• Unit 10: Surveying in Construction and Civil Engineering


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    • Abstract: The aim of this unit is to enable learners to develop skills in linear and levelling surveys, measuring angles ... Land surveying is concerned with the measurement of existing features of the natural and built environment ...

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Unit 10: Surveying in Construction
and Civil Engineering
Unit code: J/600/0224
QCF Level 3: BTEC Nationals
Credit value: 10
Guided learning hours: 60
Aim and purpose
The aim of this unit is to enable learners to develop skills in linear and levelling surveys, measuring angles
and setting out of small buildings.
Unit introduction
Land surveying is concerned with the measurement of existing features of the natural and built environment
and the presentation of data in a format suitable for architects and engineers to use in the design of construction
projects. It plays an important role in the early stages of the design process, and has clear links with the setting
out process.
Setting out is the process by which information is taken from construction design drawings to enable pegs,
profiles or other marks to be set out to control construction work, and ensure that each element of the work
is constructed in the correct position and to the correct level. In some senses setting out is the opposite of
surveying, but the instruments and basic principles of measurement and accuracy are the same and people
will often work in both disciplines.
This unit is practical, and learners will spend a significant amount of time carrying out fieldwork and producing
drawings. There are also opportunities to use electronic instruments and CAD. Learners will need a reasonable
standard of arithmetic and trigonometry in order to complete this unit successfully.
Learners will become familiar with basic surveying techniques, be able to carry out simple surveying tasks
and present the data, and understand the roles of surveying and setting out in the construction process.
Learning outcomes
On completion of this unit a learner should:
1 Be able to perform linear surveys to produce drawings
2 Be able to perform levelling surveys to produce drawings
3 Be able to measure angles and produce results from calculations
4 Be able to perform the setting out of small buildings.
Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Construction and the Built Environment
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Unit content
1 Be able to perform linear surveys to produce drawings
Terminology: framework; whole to part; well conditioned; taping; horizontal and slope distances; chainage;
running measurements; perpendicular offsets; tie lines; check lines
Equipment: tapes; bands; rules; handheld lasers; ancillary equipment
Calculations: basic arithmetical operations
Drawings: internal or external survey plotted to scale
2 Be able to perform levelling surveys to produce drawings
Terminology: back sight; intermediate sight; fore sight; reduced level; datum; Ordnance Survey Bench
Mark; Temporary Bench Mark; height of collimation; rise and fall; fly levelling
Equipment: automatic levels; tilting levels; water levels; rotating lasers; barcode instruments
Calculations: basic arithmetical operations, simple trigonometry
Drawings: spot heights on plans; sections
3 Be able to measure angles and produce results from calculations
Terminology: whole circle bearings; azimuth; horizontal angle; zenith angle; angles of inclination
Equipment: optical square; theodolites
Calculations: addition and subtraction of angles; sine, cosine, tangent; Pythagoras; sine rule; cosine rule
4 Be able to perform the setting out of small buildings
Terminology: plan measurement; check measurement; baseline; profile
Equipment: theodolites; site square; tapes; ancillary equipment
Techniques: set out pegs and profiles to control construction of a small house; constraints on positioning;
application of arithmetic and simple trigonometry
Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Construction and the Built Environment
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Assessment and grading criteria
In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate
that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The criteria for a pass grade describe the level
of achievement required to pass this unit.
Assessment and grading criteria
To achieve a pass grade the To achieve a merit grade the To achieve a distinction grade
evidence must show that the evidence must show that, in the evidence must show that,
learner is able to: addition to the pass criteria, in addition to the pass and
the learner is able to: merit criteria, the learner is
able to:
P1 identify linear surveying
terminology
P2 carry out linear surveys, using
appropriate equipment, to
produce accurate drawings
[IE1, IE2, IE4, CT1, CT5,
TW1, TW3, TW4, RL6,
SM2, SM3]
P3 identify levelling surveying M1 carry out levelling calculations D1 analyse the methods used
terminology using both height of collimation for levelling surveys in terms
IE1, IE2, IE4, CT1, CT5, and rise and fall methods of accuracy
TW1, TW3, TW4, SM3]
P4 carry out levelling surveys,
using appropriate equipment,
to produce accurate drawings
[IE1, IE2, IE4, IE6, CT1,
CT5, TW1, TW3, TW4,
SM2, SM3]
P5 identify angular terminology M2 use angular measurements D2 analyse the methods
and trigonometry to calculate used to take angular
P6 carry out angular heights and distances measurements in terms
measurements, using of trigonometric accuracy
appropriate equipment,
and calculations
[IE1, IE2, IE4, IE6, CT1,
CT5, TW1, TW3, TW4,
SM2, SM3]
Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Construction and the Built Environment
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Assessment and grading criteria
To achieve a pass grade the To achieve a merit grade the To achieve a distinction grade
evidence must show that the evidence must show that, in the evidence must show that,
learner is able to: addition to the pass criteria, in addition to the pass and
the learner is able to: merit criteria, the learner is
able to:
P7 identify setting M3 set out and check profiles for D3 explain the constraints on the
out terminology a small building. positioning of profiles.
