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Abstract: The VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing-intelligent) system, DIS (Direct Ignition System) and ETCS-i (Electronic. Throttle Control System ... P2402, and P2422 in its memory. ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE. 00REG27Y ...
EG-2 ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE
The 1NZ-FE engine is a in-line, 4-cylinder, 1.5 liter, 16-valve DOHC engine.
The VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing-intelligent) system, DIS (Direct Ignition System) and ETCS-i (Electronic
Throttle Control System-intelligent) are used on this engine in order to realize high performance, quietness,
fuel economy and clean emission.
ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE EG-3
" Engine Specifications A
No. of Cyls. & Arrangement 4-Cylinder, In-line
Valve Mechanism 16-Valve DOHC, Chain Drive (with VVT-i)
Combustion Chamber Pentroof Type
Fuel System SFI
Ignition System DIS
Displacement cm3 (cu. in.) 1497 (91.3)
Bore x Stroke mm (in.) 75.0 x 84.7 (2.95 x 3.33)
Compression Ratio 10.5 : 1
Max. Output*1 (SAE-NET) 79 kW @ 6000 rpm (106 HP @ 6000 rpm)
Max. Torque*1 (SAE-NET) 139 N.m @ 4200 rpm (103 ft lbf @ 4200 rpm)
Open -7 _ - 33_ BTDC
Valve Close 52_ - 12_ ABDC
Timingg Open 42_ BBDC
Close 2_ ATDC
Firing Order 1-3-4-2
Research Octane Number 90 or higher
Octane Rating 87 or higher
Oil Grade ILSAC
Tailpipe Emission Regulation TIRE2, ULEV-II
Evaporative Emission Regulation ORVR
Engine Service Mass 2
Mass* M/T 83.2 (183.4)
(Reference) A/T 77.8 (171.5)
*1: Maximum output and torque rating is determined by revised SAE J1349 standard.
*2: Weight shows the figure with the oil fully filled.
" Valve Timing A
: IN Opening Angle
: EX Opening Angle
VVT-i Operation Angle TDC
VVT-i Operation Angle 12_
EG-4 ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE
JFEATURES OF 1NZ-FE ENGINE
The 1NZ-FE engine has been able to achieve the following performance through the adoption of the items
(1) High performance and fuel economy
(2) Low noise and vibration
(3) Lightweight and compact design
(4) Good serviceability
(5) Clean emission
Section Item (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
A cylinder block made of aluminum is used. f
An offset crankshaft is used. f f f
The taper squish shape is used for the combustion
Valve A timing chain and chain tensioner are used. f f f
Mechanism The VVT-i system is used. f f
Intake manifold made of plastic is used. f
The linkless-type throttle body is used. f f
Intake and A stainless steel exhaust manifold is used. f
Exhaust System Two TWCs (Three Way Catalytic Converter) are used. f
A rearward exhaust layout is used to realize the early
activation of the catalyst.
12-hole type injector is used. f f
The fuel returnless system is used. f f f
Quick connectors are used to connect the fuel hose with
the fuel pipes.
The long-reach type spark plugs are used. f
Ignition System The DIS (Direct Ignition system) makes ignition timing
f f f
The ETCS-i (Electronic Throttle Control
System-intelligent) is used.
The non-contact sensor is used in the throttle position
Engine Control sensor and accelerator pedal position sensor.
y The cranking hold function is used. f
Evaporative emission control system is used. f
The use of an air fuel ratio sensor allows for precise
ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE EG-5
1. Cylinder Head
D The injectors are installed in the cylinder head to reduce the distance from injector to intake valve, thus
it prevents the fuel from adhering to the intake port walls, and reduce exhaust emissions.
D The routing of the water jacket in the cylinder head is optimized to achieve high cooling performance.
D Through the use of the taper squish combustion chamber, the engine’s knocking resistance and fuel
efficiency have been improved.
Taper Squish 247EG03
2. Cylinder Block
D Lightweight aluminum alloy is used for the cylinder block.
D Through the use of the offset crankshaft, the bore center is shifted 12 mm (0.472 in.) towards the intake,
in relation to the crankshaft center. Thus, the side force to cylinder wall is reduced when the maximum
pressure is applied, which contributes to fuel economy.
