• Joint Publication 3-0


  •   
  • FileName: jp3_0.pdf [read-online]
    • Abstract: Joint Publication 3-0Joint Operations11 August 2011 This revised edition of Joint Publication 3-0, Joint Operations, reflects the currentguidance for conducting joint activities across the range of military operations and is the

Download the ebook

Joint Publication 3-0
Joint Operations
11 August 2011
This revised edition of Joint Publication 3-0, Joint Operations, reflects the current
guidance for conducting joint activities across the range of military operations and is the
basis for U.S. participation in multinational operations where the United States has not
ratified specific doctrine or procedures. This keystone publication forms the core of joint
warfighting doctrine and establishes the framework for our forces’ ability to fight as a
joint team.
Often called the “linchpin” of the joint doctrine publication hierarchy, the
overarching constructs and principles contained in this publication provide a common
perspective from which to plan and execute joint operations independently or in
cooperation with our multinational partners, other U.S. Government departments and
agencies, and intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations.
As our Nation continues into the 21st century, the guidance in this publication will
enable current and future leaders of the Armed Forces of the United States to design,
plan, organize, train for, and execute worldwide missions as our forces transform to meet
emerging challenges. To succeed, we need adaptive and thinking professionals who
understand the capabilities their Service brings to joint operations; how to integrate those
capabilities with those of the other Services and interorganizational partners to optimize
the strength of unified action; and how to organize, employ, and sustain joint forces to
provide national leaders with multiple options for addressing various security threats.
Above all, we need professionals imbued with a sense of commitment and honor who
will act decisively in the absence of specific guidance.
I challenge all commanders to ensure the widest distribution of this keystone joint
publication and actively promote the use of all joint publications at every opportunity. I
further challenge you to study and understand the guidance contained in this publication
and teach these principles to your subordinates. Only then will we be able to fully exploit
the remarkable military potential inherent in our joint teams.
M. G. MULLEN
Admiral, U.S. Navy
PREFACE
1. Scope
This publication is the keystone document of the joint operations series. It provides the
doctrinal foundation and fundamental principles that guide the Armed Forces of the United
States in joint operations across the range of military operations.
2. Purpose
This publication has been prepared under the direction of the Chairman of the Joint
Chiefs of Staff. It sets forth joint doctrine to govern the activities and performance of the
Armed Forces of the United States in joint operations, and it provides considerations for
military interaction with governmental and nongovernmental agencies, multinational forces,
and other interorganizational partners. It provides military guidance for the exercise of
authority by combatant commanders and other joint force commanders (JFCs), and
prescribes joint doctrine for operations and training. It provides military guidance for use by
the Armed Forces in preparing and executing their plans and orders. It is not the intent of
this publication to restrict the authority of the JFC from organizing the force and executing
the mission in a manner the JFC deems most appropriate to ensure unity of effort in the
accomplishment of objectives.
3. Application
a. Joint doctrine established in this publication applies to the joint staff, commanders of
combatant commands, subunified commands, joint task forces, subordinate components of
these commands, and the Services.
b. The guidance in this publication is authoritative; as such, this doctrine will be
followed except when, in the judgment of the commander, exceptional circumstances dictate
otherwise. If conflicts arise between the contents of this publication and the contents of
Service publications, this publication will take precedence unless the Chairman of the Joint
Chiefs of Staff, normally in coordination with the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff,
has provided more current and specific guidance. Commanders of forces operating as part of
a multinational (alliance or coalition) military command should follow multinational doctrine
and procedures ratified by the United States. For doctrine and procedures not ratified by the
US, commanders should evaluate and follow the multinational command’s doctrine and
procedures, where applicable and consistent with US law, regulations, and doctrine.
i
Preface
Intentionally Blank
ii JP 3-0
SUMMARY OF CHANGES
REVISION OF JOINT PUBLICATION 3-0, DATED 17 SEPTEMBER 2006
(INCORPORATING CHANGE 2 DATED 22 MARCH 2010)
 Incorporates a discussion of the art of joint command, including new ideas on
command-centric leadership and operational design.
 Incorporates a new section on creating shared understanding, which
emphasizes the interaction of information management and knowledge
sharing to create an organizational environment of learning that facilitates
joint operations.
 Consolidates information related to organizing for joint operations in a single
Chapter IV.
