• SOCIOLOGY


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SOCIOLOGY
GRADE XI
PAPER I: ELEMENTARY SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY
Full Marks: 100
Teaching Hours: 150
1. Introduction
This is an introductory course in sociology and anthropology, which aims at providing
exposure to the students with the basic concepts of sociology and anthropology.
2. Objectives
General objective
The general objective of the course is to familiarize the students with the basic
concepts and languages of sociology and anthropology.
Specific objectives
The specific objective of the course is :
• to introduce social processes, social structure and social institutions; and
• to provide basic knowledge on languages of sociology and anthropology and
give exposure to the students to the major contributions of selected sociologists
and anthropologists.
End Objectives
At the end of the academic calendar, the course should enable the students to:
• define the nature and scope of sociology and anthropology;
• explain basic sociological and anthropological concepts, social processes, social
institutions, social stratification and social change;
• explain the selected theories of sociology and anthropology (evolutionism,
functionalism and conflict theory) and
• conduct simple sociological and anthropological studies by using simple data
collection methods such as observation and personal interviews.
3. Course Content
Unit I. Introduction to Sociology (10 Periods)
• Definition, nature and scope
• Sub-divisions of sociology (rural sociology, urban sociology, political
sociology,
industrial sociology and economic sociology)
• Relationship of sociology with other social sciences (anthropology,
psychology, economics, political science and history)
1
Unit II. Introduction to Anthropology (10 Periods)
• Definition, nature and scope
• Branches (physical anthropology, social and cultural anthropology,
archaeological anthropology, linguistic anthropology)
• Sub-divisions of anthropology (economic anthropology, ecological
anthropology, medical anthropology, anthropology of development,
political anthropology)
• Relationship of anthropology with other social sciences (sociology,
psychology, economics, political science and history).
Unit III. Basic Concepts in Anthropology and Sociology (30 periods)
• Society: Meaning, Definition and Characteristics
• Social system: Meaning, Definition and Characteristics
• Community: Meaning, Definition and Characteristics
• Culture: Meaning, Definition and Characteristics
• Social norms and values: Meaning, Definition and Characteristics
• Status and role: Meaning, Definition and Characteristics
• Class: Meaning, Definition and Characteristics
• Social group: Meaning, Definition and Characteristics
• Social organization: Meaning, Definition and Characteristics
• Caste: Meaning, Definition and Characteristics
• Ethnicity: Meaning, Definition and Characteristics
• Gender: Meaning, Definition and Characteristics
Unit IV. Social Processes (15 Periods)
• Meaning and definition of social process
• Meaning and definition of: Acculturation, Accommodation,
Adaptation, Amalgamation, Assimilation, Competition, Conflict,
Cooperation, Integration and Socialization.
Unit V. Social Institutions (15 Periods)
• Meaning and definition of social institution
• Family: Definition, functions and types (nuclear and joint)
• Marriage: Definition, functions and types (on the basis of number
of spouse: monogamy and polygamy, on the basis of rules: exogamy
and endogamy; on the basis of process: arrange marriage and love
marriage)
• Kinship: Definition, functions and types: Consanguinal and affinal
Unit VI. Social Stratification (10 Periods)
• Meaning and definition of social stratification
• Dimensions of social stratification
• Class, caste/ethnicity, economy and gender based stratification
2
Unit VII. Social and Cultural Change (15 Periods)
• Processes of social and cultural change: discovery, innovation, diffusion,
acculturation and modernization
• Factors of social and cultural change (economy, technology, education and
demography)
• Role of communication and media in social and cultural change
Unit VIII. Key Figures in the History of Sociology and anthropology and their
selected Contributions (Begin with a brief biography of each)
(15 Periods)
Sociology
A. Comte - Positivism
Max Weber - Class, Status and Power
Anthropology
EB Tylor - Concept of cultural evolution
B. Malinowski - Functions of culture
Unit IX. Sociological/Anthropological Research (30 Periods)
o Meaning and definition of social research
o Language of social research: concept, variables, hypothesis, data
(qualitative and quantitative, primary and secondary), census, survey,
universe, study population, sample
o Steps of social research
o Research proposal
o Methods of data collection
o Questionnaire
o Interview
o Observation
o Data analysis and report writing
Guideline for Teachers
• This is a fundamental & introductory course in the disciplines of
sociology and anthropology and hence should be taught in such a way
that the knowledge and skill gained from this course could be used to
better understand any culture and society in general and Nepali culture
and society in particular. (Examples should be derived from Nepali
society and culture)
• While teaching this course attention should be given to make it as
participatory as possible. Students might be from various backgrounds
in terms of socio- economic status, caste/ethnic composition, sex and
value orientations. This, itself is an immense treasure and their life
experience could form the teaching material. Experience sharing
would provide good exposure to all students and this would lead to
smooth teaching and learning.