Crankshaft Center Offset Crankshaft Center Crankshaft
EG-6 ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE
D The liners are the spiny-type, which have been manufactured so that their casting exterior forms a large
irregular surface in order to enhance the adhesion between the liners and the aluminum cylinder block.
The enhanced adhesion helps improve heat dissipation, resulting in a lower overall temperature and heat
deformation of the cylinder bores.
Irregularly shaped outer
casting surface of liner Cylinder Block
A - A Cross Section
D The piston is made of aluminum alloy
D The piston head portion is used a taper squish shape to accomplish fuel combustion efficiency.
D Semi floating type piston pins are used.
D By increasing the machining precision of the cylinder bore diameter, only one size of piston is available.
Taper Squish Shape
ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE EG-7
4. Connecting Rod
D The connecting rods and caps are made of high
strength steel for weight reduction.
D Nutless-type plastic region tightening bolts are
used for a light design.
Plastic Region Tightening Bolts
D The diameter and width of the pins and journals have been reduced, and the pins for the No.1 and No.4
cylinders have been made highly rigid to realize a lightweight and low-friction performance.
D The crankshaft has 5 journals and 4 balance weights.
D A crankshaft position sensor rotor is pressed into the crankshaft to realize an integrated configuration.
Crankshaft Position No.5 Journal
No.1 Journal No.4 Journal
No.2 Journal No.3 Journal
EG-8 ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE
D The shimless type valve lifter is used to increase the amount of the valve lift.
D The intake and exhaust camshafts are driven by a timing chain.
D The VVT-i system is used to realize fuel economy, engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions. For
details of VVT-i control, see page EG-41.
Timing Chain Exhaust Camshaft
Camshaft Valve Lifter
The adjustment of the valve clearance is accomplished by selecting and replacing the appropriate
valve lifters. Adjusting valve lifters are available in 35 increments of 0.020 mm (0.0008 in.), from
5.060 mm (0.1992 in.), to 5.740 mm (0.2260 in.).
For details, refer to 2006 Yaris Repair Manual (Pub. No. RM00R0U).
ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE EG-9
D Oil passages are provided in the intake camshaft in order to supply engine oil to the VVT-i system.
D A VVT-i controller is provided on the front of the intake camshaft to vary the timing of the intake valves.
D A Timing rotor is provided behind the intake camshaft to trigger the camshaft position sensor.
VVT-i Controller Intake Camshaft
Oil Passage (Advance)
Oil Passage (Retard)
3. Timing Chain and Chain Tensioner
D A roller type timing chain with an 8.0 mm (0.315 in.) pitch is used to make the engine compact and reduce
D The timing chain is lubricated by an oil jet.
D The chain tensioner uses a spring and oil pressure to maintain proper chain tensioner at all times. The chain
tensioner suppresses noise generated by the timing chain.
D A ratchet type non-return mechanism is used in the chain tensioner.
" Chain Tensioner A
Check Ball Oil Jet
EG-10 ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE
4. Timing Chain Cover
D A single-piece, aluminum diecast timing chain cover that entirely seals the front portion of the cylinder
block and cylinder head is used.
D A service hole for the chain tensioner is provided in the timing chain cover to improve serviceability.
Service Hole for
Front View Back View
ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE EG-11
D The lubrication circuit is fully pressurized and oil passes through an oil filter.
D A trochoid gear type oil pump, which is driven directly by the crankshaft, is provided in the front of the
D The oil filter is installed diagonally downward from the side of the cylinder block to realize excellent
D The intake camshaft is provided with a VVT-i controller, and cylinder head is provided with a camshaft
timing oil control valve. This system is operated by the engine oil.
Oil Control Valve
" Oil Capacity A Liter (US qts, Imp qts)
Chain Dry 4.1 (4.3, 3.6)
Tensioner with Oil Filter 3.7 (3.9, 3.3)
Oil Filter without Oil Filter 3.4 (3.6, 3.0)
Oil Pump Oil Strainer
" Oil Circuit A
Main Oil Hole
Crankshaft Oil Jet
Journal Camshaft Timing
Oil Filter Oil Control Valve
Valve Rod Chain Intake Exhaust
Tensioner Camshaft Camshaft
Oil Pump Journal Journal
Timing Chain Camshaft Timing
Oil Strainer Oil Control Valve
EG-12 ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE
D The cooling system is a pressurized, forced-circulation type.