 Consolidates Chapters V, VI, and VII in a single Chapter V.
 Reduces redundancies and improves continuity between Joint Publication
(JP) 3-0 and JP 1, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States.
 Reduces redundancies and improves continuity between JP 3-0 and JP 5-0,
Joint Operation Planning.
iii
Summary of Changes
Intentionally Blank
iv JP 3-0
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................................... ix
CHAPTER I
FUNDAMENTALS OF JOINT OPERATIONS
• Introduction................................................................................................................ I-1
• Strategic Environment and National Security Challenges......................................... I-2
• Instruments of National Power and the Range of Military Operations ..................... I-4
• Strategic Guidance ..................................................................................................... I-5
• Unified Action ........................................................................................................... I-8
• Levels of War .......................................................................................................... I-12
• Types of Military Operations................................................................................... I-14
CHAPTER II
THE ART OF JOINT COMMAND
• Introduction...............................................................................................................II-1
• Commander-Centric Leadership ...............................................................................II-1
• Operational Art .........................................................................................................II-3
• Operational Design ...................................................................................................II-4
• Joint Operation Planning ..........................................................................................II-5
• Assessment ...............................................................................................................II-9
CHAPTER III
JOINT FUNCTIONS
• Introduction............................................................................................................. III-1
• Command and Control ............................................................................................ III-2
• Intelligence ........................................................................................................... III-20
• Fires ...................................................................................................................... III-22
• Movement and Maneuver ..................................................................................... III-27
• Protection .............................................................................................................. III-29
• Sustainment........................................................................................................... III-35
CHAPTER IV
ORGANIZING FOR JOINT OPERATIONS
• Introduction............................................................................................................. IV-1
• Understanding the Operational Environment ......................................................... IV-1
• Organizing the Joint Force...................................................................................... IV-6
• Organizing the Joint Force Headquarters ............................................................. IV-10
• Organizing Operational Areas .............................................................................. IV-11
v
Table of Contents
CHAPTER V
JOINT OPERATIONS ACROSS THE RANGE OF MILITARY OPERATIONS
 Introduction.............................................................................................................. V-1
Section A. Types of Military Operations ....................................................................... V-3
 Military Operations and Related Missions, Tasks, and Actions .............................. V-3
Section B. A Phasing Construct ..................................................................................... V-5
 Phasing a Joint Operation ........................................................................................ V-5
Section C. Military Engagement, Security Cooperation, and Deterrence ..................... V-9
 Military Engagement, Security Cooperation, and Deterrence ................................. V-9
 Typical Operations................................................................................................. V-11
 Other Considerations ............................................................................................. V-18
Section D. Crisis Response and Limited Contingency Operations.............................. V-19
 Crisis Response and Limited Contingency Operations ......................................... V-19
 Typical Operations................................................................................................. V-20
 Other Considerations ............................................................................................. V-29
Section E. Major Operations and Campaigns ............................................................... V-31
 Major Operations and Campaigns ......................................................................... V-31
 The Balance of Offense, Defense, and Stability Operations ................................. V-35
 Considerations for Shaping.................................................................................... V-37
 Considerations for Deterrence ............................................................................... V-39
 Considerations for Seizing the Initiative ............................................................... V-43
 Considerations for Dominance .............................................................................. V-50
 Considerations for Stabilization ............................................................................ V-59
 Considerations for Enabling Civil Authority ......................................................... V-63
APPENDIX
A Principles of Joint Operations ................................................................... A-1
B References ..................................................................................................B-1
C Administrative Instructions ........................................................................C-1