3
• Attempt should be made to get input from the students on units III, IV and
V. If the students were from different places (districts/regions), affiliated to
different caste/ethnic group & religions, this would provide variability and
hence would make the class livelier.
• While teaching unit IX, students should be involved in practicum. Each
student either in a group of 3-5 or individually should be assigned to a
fieldwork/survey and they should be motivated to prepare field reports.
This assignment should also be graded and should carry 20 points. Once
graded, this unit should no more become candidate for final examination.
Evaluation Scheme
Long Questions 3 (any two) 2 X 12 = 24 marks
Short Questions 7 (any five) 8X7 = 56 marks
Internal Assessment/Field Work 20 marks
Total: 100
Unitwise Allocation of Marks
Unit Marks allocated
Unit I 7
Unit II 7
Unit III 20
Unit IV 10
UnitV 10
Unit VI 6
Unit VII 10
Unit VIII 10
** A
Unit IX
From this unit (Unit IX), theoretical question should not be asked in
the final examination.
4
VII. References
Unit I
• Bhatta, BadriNath. 2003: Elementary Anthropology and Sociology
(in Nepali) Neema Publications: Kathmandu, pp 1-21
• Regmi Rishi Keshav Raj. 2003: The Essentials of Sociology, Buddha
Academic Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd.: Kathmandu, pp 1-11
• Vidyabhusan and DR Sachadeva. 1983: An Introduction to Sociology,
Kitav Mahal: New Delhi
Unit II
• Bhatta, Badri Nath. 2003: Elementary Anthropology and Sociology
(in Nepali) Neema Publications: Kathmandu, pp 22-40
• Ember R.C. and M. Ember. 2002: Anthropology, Pearson Education:
Singapore and New Delhi, pp 1-17
• Jha, Makhan. 1994: Introduction to Social Anthropology, South Asia
Books: New Delhi
• Mair, Lucy. 1965: An Introduction to Social Anthropology, Oxford
University Press, New Delhi, pp 1-16
Unit III
• Bhatta, Badri Nath. 2003: Elementary Anthropology and Sociology
(in Nepali) Neema Publications: Kathmandu, pp 41-51, 55-58, 62-69,
88-112
• Haralambos, M.I980. Sociology: Themes and Perspectives, Oxford
Press: New Delhi, pp 2-8
• Jha, Makhan. 1994: Introduction to Social Anthropology, South Asia
Books: New Delhi
• Regmi Rishi Keshav Raj. 2003: The Essentials of Sociology, Buddha
Academic Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd.: Kathmandu, pp 61, 69,
72,74
• Vidyabhusan and DR Sachadeva. 1983: An Introduction to Sociology,
Kitav Mahal: New Delhi
Unit IV
• Ember R.C. and M. Ember. 2002: Anthropology, Pearson Education:
Singapore and New Delhi
• Seymour-Smith, Charlotte. 1986. Dictionary of Anthropology.