P8 set out and check corner
pegs for a small building using
appropriate equipment and
techniques.
[IE1, IE2, IE4, CT1, CT5,
TW1, TW3, TW4, SM3]
PLTS: This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal,
learning and thinking skills which are embedded in the assessment of this unit. By achieving the criteria,
learners will have demonstrated effective application of the referenced elements of the skills.
Key IE – independent enquirers RL – reflective learners SM – self-managers
CT – creative thinkers TW – team workers EP – effective participators
Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Construction and the Built Environment
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Essential guidance for tutors
Delivery
Tutors delivering this unit have opportunities to use a wide range of techniques. Lectures and supervised
practical work will predominate, but the use of personal and/or industrial experience should also be considered.
Delivery should stimulate, motivate, educate and enthuse learners. Visiting expert speakers could add to the
relevance of the subject but, as mentioned above, this is essentially a practical unit and learners will learn
more quickly by doing, rather than by listening.
The four learning outcomes are not linked to each other but there is a natural progression through simple
linear surveys, levelling (showing the third dimension), angular measurements and setting out which requires
the application of all three of the previous skills.
The unit is practical and provides opportunities for learners to carry out realistic surveying tasks and produce
high quality results. The actual form of the tasks will depend on the specialisms of the group and the space
and facilities available to the centre.
This unit is likely to be delivered early in the programme, particularly if learners are progressing on to more
advanced surveying units.
Group activities are permissible, but tutors will need to ensure that individual learners have equal experiential
and assessment opportunities.
Health, safety and welfare issues are paramount and should be reinforced through close
supervision of all workshops and activity areas, and risk assessments must be undertaken
before practical activities are taken. Centres are advised to read the Delivery approach
section in the specification, and Annexe H: Provision and Use of Work Equipment
Regulations 1998 (PUWER).
Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Construction and the Built Environment
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Outline learning plan
The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the
programme of suggested assignments.
The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit.
Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment
Introduction to unit
Formal lecture on linear surveying terminology, equipment and instruments, drawings, recording measurements
in standard form
Demonstrations of linear surveying
Visits to sites
Assignment 1: Linear Survey
Formal lecture on levelling surveying terminology, equipment and instruments, drawings, recording
measurements in standard form
Demonstrations of levelling surveying
Visits to sites
Assignment 2: Levelling Survey
Formal lecture on measuring angles terminology, equipment and instruments, drawings, recording angles in
standard form
Demonstrations of measuring angles
Visits to sites
Assignment 3: Measuring Angles
Formal lecture on setting out terminology, equipment and instruments, drawings, recording information in
standard form
Demonstrations of setting out
Visits to sites
Assignment 4: Setting Out
Review of unit and assignment feedback
Assessment
Evidence for this unit may be gathered from a variety of sources, including reports and practical assignments.
There are many suitable forms of assessment that could be used and tutors are encouraged to consider
and adopt these where appropriate. Some example assessment approaches are suggested below. However,
these are not intended to be prescriptive or restrictive, and are provided as an illustration of the alternative
forms of assessment evidence that would be acceptable.
Some criteria can be assessed directly by the tutor during practical activities. If this approach is used, suitable
evidence would be observation records or witness statements. Guidance on their use is provided on the
Edexcel website.
The structure of the unit suggests that the grading criteria could be addressed fully by using four assignments.
The first of these would cover P1 and P2, the second would cover P3, P4, M1 and D1, the third would
cover P5, P6, M2 and D2 and the fourth P7, P8, M3 and D3.
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To achieve a pass grade learners must meet the eight pass criteria listed in the grading grid.
For P1 and P2, learners must identify linear surveying terminology and carry out linear surveys using appropriate
equipment to produce accurate drawings. They must participate in this fieldwork, probably as part of a team,
and produce a drawing to a reasonable standard of neatness and accuracy. This drawing should be produced
using manual rather than computer-aided design (CAD) techniques in order to demonstrate the achievable
accuracies and to avoid the problems of dealing with inaccurate survey measurements in CAD.
For P3 and P4, learners should identify levelling surveying terminology and carry out levelling surveys using
appropriate equipment to produce accurate drawings. They must carry out sufficient practical levelling to
become reasonably proficient, then carry out a realistic task and produce a section drawing to a reasonable
standard of neatness and accuracy. It is acceptable for this drawing to be produced manually or by CAD.
