• Control Measures for Ergonomic Risk Factors at Computer Workstations


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  • FileName: Ergonomics Program.pdf [read-online]
    • Abstract: 10. Use tools that fit both right and left hand employees -- alternate right and left hands, if possible. Source: Adapted from "Elements of Ergonomics Programs", National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), U.S. Department ... Alternate hands or use mouse with the non-dominant hand. ...

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Ergonomics Program
County of Sacramento
County of Sacramento
Ergonomics Program
Prepared by: This Ergonomics Program has been prepared by the Human
Resources Agency, Risk Management Division for the County of
Sacramento by:
______________________________ ______________________
Aadne Benestad, Manager Date
Risk Management Office
Approved by: This Ergonomics Program has been approved for the County of
Sacramento by:
______________________________ ______________________
Robert A. Ryan, Jr. Date
Acting County Executive
______________________________ ______________________
Mike DeBord, Administrator Date
Human Resources Agency
Table of Contents
Page
1. Scope..................................................................................... 1
2. Purpose................................................................................... 1
3. Introduction.............................................................................. 1
4. Objectives................................................................................ 2
5. Work-Related Ergonomic Risk Factors.............................................. 2
6. Ergonomic Worksite Evaluations..................................................... 4
7. Control of Work-Related Ergonomic Risk Factors................................. 5
8. Training................................................................................... 7
9. Recordkeeping........................................................................... 8
10. Responsibilities.......................................................................... 9
11. Program Enforcement................................................................... 10
Appendix....................................................................................... 11
1. Ergonomic Design Principles
General Workstation Design Principles...................................... 12
Ergonomic Design Principles for Repetitive Hand and Wrist Tasks..... 13
Hand Tool Use and Selection Principles..................................... 14
Ergonomic Design Principles for Lifting and Lowering Tasks............ 15
Ergonomic Design Principles for Pushing and Pulling Tasks............. 16
Ergonomic Design Principles for Carrying Tasks........................... 17
Ergonomic Design Principles for Vibration Exposures.................... 18
2. Ergonomics Guidelines for Computer Workstations....................... 19
Examples of Exercises and Stretches......................................... 21
Control Measures for Ergonomic Risk Factors at Computer Workstations. 23
3. Workstation Evaluation Checklists
Ergonomic VDT (Computer) Workstation Evaluation..................... 28
Ergonomic Job Task Evaluation.............................................. 30
4. Occupational Safety & Health Regulations
Title 8, California Code of Regulations, 3203 Injury & Illness
Prevention Program............................................................ 34
Title 8, California Code of Regulations, Article106 Ergonomics,
5110 Repetitive Motion Injuries............................................. 36
County of Sacramento
Ergonomics Program
1. SCOPE
This program has been established to provide guidelines and control measures
designed to prevent or reduce employee exposure to work-related musculoskeletal
disorders caused or aggravated by occupational exposure to ergonomic risk factors.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are more commonly referred to as cumulative
trauma disorders (CTDs), repetitive motion injuries (RMIs), or repetitive stress
injuries (RSIs). This program has been prepared by the County Safety Office and sets
forth ergonomic program requirements for all County departments. It provides
guidance to County departments in the identification, prevention and control of
ergonomic risk factors, and further outlines program responsibilities, training and
recordkeeping requirements. All County departments are required to address
ergonomic issues in a proactive manner with an emphasis on preventing injuries to
employees. Individual departments may, as necessary, adopt additional or more
stringent requirements.
2. PURPOSE
Title 8, California Code of Regulations (CCR), Section 3203 requires employers to
prepare written programs relative to the prevention of occupational injury and illness
exposure. This program serves as an integral part of the County's overall injury and
illness prevention program and its on-going efforts to provide and maintain a safe and
healthful work environment for all employees.
Additionally, 8CCR, Article 106 Ergonomics, Section 5110 Repetitive Motion
Injuries (RMIs) requires employers subject to Section 5110 to establish and
implement a program designed to minimize RMIs. The minimum required elements
of Section 5110 have been included in this program and are often exceeded in support
of more proactive ergonomic strategies for the prevention and control of work-related
musculoskeletal disorders. By adopting a proactive approach to ergonomics,
ergonomic risk factors can be identified and addressed before injuries occur.
3. INTRODUCTION
3.1 Ergonomics is the science of designing and adjusting the work environment to
fit employees to the job tasks, tools and equipment that are within the
employee's physical capabilities and limitations. In a more practical sense, it
is the science of human comfort.