D A thermostat with a bypass valve is located on the water inlet housing to maintain suitable temperature
distribution in the cooling system.
D An aluminum radiator core is used for weight reduction.
D The flow of the engine coolant makes a U-turn in the cylinder block to ensure a smooth flow of the engine
D A single cooling fan provides both the cooling and air conditioner performance.
D The TOYOTA genuine Super Long Life Coolant (SLLC) is used.
From Heater Core
Water Pump To Radiator
To Heater Core
To Throttle Body
" System Diagram A
Bypass Heater Core
Passage Cylinder Head
ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE EG-13
" Engine Coolant Specifications A
TOYOTA genuine Super Long Life
Coolant (SLLC) or similar high quality
ethylene glycol based non-silicate,
non-amine, non-nitrite and non-borate
Type coolant with long-life hybrid organic acid
technology (coolant with long-life hybrid
organic acid technology is a combination
Engine of low phosphates and organic acids.) Do
Coolant not use plain water alone.
Capacity M/T 4.8 (5.1, 4.2)
Liters (US qts, Imp. qts) A/T 4.7 (5.0, 4.1)
First Time 100,000 miles (160,000 km)
Subsequent Every 50,000 miles (80,000 km)
Thermostat Opening Temperature _C (_F) 80 - 84 (176 - 183)
D SLLC is pre-mixed (the U.S.A. models: 50 % coolant and 50 % deionized water, the Canada. models:
55 % coolant and 45 % deionized water). Therefore, no dilution is needed when SLLC in the vehicle is
added or replaced.
D If LLC is mixed with SLLC, the interval for LLC (ever 40,000 km/24,000 miles or 24 months) should
EG-14 ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE
JINTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEM
D A plastic intake manifold is used for weight reduction.
D The linkless-type throttle body is used to realize excellent throttle control.
D ETCS-i (Electronic Throttle Control System-intelligent) provides excellent throttle control. For details,
see page EG-36.
D The exhaust pipe uses a ball joint in order to achieve a simple construction and reliability.
ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE EG-15
2. Air Cleaner
D A nonwoven, full-fabric type air cleaner element is used.
D A charcoal filter, which adsorbs the HC that accumulates in the intake system when the engine is stopped,
is used in the air cleaner cap in order to reduce evaporative emissions.
Air Cleaner Cap
Air Cleaner Element
The charcoal filter, which is maintenance-free, cannot be removed from the air cleaner cap.
3. Throttle Body
D The linkless-type throttle body is used and it realizes excellent throttle control.
D A DC motor with excellent response and minimal power consumption is used for the throttle control motor.
The ECM performs the duty ratio control of the direction and the amperage of the current that flows to
the throttle control motor in order to regulate the opening angle of the throttle valve.
Throttle Position Sensor
Reduction Gears 00REG04Y
EG-16 ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE
4. Intake Manifold
D The intake manifold has been made of plastic to
reduce the weight and the amount of heat
transferred from the cylinder head. As a result,
it has become possible to reduce the intake Mesh Type Gasket
temperature and improve the intake volumetric
D A mesh type gasket is used in order to reduce
the intake noise.
5. Exhaust Pipe and Muffler
A ball joint is used to joint the exhaust manifold to the exhaust front pipe, and the exhaust front pipe to the
exhaust tail pipe. As a result, a simple construction and improved reliability have been realized.
ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE EG-17
D The fuel returnless system is used to reduce evaporative emissions.
D A fuel tank made of multi-layer plastic is used.
D A fuel cut control is used to stop the fuel pump when the SRS airbag is deployed in a front or side collision.
For details, see page EG-45.
D A quick connector is used to connect the fuel pipe with the fuel hose to realize excellent serviceability.
D A compact 12-hole type injector is used to ensure the atomization of fuel.
D The ORVR (On-Board Refueling Vapor Recovery) system is used. For details, see page EG-46.