For P5 and P6, learners must identify angular terminology and carry out angular measurements using appropriate
equipment and calculations. They must be able to set up and use a theodolite to carry out a practical task
requiring measurement of angles and calculations involving degrees, minutes and seconds.
For P7 and P8, learners must identify setting out terminology and set out and check corner pegs for a small
building using appropriate equipment and techniques. They must participate in fieldwork to set out the corners
of a small building and demonstrate their understanding either through questioning by the tutor or by
production of a brief report.
To achieve a merit grade learners must meet all of the pass grade criteria and the three merit grade criteria.
For M1, learners must carry out levelling calculations using both height of collimation and rise and fall methods.
They must demonstrate proficiency in both methods of levelling calculation and know the standard checks
for each method.
For M2, learners must be able to use angular measurements and trigonometry to calculate heights and distances.
They must use these principles to calculate inaccessible measurements both in horizontal and vertical planes.
For M3, learners must set out and check profiles for a small building. They must carry this out through fieldwork
and demonstrate their understanding either through questioning by the tutor or by production of a brief report.
To achieve a distinction grade learners must meet all of the pass and merit grade criteria and the three distinction
grade criteria.
For D1, learners must analyse the methods used for levelling surveys in terms of accuracy. They must write
a brief report showing an understanding of the methods used. They should recognise common errors and
the relationship between the scale of the plan and measurement accuracy, and the availability and suitability
of different equipment for performing levelling surveys.
For D2, learners must analyse the methods used in angular measurements in terms of trigonometric accuracy.
They must understand the principles of good intersection of lines of sight and the effect of increasing distance
on angular error.
For D3, learners must explain the constraints on the positioning of profiles. They must demonstrate
understanding of the factors to be taken into account when positioning profiles on a working site.
Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Construction and the Built Environment
– Issue 1 – January 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2009
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Programme of suggested assignments
The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the pass, merit and distinction
criteria in the grading grid. This is for guidance and it is recommended that centres either write their own
assignments or adapt any Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.
Criteria covered Assignment title Scenario Assessment method
P1, P2 Linear Survey As a trainee surveyor, you Complete set of data,
have been asked to complete calculations and drawings.
a linear survey on a new build
construction site.
P3, P4, M1, D1 Levelling Survey As a trainee surveyor, you Complete set of data,
have been asked to complete a calculations and drawings.
levelling survey on a new build
construction site.
P5, P6, M2, D2 Measuring Angles As a trainee surveyor, you have Complete set of data,
been asked to measure angles calculations and drawings.
on a new build construction site.
P7, P8, M3, D3 Setting Out As a trainee surveyor, you have Building set out accurately with
been asked to set out a building all dimensions correct and
on a new build construction site. all angles right angles. Tutor
questions can be used to cover
basic knowledge.
Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC
qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications
This unit forms part of the BTEC Construction and the Built Environment sector suite. This unit has particular
links with the following unit titles in the Construction and the Built Environment suite:
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Setting Out Processes in Construction
and Civil Engineering
Surveying Technology in Construction
and Civil Engineering
Topographic Surveying in Construction
and Civil Engineering
For those learners not taking surveying any further this unit provides a sound understanding of the basic
surveying and measurement techniques applicable to many areas of construction. It provides a basis for the
more advanced units in surveying including Unit 12: Setting Out Processes in Construction and Civil Engineering,
Unit 27: Surveying Technology in Construction and Civil Engineering and Unit 28: Topographic Surveying in
Construction and Civil Engineering. It also provides a basis for progression on to study at Higher National
and degree level in construction and civil engineering.
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This unit links to the Edexcel Level 3 NVQ in Technical Design (Construction Environment), the Edexcel
Level 3 NVQ in Construction, Plant and Equipment Supervision and the Edexcel Level 4 NVQ in Construction,
Plant and Equipment Management.
The unit also links to the following Level 3 NOS:
● Construction Contracting Operations
● Spatial Data Management
● Transportation.
Essential resources
As a minimum, the instruments required include tape measures, automatic optical levels and digital
theodolites, but learners should be made aware of the other instruments mentioned in the unit content
and, wherever possible, should have the opportunity to use them. Suitable ancillary equipment such as
staffs, tripods and ranging poles will also be required. There should be sufficient instruments available so that
during fieldwork teams will be small. Centres will require access to areas of land with a range of topographic
and built features where surveying practical work can be carried out safely. Health, safety and welfare issues
must be considered at all times and risk assessments undertaken where necessary.
Employer engagement and vocational contexts
Support to enable centres to initiate and establish links to industry, and to networks arranging visits to industry
and from property practitioners is given below:
● Learning and Skills Network – www.vocationallearning.org.uk
● National Education and Business Partnership Network – www.nebpn.org
● The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors – www.rics.org
● Work Experience/Workplace learning frameworks – Centre for Education and Industry (CEI University
of Warwick) – www.warwick.ac.uk/wie/cei/
Indicative reading for learners
Textbooks
Tutors and learners should be aware that many standard surveying textbooks are at too high level or too
theoretical for this unit.