MACMILAN
• Vidyabhusan and DR Sachadeva. 1983: An Introduction to Sociology,
Kitav Mahal: New Delhi
UnitV
• Bottomore, TB. 1985. Sociology: A Guide to Problems and literature;
Blakie and Sons publisher Bombay
5
• Jha, Makhan. 1994: Introduction to Social Anthropology, New Delhi,
South Asia Books
• Johnson, H.M. 1960. Sociology: A Systematic Introduction, New
Delhi Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd. India.
• Vidyabhusan and DR Sachadeva. 1983. An Introduction to Sociology:
Kitav Mahal: New Delhi
Unit VI
• Haralambos, M. and RN Heald 1980. Sociology: Themes and
Perspectives, Oxford Press: New Delhi, pp 24-27, 42-56, 91-97
• Regmi Rishi Keshav Raj. 2003: The Essentials of Sociology, Buddha
Academic Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd.: Kathmandu, pp. 260-273
• Tumin, M.M. 1985. Social Stratification: The Forms and Functions
of Inequality, New Delhi, Prentice Hall of India.
Unit VII
• Hurton, PB and CL Hunt. 1984. Sociology. Sixth Edition Me. Graw Hill
International.
• Moore, WE. Social Change. India, Eastern Economic Edition, Prentice
Hall of India
Unit VIII
• Abraham, F and JH Morgan. Sociological Thought, Macmillan India, pp.
21-23,34-45,153-155,183-188
• Bohannan, P and M Glazer. 1988: High Points in Anthropology, New
York, Alfred A. Knopf, pp. 61-77
• Jha, Makhan. An Introduction to Anthropological Thought, pp. 27-33,
89-98
Unit IX
• Baker, T.L. 1994: Doing Social Research. (An International edition),
McGraw Hill, Inc.: New York
• Kerlinger, Fred. N. 1978: Foundations of Behavioural Research,
Surjeet Publication : New Delhi.
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Sample Questions
Subject: Sociology
Grade XI
Time 3hrs Full Mark 80
Pass Mark 28
Attempt any two questions from group 'A' and any eight questions from Group 'B'
Group A 2X12 = 24
1. Define Sociology and discuss its nature and scope.
2. Describe family as a social institution and explain its types.
3. Discuss the functions of culture as explained by B. K. Malinwoski.
Group B 8x7 = 56
4. Discuss the relationships of anthropology with history.
5. What is society? Point out its characteristics.
6. Differentiate between class and caste.
7. What is a social organization? Mention its types.
8. How do you recognize Max Weber as a sociologist?
9. Explain briefly the gender based social stratification.
10. Discuss the role of communication and media in social and cultural change.
11. How does modernization help in the process of social and cultural change?
12. Describe the types of kinship.
13. Write short notes on any two of the following:
a. Acculturation
b. Adaptation
c. Socialization
7
SOCIOLOGY
Grade XII
PAPER II. INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY IN NEPAL
Full Marks: 100
Teaching Hours: 150
1. Introduction
This course is a continuation of grade XI sociology and aims at enabling
students understand Nepali Society and Culture.
2. Objectives
The general objective of the course is to help students familiarize with the
development of the disciplines of sociology and anthropology and Nepali culture and
society. The specific objectives are:
• to describe the historical development of the disciplines of sociology and
anthropology in Nepal,
• to explain the characteristic of Nepali society and culture;
• to explain the issues on caste, class and gender in Nepal and
• to familiarize with the major religions, major festivals and selected ethnic
groups of Nepal.
3. End objectives
At the end of the course the students will be able to follow the history of sociology
and anthropology of Nepal and understand social structure, selected social
institutions, familiarize with Nepali festivals and describe some selected caste/ethnic
groups.
