20-25, 2002. (HD254A)
Bosman, P.J., Boereboom, F.T.J., Bakker, C.J., Mali,
Lindsay, R.M., Leypoldt, J.K., "Monitoring Vascular
W.P.T., Eikelboom, B.C., Blankestijn, P.J.,
Access Flow," Advances in Renal Replacement
Koomans, H.A., “Access Flow
Therapy, Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 273-277, 1999. (HD97A)
Measurements in Hemodialysis Patients: In Vivo
Validation of an Ultrasound Dilution Technique,”
JASN, Vol. 7, p. 966-969, 1996. (HD23V)
Hemodialysis Flow-QC Guide 51
DG-5, Rev. B, 2003
Transonic Flow-QC
1. Methodology and Validations “Krivitski Method” cont.
Besarab, A., Lubkowski, T., Vu, A., Aslam, A., Lok, C.E., Bhola, C., Croxford, R., Richardson, R.,
Frinak, S., "Effects of Systemic Hemodynamics "Reducing Vascular Access Morbidity: A
on Flow within Vascular Accesses Used for Comparative Trial of Two Vascular Access
Hemodialysis," ASAIO Journal, Vol. 47, p. 501- Monitoring Strategies," Nephrology Dialysis
Transplant, Vol 18, p. 1174-1180, 2003.
506, 2001. (HD237A)
(HD306A)
Garland, J.S., Moist, L.M., Lindsay, R.M., "Are Zanen, A.L., Toonder, I.M., Korten, E., Wittens,
hemodialysis access flow measurements by CHA, Diderich, PNM, "Flow Measurements in
ultrasound dilution the standard of care for Dialysis Shunts: Lack of Agreement between
access surveillance?" Advances in Renal Conventional Doppler, CVI-Q, and Ultrasound
Replacement Therapy, Vol. 9, No. 2, p. 91-98, Dilution," Nephrology Dialysis Transplant, Vol 16,
2002. (HD263A) p. 395-399, 2001. (HD312A)
2. Predictive Power of Access Flow Measurements
Krivitski, N.M., "Access Flow Measurements Tonelli, M., Jindal, K., Hirsch, D., Taylor, S., Kane,
during Surveillance and Percutaneous Trans- C., Henbrey, S., "Screening for Subclinical
luminal Angioplasty Intervention,” Seminars in Stenosis in Native Vessel Arteriovenous
Dialysis, Vol. 16, No. 4 p. 304-308, 2003. Fistulae," JASN Vol. 12, No. 8, p. 1729-1733,
(HD311A) 2001. (HD200A)
Clark, T.W.I., Hirsch, D.A., Jindal, K.J., Veugelers, Nyberg, S.L., Hughes, C.B., Valenzuela, Y.M.,
P.J., LeBlanc, J., "Outcome and Prognostic Jenson, B.M., Benda, M.M., McCarthy, J.T.,
Factors of Restenosis after Percutaneous Sterioff, S., Stegall, M.D., "Preliminary
Treatment of Native Hemodialysis Fistulas,” Experience with a Cuffed ePTFE graft for
Journal of Vascular Interventional Radiology, Hemodialysis Vascular Access," ASAIO Journal,
Vol. 13, p. 51-59, 2002. (HD304A) Vol. 47, No. 4, p. 333-337, 2001. (HD201A)
Polkinghorne, K.R., Atkins, R.C., Kerr, P.G, "Native McCarley, P., Wingard, R.L., Shyr, Y., Pettus, W.,
Arteriovenous Fistula Blood Flow and Hakim, R.M., Ikizler, T.A., "Vascular Access
Resistance during Hemodialysis," AJKD, Vol. 41, Blood Fflow Monitoring Reduces Access
No. 1, p. 132-139, 2003. (HD299A) Morbidity and Costs," Kidney International, Vol.