GLOSSARY
Part I Abbreviations and Acronyms .................................................................. GL-1
Part II Terms and Definitions ............................................................................. GL-5
FIGURE
I-1 Principles of Joint Operations ..................................................................... I-2
I-2 Common Operating Precepts ...................................................................... I-3
I-3 Range of Military Operations ...................................................................... I-5
I-4 Unified Action ............................................................................................. I-9
I-5 Relationship Between Strategy and Operational Art ................................ I-13
I-6 Examples of Military Operations .............................................................. I-15
II-1 Elements of Operational Design ................................................................II-5
vi JP 3-0
Table of Contents
II-2 Joint Operation Planning Process ...............................................................II-7
III-1 Command Relationships Synopsis ........................................................... III-3
III-2 Creating Shared Understanding ............................................................. III-12
III-3 Risk Management Process ..................................................................... III-16
IV-1 Visualizing the Operational Environment ................................................ IV-3
IV-2 The Interconnected Operational Environment ......................................... IV-5
IV-3 Notional Joint Force Headquarters and
Cross-Functional Staff Organization ...................................................... IV-10
IV-4 Operational Areas within a Theater ....................................................... IV-12
IV-5 Contiguous and Noncontiguous Operational Areas ............................... IV-14
V-1 Range of Military Operations .................................................................... V-1
V-2 Examples of Military Operations .............................................................. V-4
V-3 Notional Operation Plan Phases versus Level of Military Effort.............. V-6
V-4 Notional Balance of Offensive, Defensive, and Stability Operations ..... V-36
V-5 Combinations of Areas of Operations and
Linear/Nonlinear Operations ................................................................... V-53
vii
Table of Contents
Intentionally Blank
viii JP 3-0
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
COMMANDER’S OVERVIEW
 Presents the Fundamentals of Joint Operations as an Instrument of National
Power and as Part of Unified Action
 Discusses the Art of Command as It Pertains to Authority, Commander-
Centric Leadership, Operational Art of Design, Operational Design, Joint
Operations Planning Process
 Explains Joint Functions of Command and Control, Intelligence, Fires,
Movement and Maneuver, Protection, and Sustainment
 Describes Organizing for Joint Operations, Including Organizing the Joint
Force Headquarters
 Discusses Joint Operations Across the Range of Military Operations
Fundamentals of Joint Operations
Joint operations is a general term Joint Publication (JP) 3-0 is the keystone document
that describes military actions in the joint operations series, and is a companion to
conducted by joint forces or by joint doctrine’s capstone JP 1, Doctrine for the
Service forces employed under Armed Forces of the United States. It provides
command relationships. guidance to joint force commanders (JFCs) and their
subordinates for planning, preparing, executing, and
assessing joint military operations. Although
individual Services may accomplish tasks and
missions in support of Department of Defense (DOD)
objectives, the primary way DOD employs two or
more Services (from two Military Departments) in a
single operation, particularly in combat, is through
joint operations.
Strategic Environment and The strategic environment is characterized by
National Security Challenges uncertainty, complexity, and rapid change, which
requires persistent engagement. This environment is
fluid, with continually changing alliances,
partnerships, and new national and transnational
threats constantly appearing and disappearing. In
addition to traditional conflicts, to include emerging
peer competitors, significant challenges continue to
include irregular warfare (IW), catastrophic terrorism
employing weapons of mass destruction (WMD), and
ix
Executive Summary
threats to disrupt the Nation’s ability to project power
and maintain its qualitative edge.
The strategic environment presents five broad
national security challenges likely to require the
employment of joint forces in the future.
 A secure US homeland is the Nation’s first
priority.
 Deterring our adversaries is a US goal.
 Defending national interests requires not only
being able to prevail in conflict, but also taking
preventive measures to deter potential adversaries
who could threaten the vital interests of the
United States or its partners.
 Establishing, maintaining, and enhancing security
cooperation among our alliances and partners is
important to strengthen the global security
framework of the United States and its partners.
 As it has in the past, the United States will
continue to respond to a variety of civil crises by
acting to relieve human suffering and restoring
civil functioning, most often in support of civil
authorities.
Instruments of National Power Our national leaders can use the military instrument
and the Range of Military of national power in a wide variety of activities,
Operations tasks, missions, and operations that vary in purpose,
scale, risk, and combat intensity. Operations are
grouped in three areas that compose the range of
military operation.
Military Engagement, Security Cooperation, and
Deterrence. These are ongoing routine activities that
establish, shape, maintain, and refine relations with
other nations and domestic civil authorities (e.g.,
state governors or local law enforcement).
Crisis Response and Limited Contingency
Operations. These can be small-scale, limited-
duration operations, such as strikes, raids, and peace
enforcement, which might include combat depending
on the circumstances.
x JP 3-0
Executive Summary
Major Operations and Campaigns. These are
extended-duration, large-scale operations that usually
involve combat.