4. Course Contents
Unit I Development of Sociology and Anthropology in Nepal (15 periods)
• History of sociology and anthropology in Nepal (Researches, Teaching and
Institutional Development)
• Scope and importance of Sociology and Anthropology in Nepal
8
Unit II People and Economy of Nepal (35 periods)
A. People
• Population size and distribution (Age, sex, caste/ethnicity, language, religion,
ecological region)
• Fertility, mortality and migration of the inhabitants of mountain, hill and Terai,
• Pluralism and diversity : (cultural, demographic, caste/ethnic and class, economic
and political)
B. Economy
• Existing subsistence, commercial and industrial economic systems in Nepal
C. National Integration
• Historical process of nationhood and cultural integration (language, rituals and
customs), normative integration and social integration
Unit III Social Stratification in Nepal (15 Periods)
• Caste/ethnicity based social stratification
• Gender based social stratification
• Economy based social stratification
Unit IV Social and Cultural Change in Nepal (15 Periods)
• Gradual and planned social and cultural change in Nepal
• Processes of modernization, urbanization, Sanskritization and Hinduization in
Nepal
• Factors of social and cultural change in Nepal
• Role of communication and media in social and cultural change in Nepal
• Resistance to social and cultural change
Unit V Major Religions and Festivals in Nepal and Their Sociological and
Anthropological Implications (40 Periods)
Religions
• Introduction to and origin of religion
• Hinduism: Key features, sects: Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism
• Buddhism: Key features, sects: Vajrayan, Mahayan and Hinayan
Islam: Key features, sects: Siya and Sunni
• Christianity: Key features, sects: Catholics and Protestants
• Kirat: Key features
Festivals
• Dashain, Tihar, Holi, Chhath, Lhosar, Id, Christmas
9
Unit VI Brief Ethnographies of the Peoples of Nepal (30 Periods)
Ethnography of the Brahman/Chhetri, Chepang, Dhimal, Gurung, Limbu, Magar,
Newar, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang, Thakali and Tharu.
(Focus will be given in the origin, population size and distribution, main features of their
social and cultural life, their language, adaptive strategies, overall economy, their role in
nation building, relationship with other caste/ethnic groups and recent changes occurred in
their everyday life)
Students are required to prepare a paper on any issues related to Nepali Society and Culture
in consultation with the teacher and must make presentations at the end of the academic
year. This paper may either be based on literature review or field research. The length of the
paper should be within a range of 7-10 pages (A4 size paper with double space and font
size 12)
Guideline for Teachers
• This course should help the students better familiarize with Nepali culture and
society.
• While teaching this course attention should be given to make it as participatory
as possible. Students might be from various backgrounds in terms of socio-
economic status, caste/ethnicity composition, and sex and value orientations.
This itself is an immense treasure and their life experience could form the
teaching material. Experience sharing would provide good exposure to all
students and this would lead to smooth teaching and learning.
• Attempt should be made to get input from the students. If the students were from
different places (districts/regions), affiliated to different caste/ethnic group &
religions, this would provide variability and hence would make the class lively.
• While teaching Unit VI, students should be involved in paper writing. Each
student either in a group of 3-5 or individually should be assigned to a
fieldwork/literature review and they should be motivated to prepare reports. This
assignment should also be graded and should carry 20 points. Once graded, this
unit should no more become candidate for final examination.
10
Evaluation Scheme
Long Questions 3 (any two) 12X2 = 24 marks
Short Questions 7 (any five) 7X8 = 56 marks
Internal Assessment/Field 20 marks
Work Full marks 100 marks
Unitwise Allocation of Marks
Unit Marks allocated
Unit I 10
Unit II 23
Unit III 10
Unit IV 10
UnitV 27
Unit VI ***
*** From this unit (Unit VI), theoretical question should not be asked in the final examination.
References
Unit I
• Bista, Dor Bahadur. 1987: Nepal School of Sociology/Anthropology. In
Occasional Papers in Sociology and Anthropology Vol.1, Kirtipur: Central
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, pp. 6-10
• Gurung, Om. 1990: Sociology and Anthropology: An Emerging Field of
Study in Nepal. In: Occasional Papers in Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 2,
Kirtipur: Central Department of Sociology and Anthropology, pp. 4-11
Unit II
• Bhattachan, KB and KN Pyakuryal. 1996:The Issues of National Integration in
Nepal: An Ethnoregional Approach.. In: Occasional Papers in Sociology and
Anthropology Vol. 5, Kirtipur: Central Department of Sociology and
Anthropology, pp. 17-38
• CBS 2001. Census Report, Kathmandu, Central Bureau of Statistics.