Bosman, P.J., “Secondary Vascular Access for 60, No. 3, p. 1164-1172, 2001. (HD202A)
Hemodialysis,” University of Utrecht Doctoral Krivitski, N.M., Gantela, S., "Access Flow
Thesis, 1997. (HD41A) Measurement as a Predictor of Hemodialysis
Dixon, B.S., Novak, L., Fangman, J., Graft Thrombosis: Making Clinical Decisions,"
"Hemodialysis Vascular Access Survival: Upper- Seminars in Dialysis, Vol. 14, No. 3, p. 181-185,
arm Native Arteriovenous Fistula," American 2001. (HD195A)
Journal of Kidney Disease, Vol. 39, No. 1, p. 92- van Loon, M., "The Access Flowmeter: A Great
101, 2002. (HD248A) Step Forward," EDTNA/ERCA Journal XXVI, p.
Barril, G., Beseda, E., Cirugeda, A., Perpen, A.F., 13-16, 2000. (HD203A)
Selgas, R., "Hemodialysis Vascular Assessment Krisper, P., Aschauer, M., Tiesenhausen, K.,
by an Ultrasound Dilution Method (Transonic) in Leitner, G., Holzer, H., Schneditz, D., "Access
Patients Older than 65 Years," International Recirculation in a Native Fistula in Spite of a
Journal of Urology and Nephrology, Vol. 32, No. Seemingly Adequate Access Flow," American
3, p. 459-462, 2001. (HD245A) Journal of Kidney Disease, Vol. 35, No. 3, p.
McDougal, G., Agarwal, R., "Clinical Performance 529-532, 2000. (HD197A)
Characteristics of Hemodialysis Graft Paulson, W.D., Ram, S.J., Birk, C.G., Zapczynski,
Monitoring," Kidney International, Vol. 60, No. 2, M., Martin, S.R., Work, J., "Accuracy of
p. 762-766, 2001. (HD199A) Decrease in Blood Flow in Predicting
Hemodialysis Graft Thrombosis," American
Journal of Kidney Disease, Vol. 35, No. 6, p.
1089-1095, 2000. HD198A
52 Hemodialysis Flow-QC Guide
DG-5, Rev. B, 2003
Transonic Flow-QC
2. Predictive Power of Access Flow Measurements cont.
Kalman, P.G., Pope, M., Bhola, C., Richardson, R., Blankestijn, P.J., Smits, J.H.M., “Clinical Diagnosis
Sniderman, K.W., "A Practical Approach to of Stenosis,” First European Basic
Vascular Access for Hemodialysis and Multidisciplinary Hemodialysis Access Course,
Predictors of Success," Journal of Vascular Paris, Fr, Oct. 8-9, 1998. (HD81A)
Surgery, Vol. 30, No. 4, p. 727-732, 1999. Neyra, N.R., Ikizler, T.A., May, R.E., Himmelfarb,
(HD196A)
J., Schulman, G., Shyr, Y., Hakim, R.M.,
Schwab, S.J., Oliver, M.J., Suhocki, P., McCann,
“Change in Access Blood Flow Over Time
R., “Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Access:
Predicts Vascular Access Thrombosis,” Kidney
Detection of Stenosis and Response to
International, Vol. 54, No. 5, p. 1714-1719, 1998.