D Fuel filter
D Pressure Regulator Canister
D Fuel Sender Gauge
D Fuel Cutoff Valve
View from Bottom
EG-18 ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE
2. Fuel Returnless System
This system is used to reduce the evaporative emission. As shown below, integrating the fuel filter, pressure
regulator, fuel sender gauge, and fuel cutoff valve with module fuel pump assembly enables to discontinue
the return of fuel from the engine area and prevent temperature rise inside the fuel tank.
Damper Delivery Pipe
Fuel Cutoff Valve Fuel Tank
Fuel Filter Fuel Pump
3. Fuel Tank
Low permeability has been realized through the use of the multi-layered plastic fuel tank. This fuel tank
consists of six layers using four types of materials.
HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)
Fuel Tank Outside
EVOH (Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer)
Fuel Tank Inside Adhesive
HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)
ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE EG-19
D A DIS (Direct Ignition System) is used. The DIS in this engine is an independent ignition system, which
has one ignition coil for each cylinder. The DIS ensures the ignition timing accuracy, reduces high-voltage
loss, and realizes the overall reliability of the ignition system by eliminating the distributor.
D The spark plug caps, which connect to the spark plugs, are integrated with the ignition coils. Also, the
igniters are enclosed to simplify the system.
D Long-reach type iridium-tipped spark plugs are used.
Sensor IGT1 No.1
Camshaft IGT2 No.2
Sensor IGT4 No.4
" Ignition Coil with Igniter A
EG-20 ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE
2. Spark Plug
D Long-reach type iridium-tipped spark plugs are used.
D Long-reach type of spark plugs allows the area of the cylinder head to receive the spark plugs to be made
thick. Thus, the water jacket can be extended near the combustion chamber, which contributes to cooling
D Iridium-tipped spark plugs are used to realize a 100,000 km (62,500 mile) maintenance-free operation.
By making the center electrode of iridium, the same ignition performance as the platinum-tipped type
spark plug and excellent of durability have been realized.
Long-Reach Type Conventional Type
" Specification A
Plug Gap mm (in.) 1.1 (0.043)
ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE EG-21
D A compact and lightweight segment conductor type generator that generates high amperage output in a
highly efficient manner is used as standard equipment.
D This generator has a joined segment conductor system, in which multiple segment conductors are welded
together to form the stator. Compared to the conventional wiring system, the electrical resistance is
reduced due to the shape of the segment conductors, and their arrangement helps to make the generator
Stator Segment Stator Stator Stator Conductor Wire
Conductor Conductor Wire
Joined B - B Cross
A - A Cross
A B Wiring System
Segment Conductor Conventional Type Generator
Stator of Segment Conductor
" Specifications A
Rated Voltage 12 V
Rated Output 80 A
Initial Output Starting Speed 1,250 rpm Max.
EG-22 ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE
" Wiring Diagram A
ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE EG-23
D A P (conventional planetary reduction) type starter is used in the models for U.S.A.
D A PS (planetary reduction-segment conductor motor) type starter is used in the models for Canada and
cold areas of the U.S.A.
" Specification A
Cold Areas of U.S.A.
Starter Type P Type PS Type
Rating Output 0.8 kW 1.6 kW
Rating Voltage 12 V z
Length*1 mm (in.) 154 (6.1) 133 (5.2)
Weight g (lb) 2800 (6.2) z
Rotation Direction*2 Clockwise z
*1: Length from the mounted area to the rear end of the starter
*2: Viewed from Pinion Side
EG-24 ENGINE - 1NZ-FE ENGINE
2. PS (Planetary reduction-Segment conductor motor) Type Starter
D Instead of constructing the armature coil with P type of round-shaped conductor wires, the PS type starter
uses square conductors. With this type of construction, the same conditions that are realized by winding
numerous round-shaped conductor wires can be achieved without increasing the mass. As a result, the
output torque has been increased, and the armature coil has been made compact.
D Because the surface of the square-shaped conductors that are used in the armature coil functions as a
commutator, the overall length of the PS type starter has been shortened.
Armature Square-Shaped Round-Shaped
Brush A - A Cross Section B - B Cross Section
Armature A (PS Type) (P Type)
D Instead of the field coils used in the P type starter, the P
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