Topliss S, Hurst M and Skarratt G – BTEC Level 3 National Construction and the Built Environment Student Book
(Pearson, 2009) ISBN 9781846906565
Topliss S, Hurst M and Skarratt G – BTEC Level 3 National Construction and the Built Environment Teaching
Resource Pack (Pearson, 2009) ISBN 9781846906558
Bannister A, Raymond S and Baker R – Surveying, 7th Edition (Prentice Hall, 1998) ISBN 0582302498
Irvine W and Maclennan F – Surveying for Construction, 5th Edition (McGraw-Hill, 2005) ISBN 0077111141
Muskett J – Site Surveying, 2nd Edition (Blackwell, 1995) ISBN 0632038489
Journals
Civil Engineering Surveyor – Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors
Geomatics World – PV Publications
New Civil Engineer – Emap
RICS Business – RICS
RICS Construction Journal – RICS
RICS Land Journal – RICS
Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Construction and the Built Environment
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Websites
www.bconstructive.co.uk Your future in Constuction
www.ciob.org.uk Chartered Institute of Building
www.cskills.org Construction Skills
www.cstt.org.uk Chartered Surveyors Training Trust
www.ice.org.uk Institute of Civil Engineers
www.ices.org.uk Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors
www.rics.org The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors
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Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)
The following table identifies the PLTS opportunities that have been included within the assessment criteria
of this unit:
Skill When learners are …
Independent enquirers identifying questions to answer and problems to resolve, planning and carrying
out research, appreciating the consequences of decisions, analysing and evaluating
information and judging its relevance and value, as they:
● select equipment
● carry out surveys and setting out exercises
● perform calculations and check those calculations
● produce drawings
Creative thinkers generating ideas and exploring possibilities, asking questions to extend their thinking,
trying out alternatives or new solutions and following ideas through, as they:
● select equipment
● carry out surveys and setting out exercises
● perform calculations and check those calculations
● produce drawings
Reflective learners communicating their learning in relevant ways for different audiences, as they:
● produce drawings
● decide which checks to make
Team workers collaborating with others to work towards common goals, adapting their behaviour
to suit different roles and situations including leadership roles, taking responsibility
and showing confidence in themselves and their contribution, as they:
● work with others to carry out surveys and setting out exercises
Self-managers working towards goals, showing initiative, commitment and perseverance,
organising time and resources and prioritising actions, as they:
● carry out surveys and setting out exercises
● perform calculations and check those calculations
● produce drawings.
Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Construction and the Built Environment
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Functional Skills – Level 2
Skill When learners are …
ICT – Use ICT systems
Select, interact with and use ICT systems independently using CAD systems to produce drawings
for a complex task to meet a variety of needs
Use ICT to effectively plan work and evaluate the
effectiveness of the ICT system they have used
Manage information storage to enable efficient retrieval
Follow and understand the need for safety and security
practices
Troubleshoot
ICT – Find and select information
Select and use a variety of sources of information using CAD systems to produce drawings
independently for a complex task
Access, search for, select and use ICT-based
information and evaluate its fitness for purpose
ICT – Develop, present and communicate
information
Enter, develop and format information independently producing reports and presentations for other learners,
to suit its meaning and purpose including: tutors and assessment purposes
● text and tables
● images
● numbers
● records
Bring together information to suit content and purpose
Present information in ways that are fit for purpose
and audience
ICT – Develop, present and communicate
information
Evaluate the selection and use of ICT tools and facilities
used to present information
Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange
information safely, responsibly and effectively including
storage of messages and contact lists
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Skill When learners are …
Mathematics
Understand routine and non-routine problems in a wide
range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations
Identify the situation or problem and the mathematical performing arithmetic and trigonometric calculations
methods needed to tackle it to analyse surveying data in preparation for the
production of drawings
Select and apply a range of skills to find solutions performing arithmetic and trigonometric calculations
to analyse surveying data in preparation for the
production of drawings
Use appropriate checking procedures and evaluate performing arithmetic and trigonometric calculations
their effectiveness at each stage to analyse surveying data in preparation for the
production of drawings
Interpret and communicate solutions to practical
problems in familiar and unfamiliar routine contexts
and situations
Draw conclusions and provide mathematical justifications
English
Speaking and listening – make a range of contributions
to discussions and make effective presentations in a
wide range of contexts
Reading – compare, select, read and understand texts
and use them to gather information, ideas, arguments
and opinions
Writing – write documents, including extended
writing pieces, communicating information, ideas and
opinions, effectively and persuasively
Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Construction and the Built Environment
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