Treatment by Vascular Access Blood Flow,”
(HD82A)
Kidney International, Vol. 59, No. 4, p. 358-362,
Bosman, P.J., Boerboom, F.T.J., Eikelboom, B.C.,
2001. (HD172A)
Koomans, H.A., Blankestijn, P.J., “Graft Flow As
May, R.E., Himmelfarb, J., Yenicesu, M., Knights,
Predictor of Thrombosis in Hemodialysis Grafts,”
S., Ikizler, T.A., Schulman, G., Heranz-
Kidney International, Vol. 54, No. 5, p. 1726-
Schulman, M., Shyr, Y., Hakim, R.M., “Predictive
1730, 1998. (HD83A)
Measures of Vascular Access Thrombosis: A
Smits, J.H.M., Blankestijn, P.J., “Thrombosis-Free
Prospective Study,” Kidney International, Vol. 52,
Hemodialysis Grafts: A Possibility for the Next
p. 1656-1662, 1997. (HD42A)
Century,” Seminars in Dialysis, Vol. 12,
Bosman, P.J., Boereboom, F.T.J., Smits, H.F.M., p. 44 - 49, 1999. (HD85A)
Eikelboom, B.C., Koomans, H.A., Blankestijn, Sherman, R.A., Besarab, A., Schwab, S.J.,
P.J., “Pressure or Flow Readings for Beathard, G.A., “Recognition of the Failing
the Surveillance of Hemodialysis Grafts,” Kidney Vascular Access: A Current Perspective,”
International, Vol. 52, p. 1084-1088, 1997. Seminars in Dialysis, Vol. 10, No. 1, p. 1-4,
(HD38A) 1997. (HD1E)
Besarab, A., Lubkowski, T., Frinak, S., Blankenstijn, P.J., Bosman, P.J., Boereboom,
Ramanathan, S., Escobar, F., “Detecting F.T.J., “Haemodialysis Access without
Thrombosis: Is It Possible?” Nephrology, Dialysis
Vascular Access Dysfunction,” ASAIO Journal, , Transplantation, Vol. 11, No. 12, p. 2394-2397,
Vol. 43, No. 5, p. M539-M543, 1997. (HD39A) 1996. (HD2E)
Besarab, A., Lubkowski, T., Frinak, S., Sands, J., Besarab, A., Frinak, S., Depner, T.A.,
Ramanathan, S., Escobar, F., “Detection of Sherman, R.A., Kapoian, T., “Hemodialysis
Access Strictures and Outlet Stenoses in Access — The Role of Monitoring,” Panel
Vascular Accesses, Which Test Is Best?” ASAIO Discussion, ASAIO Journal, Vol. 44, No. 1, p. 34-
Journal, Vol. 43, No. 5, p. M543-M547, 1997. 43, 1998. (HD3G)
(HD40A) Hakim, R., Himmelfarb, J. “Hemodialysis Access
Failure: A Call to Action,” Kidney International,
Bouchouareb, D., Savenanu, A., Bartoli, J.M., Vol. 54, No. 4, p. 1029-1040, 1998. (HD4G)
Olmer, M., “A New Approach to Evaluate Pandeya, S., Lindsay, R.M., "The Relationship
Vascular Access in Hemodialysis Patients,” between Cardiac Output and Access Flow
Artificial Organs, Vol. 22, No. 7, p. 591-595, During Hemodialysis." ASAIO Journal, Vol. 45,
1998.(HD55A) No. 3. p. 135-138, 1999. (HD89A)
Sands, J.J., “A Teaching Tool for Managing Blankestijn, P.J., Smits, J.H.M., "How to Identify
Hemodynamic Vascular Access,” Nephrology the Haemodialysis Access at Risk of
News and Issues, Vol. 12, No. 9, p. 25-28, 1998 Thrombosis? Are Flow Measurements The
(HD56A) Answer?" Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation,
Wang, E., Schneditz, Nepomuceno, C., Lavarias, Vol. 14. No. 5, p. 1068-1071, 1999. (HD90A)
V., Martin, K., Morris, A.T., Levin, N.W., Sands, J.J., Jabyac, P.A., Miranda, C.L., Kapsick,
“Predictive Value of Access Blood Flow in B.J., "Intervention Based on Monthly Monitoring
Detecting Access Thrombosis,” ASAIO Journal, Decreases Hemodialysis Access Thrombosis."
Vol. 44, No. 5, p. M555-M558, 1998. (HD79A) ASAIO Journal, p. 147-150, 1999. (HD88A)
Hemodialysis Flow-QC Guide 53
DG-5, Rev. B, 2003
Transonic Flow-QC
2. Predictive Power of Access Flow Measurements cont.
Schwab, S.J., et al., "Vascular Access for Bacchini, G., Cappello, A., LaMilia, V., Andrulli, S.,
Hemodialysis." Kidney International, Vol. 55, No. Locatelli, F., “Color Doppler Ultrasonography
5, p. 2078-2090, 1999. (HD100A) Imaging to Guide Transluminal Angioplasty
Kailash, J.K., Ethier, J.H., Lindsay, R.M., Barre, of Venous Stenosis,” Kidney International, Vol.