Strategic Guidance National strategic direction provides strategic
context for the employment of the instruments of
A combatant commander is the national power and defines the strategic purpose that
vital link between those who guides employment of the military instrument of
determine national security policy national power as part of a global strategy. Based on
and strategy and the military guidance from the President and Secretary of
forces or subordinate joint force Defense, geographic and functional combatant
commanders (JFCs) who conduct commanders (CCDRs) develop strategies that
military operations. translate national and multinational strategic
direction into strategic concepts or courses of action
to meet joint operation planning requirements.
Unified Action Whereas the term joint operations focuses on the
integrated actions of the Armed Forces of the United
States in a unified effort, the term unified action has a
Unified action is a comprehensive broader connotation. JFCs are challenged to achieve
approach that synchronizes, and maintain operational coherence given the
coordinates, and when requirement to operate in conjunction with
appropriate, integrates military interorganizational partners. CCDRs play a pivotal
operations with the activities of role in unifying joint force actions, since all of the
other governmental and elements and actions that comprise unified action
nongovernmental organizations to normally are present at the CCDR’s level. However,
achieve unity of effort. subordinate JFCs also integrate and synchronize their
operations directly with the operations of other
military forces and the activities of nonmilitary
organizations in the operational area to promote
unified action.
Levels of War Three levels of war—strategic, operational, and
tactical—model the relationship between national
objectives and tactical actions.
Strategic Level. In the context of military
operations, strategy develops an idea or set of ideas
for employing the instruments of national power in a
synchronized and integrated fashion to achieve
theater, national, and/or multinational objectives.
There are no finite limits or
boundaries between these levels, Operational Level. The operational level links the
but they help commanders tactical employment of forces to national and military
visualize a logical arrangement of strategic objectives.
operations, allocate resources, and
xi
Executive Summary
assign tasks to the appropriate Tactical Level. Tactics is the employment and
command. ordered arrangement of forces in relation to each
other. Joint doctrine focuses this term on planning
and executing battles, engagements, and activities at
the tactical level to achieve military objectives
assigned to tactical units or task forces.
Types of Military Operations The United States employs its military capabilities in
support of its national security goals in a variety of
Each military operation may military operations. Operations such as
occur simultaneously with or counterinsurgency (COIN) and counterterrorism are
independently of other operations, primarily related to IW. Large-scale combat
or multiple operations may operations associated with traditional warfare
overlap. typically characterize major operations and
campaigns, although the extended nature of some IW
will require operations phased over time as a
campaign.
The Art of Joint Command
Command is the authority that a While command authority stems from appropriate
commander in the armed forces orders and other directives, the art of command
lawfully exercises over resides in the commander’s ability to use
subordinates by virtue of rank or situational leadership to maximize operational
assignment. performance. The combination of courage, ethical
leadership, judgment, intuition, situational awareness,
and the ability to consider contrary views gained over
time through training, education, and experience
helps commanders make difficult decisions in
complex situations.
Commander-Centric Leadership Historical analysis shows that commander-centric
organizations out-perform staff-centric, process-
oriented organizations. A commander’s perspective
of the challenge at hand is broader and more
comprehensive than the staff’s due to interaction with
civilian leaders; senior, peer, subordinate, and
supporting commanders; and interorganizational
partners. Clear commander’s guidance and intent,
enriched by the commander’s experience and
intuition, are common to high-performing units.
Operational Art Operational art is the use of creative thinking by
commanders and staffs to design strategies,
Operational art applies to all campaigns, and major operations and organize
aspects of joint operations and and employ military forces. Operational art
xii JP 3-0
Executive Summary
integrates ends, ways, and means, requires a broad vision, the ability to anticipate, and
while accounting for risk, across the skill to plan, prepare, execute, and assess. It
the levels of war. helps commanders and their staffs order their
thoughts and understand the conditions for victory
before seeking battle. Operational art encompasses
operational design—the conception and
construction of the intellectual framework that
underpins joint operation plans and their
subsequent execution.
Operational Design Operational design extends operational art’s vision
with a creative process that helps commanders and
planners answer the ends–ways–means–risk
Operational design supports questions. The commander is the central figure in
operational art with a general operational design. The elements of operational
methodology using elements of design are individual tools that help the JFC and staff
operational design for visualize and describe the broad operational
understanding the situation and approach. Operational art, operational design, and
the problem. joint operation planning process blend in
complementary fashion as part of the overall process
that produces the eventual plan or order that drives
the joint operation.