• Gurung, GM and B Bhandari. 1993: National Integration in Nepal. In:
Occasional Papers in Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 3, Kirtipur: Central
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, pp. 69-94
11
• Gurung, Harka. 2001. Social Demographic Analysis.
• Haralambos, M. and RN Heald 1980. Sociology: Themes and Perspectives,
Oxford Press: New Delhi, pp. 114-120
• Kievelitz, Uwe. 1996: Ethnicity and Nationalism in the Nepali Context: A
Perspective from Europe. In: Occasional Papers in Sociology and
Anthropology Vol. 5, Kirtipur: Central Department of Sociology and
Anthropology, pp. 1-13
Unit III
• Bhattachan, KB and KN Pyakuryal. 1996:The Issues of National Integration in
Nepal: An Ethnoregional Approach.. In: Occasional Papers in Sociology and
Anthropology Vol. 5, Kirtipur: Central Department of Sociology and
Anthropology, pp. 17-38
• Kievelitz, Uwe. 1996: Ethnicity and Nationalism in the Nepali Context: A
Perspective from Europe. In: Occasional Papers in Sociology and
Anthropology Vol. 5, Kirtipur: Central Department of Sociology and
Anthropology.
• Luintel, Samira 2001. The Social world of Nepalese Women, Occasional
Papers in Sociology/Anthropology, Vol 7, 2001
• Pyakuryal Kailash N. 2001: Weberian Model of Social tratification A
Viewpoint- Occasional Papers in Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 7,
Kirtipur: Central Department of Sociology and Anthropology
• Regmi, Rishikeshabraj 1999: Dimensions of Nepali Culture and Society,
SAAN Research Institute, Kathmandu, pp. 98-108, 142-155
• Seddon, David (Ed.) 1979. Peasants and Workers in Nepal: Vikash
Publishing
House New Delhi
• Seddon, David, P Blaikie and J Cameron. 1980 Nepal in
Crisis: Oxford
University press India
• Sharma, Prayag Raj. 2004: The State and Society of Nepal:
Historical
foundations and contemporary trends. Patan Dhoka :Himal Prakashan,
pp. 127- 185,203-247
Unit IV
• Adhikari, Shyam P.(Latest edition) Rural Development, Kathmandu, Sajha
Prakashan
• CN Shankar Rao, 1999: Sociology S.Chand and company New Delhi
• Sharma, Prayag Raj. 2004: The State and Society of Nepal:
Historical
foundations and contemporary trends. Patan Dhoka : Himal
Prakashan
• Srinivas, MN1972:. Social Change in Modern India. Orient Longman India
UnitV
• Anderson, MN. 1977. The Festivals of Nepal, New Delhi, Rupa and Co. India
• Bottomore T.B. 1985. Sociology : A Guide to problems and
literature, Blakie and sons, publisher Bombey.
• Deep, Dhruba K. Festivals of Nepal. Kathmandu, Ratna Pustak Bhandar
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• Mair Lucy (1985): An Introduction to Social Authropology Oxford
University press, New Delhi.
• Regmi Rishi Keshav Raj. 2003: The Essentials of Sociology, Buddha
Academic
Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd.: Kathmandu, pp. 428-430
• Regmi, Rishikeshabraj 1999: Dimensions of Nepali Culture and
Society,
SAAN Research Institute, Kathmandu, pp. 116-141, 430-439
Unit VI
• Bista,Dor Bahadur. 1973: Sabai Jat Ko Phulbari (in Nepali,):
Lalitpur, Sajha Prakashan, pp. 5-122
• Bista, Dor Bahadur. 1972: People of Nepal. Ratna Pustak Bhandar,
Bhotahity Kaqthmandu.
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