P.E., Kappel, J.E., Carlisle, EJF., Common, A.,
58, No. 4, pp 1810-1813, 2000. (HD164A)
"Chapter 3: Clinical Practice Guidelines for
Vascular Access."JASN, Vol. 10, No. 6, Sup. 13, Schon, D., Mishler, R., “Salvage of Occluded
p. S287-S305, June 1999. (HD101A) Autologous Arteriovenous Fistulae,” American
Sands, J., " Critical Review of Flow Measurement Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp
Methods." Angioaccess for Hemodialysis, 2nd 804-810, 2000. (HD165A)
International Multidisciplinary Symposium, Weitzel, W.F., Khosla, N., Rubin, J.M., "Retrograde
May 31-June 2, 1999, p. 79-81. (HD105A) Hemodialysis Access Flow During Dialysis as a
Van Der Linden, J., Smits, J.H.M., Assink, J.H., Predictor of Access Pathology," American
Wolterbeek, D.W., Zijlstra, J.J., De Jong, G.H.T.,
Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 37, No. 6, p.
Van Den Dorpel, M.A., Blankestijn, P.J.,
1241-1246, 2001. (HD187A)
“Short- and Long-Term Functional Effects of
Ahya, S.N., Windus, D.W., Vesely, T.M., "Flow in
Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in
Hemodialysis Grafts After Angioplasty: Do
Hemodialysis Vascular Access,” Journal of
Radiologic Criteria Predict Success?"
the American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 33, p.
Kidney International, Vol. 59, No. 5, p. 1974-
708-714, 2002. (HD256A)
Agarwal, R., McDougal, G., "Buzz in the axilla: a 1978, 2001. (HD175A)
new physical sign in hemodialysis forearm graft Murray, B.M., Rajczak, S., Basharat, A., Herman,
evaluation," American Journal of Kidney A., Mepani, B., "Assessment of Access Blood
Disease, Vol. 38, No. 4, p. 853-857, 2001. Flow After Preemptive Angioplasty," American
(HD255A) Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 37, No. 5, p.
Lindsay, R.M., Leypoldt, J.K., “Monitoring Vascular 1029-1038, 2001. (HD176A)
Access Flow,” Advances in Renal Replacement DeSoto, D.J., Sunanda, J.R., Faiyaz, R., Birk,
Therapy, Vol. 6, p. 273-277, 1999. (HD97A) C.G., Paulson, W.D., "Hemodynamic
Paulson, W.D., Ram, S.J., Birk, C.G., Work, J., Reproducibility During Blood Flow
“Does Blood Flow Accurately Predict Thrombosis Measurements of Hemodialysis Synthetic
or Failure of Hemodialysis Synthetic Grafts? A Grafts," American Journal of Kidney Diseases,
Meta-Analysis,” American Journal of Kidney Vol. 37, No. 4, p. 790-796, 2001. (HD174A)
Diseases, Vol. 34, No. 3, p. 478-485, 1999. Tessitore, N., Mansueto, G., Bedogna, V., Lipari,
(HD111A) G., Poli, A., Gammaro, L., Baggio, E., Morana,
Rehman, S.U., Pupim, L.B., Shyr, Y., Hakim, R.,
G., Loschiavo, C., Laudon, A., Oldrizzi, L.,
Ikizler, T.A., “Intradialysis Serial Vascular Access
Maschio, G., “A Prospective Controlled Trial on
Flow Measurements,” American Journal of
Effect of Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty
Kidney Diseases, Vol. 34, No. 3, p. 471-
on Functioning Arteriovenous Fistulae Survival,
477,1999. (HD112A)
JASN Vol. 14, p. 1623-1627, 2003. (HD310A)
Sands, J.J., “Diagnosing the Failing Vascular
Murray, B.M., Suri, S., Herman, A., Rajcak, S.,
Access,” Vascular Access for Hemodialysis-VI,
Chapter 2, Henry, ML, ed., W.L. Gore Press, & Paulson, W., Pell, M., “Prolongation of
Associates, Inc., Precept Press, 1999. Artyeriovenous Graft Survival by Access Flow
(HD139A) Monitoring,” Vascular Access for Hemodialysis-
Krivitski, N.M., “Vascular Access Flow Measure- VIII, Chapter 25, pp 279-292, M.L. Ford, MD ed.,
ment by Dilution during Hemodialysis: Overview 2002, WL Gore and Access Medical Press,
of First Four Years’ Experience,” Vascular Arlington Heights, Ill. HD314A
Access for Hemodialysis-VI, Chapter 9, Henry,
ML, ed., W.L. Gore Press, & Associates, Inc.,
Precept Press, 1999. (HD140A)