Joint Operation Planning Joint operation planning consists of planning
activities associated with joint military operations by
Joint operation planning process CCDRs and their subordinate JFCs in response to
underpins planning at all levels contingencies and crises. It transforms national
and for missions across the range strategic objectives into activities by development of
of military operations. operational products, which include planning for the
mobilization, deployment, employment, sustainment,
redeployment, and demobilization of joint forces.
Regardless of the commander’s level of
involvement, certain key planning elements
require the commander’s participation and
decisions. These include the operational approach,
mission statement, commander’s planning guidance,
commander’s intent, commander’s critical
information requirements, and concept of operations
(CONOPS).
Assessment Assessment is a process that evaluates changes in
the environment and measures progress of the
Continuous assessment helps the joint force toward mission accomplishment.
JFC and joint force component Assessment begins during mission analysis when the
commanders determine if the joint commander and staff consider what to measure and
force is “doing the right things” how to measure it to determine progress toward
xiii
Executive Summary
(measures of effectiveness) to accomplishing tasks, creating conditions, or
achieve its objectives, not just achieving objectives. During execution, the
“doing things right” (measures of commander’s staff identifies those key assessment
performance). indicators that suggest progress or setbacks in
accomplishing tasks, creating effects, and achieving
objectives. Assessment actions and measures help
commanders adjust operations and resources as
required, determine when to execute branches and
sequels, and make other critical decisions to ensure
current and future operations remain aligned with the
mission and military end state.
Joint Functions
Joint functions are related Functions that are common to joint operations at all
capabilities and activities grouped levels of war fall into six basic groups—command
together to help JFCs integrate, and control (C2), intelligence, fires, movement
synchronize, and direct joint and maneuver, protection, and sustainment. The
operations. joint functions reinforce and complement one
another, and integration across the functions is
essential to mission accomplishment.
Command and Control C2 encompasses the exercise of authority and
direction by a commander over assigned and attached
forces to accomplish the mission. The JFC provides
operational vision, guidance, and direction to the
joint force.
Intelligence The intelligence function supports this understanding
by providing integrated, evaluated, analyzed, and
interpreted information concerning foreign nations,
hostile or potentially hostile forces or elements, or
areas of actual or potential operations. Intelligence
tells JFCs what the enemy is doing, is capable of
doing, and may do in the future.
Fires To employ fires is to use available weapons and
other systems to create a specific lethal or nonlethal
effect on a target. Joint fires are those delivered
during the employment of forces from two or more
components in coordinated action to produce desired
results in support of a common objective. Fires
typically produce destructive effects, but various
nonlethal ways and means (such as electronic attack)
can be employed with little or no associated physical
destruction.
xiv JP 3-0
Executive Summary
Movement and Maneuver This function encompasses the disposition of joint
forces to conduct operations by securing positional
advantages before or during combat operations and
by exploiting tactical success to achieve operational
and strategic objectives. This function includes
moving or deploying forces into an operational area
and maneuvering them to operational depths for
offensive and defensive purposes. It also includes
assuring the mobility of friendly forces.
Protection The protection function focuses on preserving the
joint force’s fighting potential in four primary ways.
One way uses active defensive measures that protect
the joint force, its information, its bases, necessary
infrastructure, and lines of communications from an
enemy attack. Another way uses passive defensive
measures that make friendly forces, systems, and
facilities difficult to locate, strike, and destroy.
Equally important is the application of technology
and procedures to reduce the risk of fratricide.
Finally, emergency management and response reduce
the loss of personnel and capabilities due to
accidents, health threats, and natural disasters.
Sustainment Sustainment is the provision of logistics and
personnel services necessary to maintain and prolong
operations through mission accomplishment and
redeployment of the force. Sustainment provides the
JFC with the means to enable freedom of action and
endurance and the ability to extend operational reach.
Effective sustainment determines the depth to which
the joint force can conduct decisive operations,
allowing the JFC to seize, retain, and exploit the
initiative.
Organizing for Joint Operations
Organizing for joint operations Organizing for joint operations involves many
considerations. Most can be associated in three
primary groups related to organizing the joint force,
organizing the joint force headquarters (HQ), and
organizing operational areas to help control
operations.
Understanding the Operational The JFC’s operational environment is the composite
Environment of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that
xv
Executiv


Use: 0.0345