54 Hemodialysis Flow-QC Guide
DG-5, Rev. B, 2003
Transonic Flow-QC
2. Predictive Power of Access Flow Measurements cont.
Pediatric
Goldstein, S.L., Allsteadt, A., "Ultrasound Dilution Goldstein, S.L., Smith, C.M., Currier, H.,
Evaluation of Pediatric Hemodialysis Vascular "Noninvasive Interventions to Decrease
Access," Kidney International, Vol. 59, No. 6, p. Hospitalization and Associated Costs for
2357-2360, 2001. (HD177A) Pediatric Patients Receiving Hemodialysis,"
Goldstein, S.L., Allsteadt, A., Smith, C.M., Currier, JASN, Vol. 14, No. 8, p. 2127-2131, 2003.
H., "Proactive Monitoring of Pediatric (HD313A)
Hemodialysis Vascular Access: Effects of
Ultrasound Dilution on Thrombosis Rates,"
Kidney International, Vol. 62, No. 1, p. 272-275,
2002. (HD261A)
3. Increased Flow after Angioplasty
Van Der Linden, J., Smits, J.H.M., Assink, J.H., Murray, B.M., Rajczak, S., Basharat, A., Herman,
Wolterbeek, D.W., Zijlstra, J.J., De Jong, G.H.T., A., Mepani, B., "Assessment of Access Blood
Van Den Dorpel, M.A., Blankestijn, P.J., Flow After Preemptive Angioplasty," American
“Short- and Long-Term Functional Effects of Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 37, No. 5, p.
Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in 1029-1038, 2001. (HD176A)
Hemodialysis Vascular Access,” Journal of the Besarab, A., "Access Monitoring Methods," Blood
American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 13, No. 3, Purification, Vol. 18, No. 4, p. 255-259, 2000.
p. 715-720, 2002. (HD256A) (HD190A)
Schwab, S.J., Oliver, M.J., Suhocki, P., McCann, Bacchini, G., Cappello, A., La Milia, V., Andrulli, S.,
R., “Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Access: Locatelli, F., “Color Doppler Ultrasonography
Detection of Stenosis and Response to Imaging to Guide Transluminal Angioplasty of
Treatment by Vascular Access Blood Flow, Venous Stenosis,” Kidney International, Vol. 58,
Kidney International, Vol. 59, No. 1, p. 358-362, No. 4, p. 1810-1813, 2000. (HD164A)
2001. (HD172A)
Ahya, S.N., Windus, D.W., Vesely, T.M., "Flow in
Hemodialysis Grafts After Angioplasty: Do
Radiologic Criteria Predict Success?" Kidney
International, Vol. 59, No. 5,p. 1974-1978, 2001.
(HD175A)
Hemodialysis Flow-QC Guide 55
DG-5, Rev. B, 2003
Transonic Flow-QC
B. Dialysis Adequacy
1 . Zero Access Recirculation: A New Reality
Krivitski, N.M., “Novel Method to Measure Access Lindsay, R.M., Bradfield, E., Rothera, C., Kianfar,
Flow during Hemodialysis by Ultrasound Dilution C., Malek, P., Blake, P.G., “A Comparison of
Technique,” ASAIO Journal, Vol. 41, No. 3, p. Methods for the Measurement of Hemodialysis
M741-M745, 1995. (HD4T) Access Recirculation and Access Blood Flow
Depner, T.A., Krivitski, N.M., MacGibbon, D., Rate,” ASAIO Journal, Vol. 44, p. 62-67, 1998.
“Hemodialysis Access Recirculation (Rc) (HD44A)
Measured by Ultrasound Dilution,” ASAIO Lindsay, R.M., Rothera, C., Blake, P.G., “A
Journal, Vol. 41, No. 3, p. M749-M753, 1995. Comparison of Methods for the Measurement of
(HD6V) Hemodialysis Access Recirculation, An Update,”
Kapoian, T., Steward, C.A., Sherman, R.A., ASAIO Journal, Vol. 44, No. 3, p.191-193, 1998.
“Validation of a Revised Slow-stop Recirculation (HD52A)
Method,” Kidney International, Vol. 52, No. 3, p. Lindsay, R.M., “Assessment of Access
839-842, 1997. (HD20V) Recirculation during Hemodialysis” Current
Alloatti, S., Molino, A., Bonfant, G., Ratibondi, S., Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, Vol.6,
Bosticardo, G.M., “Measurement of Vascular p.570-574, 1997. (HD53A)
Access Recirculation Unaffected by Barril, G., Besalda, E., Andrioni, T., Cigarran, S.,
Cardiopulmonary Recirculation: Evaluation of an Cirugeda, A., Fdez Perpen, A., Selgas, R., "Two
Ultrasound Method,” Nephron, Vol. 81, No. 1, p. Years of Vascular Access (VA) Monitorization by
25-30, 1999. (HD35V) Dilutional Methodology (Transonic HD01),"
MacDonald, J., Sosa, M., Krivitski, N.M., Glidden, Vascular Access Society Abstracts, 2nd
D., Sands, J.J., “Identifying A New Reality: Zero International Congress, p. 66, 2001. (HD183A)
Vascular Access Recirculation Using Tordoir, J.H.M., Hassell, D.R.M., van der Sande,
Ultrasound Dilution,” ANNA Journal, Vol. 23, No. F.M., Kooman, J.P., Leunissen, K.M.L.,
6, p.603-608, 1996. (HD4A) "Optimizing Dialysis Dose by Increasing Blood
Twardowski, Z.J., Van Stone, J.C., Haynie, J.D., Flow Rate in Patients with Reduced Vascular
“All Currently Used Measurements of Access Flow," Vascular Access Society
Recirculation in Blood Access by Chemical Abstracts, 2nd International Congress, p. 69,
Methods are Flawed Due to Intradialytic 2001. (HD186A)
Disequilibrium or Recirculation at Low Flow,” Weitzel, W.F., Khosla, N., Rubin, J.M., "Retrograde
American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 32, Hemodialysis Access Flow During Dialysis as a
No. 6, p.1046-1058, 1998. (HD84A) Predictor of Access Pathology," American
Sands, J., Krivitski, N.M., “Access Recirculation in Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 37, No. 6, p.
Hemodialysis,” Vascular Access for 1241-1246, 2001. (HD187A)
emodialysis—V, Chapter 28, Proceedings of the Wang, E., Schneditz, D., Kaufman, A.M., Levin,
Fifth Symposium on Dialysis Access, 1996, N.W., "Sensitivity and Specificity of the
Tucson, AZ,” W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., Thermodilution Technique in Detection of Access
Precept Press, M.L. Henry, R.M. Ferguson, eds, Recirculation," Nephron, Vol. 85, No. 2, p. 134-
p. 263 - 267, 1997. (HD9A) 141, 2000. (HD192A)
Schneditz, Daniel, “Recirculation, a Seemingly Wang, E., Schneditz, D., Ronco, C., Levin, N.W., “
Simple Concept” Nephrology, Dialysis, Surveillance of Fistula Function by Frequent
Transplantation, Vol. 13, No. 9, p. 2191-2193, Recirculation Measurements during High
Efficiency Dialysis,” ASAIO Journal, Vol. 48, No.
1999. (HD3E)
4, p. 394-307, 2002. (HD265A)
56 Hemodialysis Flow-QC Guide
DG-5, Rev. B, 2003
Transonic Flow-QC
2. Discrepancy between Prescribed and Delivered Pump
Flow (Qb) in the Vascular Access
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Hemodialysis Flow-QC Guide 57
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3. Catheters (Recirculation and Delivered Flow)
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Perrault, L., Combe, C., "Performance of twin Effects on Roller Pump Blood Flow during
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58 Hemodialysis Flow-QC Guide
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C. Cardiac Output & Central Blood Volume
Methology and Validations
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