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Ergonomics Program 1 January 1999
People vary in size, shape, and physical capabilities/limitations. When the
physical capabilities of a person are exceeded by the physical demands of a job
task or the work environment, an injury to the musculoskeletal system may
result. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a group of disorders of the
muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage or spinal discs which are
the result of a gradual or chronic development from exposures to work-related
ergonomic risk factors. Examples of such disorders include carpal tunnel
syndrome, tendinitis, overuse syndrome, muscle strain and low back pain.
4. OBJECTIVES
4.1 The goal of this program is to prevent the occurrence of work-related
musculoskeletal disorders by using sound ergonomic principles to control or
eliminate employee exposure to the workplace risk factors that can cause or
aggravate them. The use of sound ergonomic principles in the workplace can
result in increased productivity, higher employee morale and job satisfaction
from greater physical comfort, decreased exposure to injuries and lower
absenteeism rates and workers' compensation costs.
4.2 The development and implementation of this program will require that:
a. worksite evaluations of jobs and work activities be conducted to identify
potential work-related ergonomic risk factors that have caused, or may
cause or contribute to, the development of work-related musculoskeletal
disorders.
b. training be provided to affected employees and supervisors on the
recognition, prevention and control of work-related ergonomic risk factors,
as well as certain non-work activities and medical conditions that are
known to cause and/or aggravate work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
c. effective control measures be identified, evaluated and implemented, where
necessary, to prevent or reduce employee exposures to work-related
musculoskeletal disorders.
d. ergonomic improvement recommendations be prioritized in line with other
cost reduction, productivity and quality efforts.
e. ergonomic design principles be used, whenever possible, in the design,
modification or purchase of tools, equipment, machines or workstations
(refer to the Appendix for NIOSH recommended ergonomic design
principles).
f. ergonomic risk hazards and the effectiveness of control measures be
evaluated on an on-going basis.
5. WORK-RELATED ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS
5.1 Work-related ergonomic risk factors are the physical stressors and workplace
conditions that may pose a risk of injury to the musculoskeletal system of an
employee. Because these factors occur during work performance or during the
interaction of an employee with the work environment, they are referred to as
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Ergonomics Program 2 January 1999
"work-related ergonomic risk factors." The following are recognized as
important risk factors, especially when performed frequently and/or in
combination with each other:
a. Repetitive Motions
Performing the same constant actions can result in fatigue and strain of
muscles and tendons, especially when performed frequently over a
prolonged period of time. Overused, tired muscles and tendons cannot
recover from the effects of repeated actions if sufficient recovery time is
not allotted between exertions. The effects of performing repetitive actions
are increased when combined with awkward postures and forceful
exertions.
Examples:
intensive data entry requiring rapid, repeated keying actions
manual material handling activities
b. Awkward Posture/Position
Working in stressful or non-neutral body postures can fatigue or strain
affected parts of the body due to the amount of force or stress generated or
even tolerated.
Examples:
working with bent or flexed wrists
performing tasks with outstretched arms
prolonged holding of a single posture or position
lifting, lowering, or handling objects when the back is bent or twisted or
when sudden, jerky movements are made during the process
frequent or prolonged extended reaches for materials, especially above
the shoulder
frequent stooping or squatting
c. Forceful Exertions (including lifting, pushing, and pulling)
Placing excessive loads on the muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints
increases body demands (e.g., greater muscle exertion, physiological
changes) necessary to sustain an increased effort.
Examples:
using small or narrow tool handles that lessen grip capacity
using the index finger and thumb in a pinch grip to forcefully grip an
object
twisting, bending or stooping at the waist to lift and lower loads
lifting, loading or lowering objects that do not have adequate hand holds
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Ergonomics Program 3 January 1999
d. Contact Stresses
Placing the forearms, wrists or fingers in repeated or continued contact with
hard or sharp objects/surfaces or with unpadded, narrow tool handles which
can interfere with proper nerve function and blood flow.
Examples:
pressing forearms or wrists against sharp/hard desk edges when typing
or writing
using tools that press into the base of the palm
using the palm of the hand as a hammer
e. Vibration
Localized vibration exposure is produced by contact between the hands and
a vibrating object such as a power tool. Whole-body vibration exposure
occurs while standing or seated in vibrating environments or objects, such
as trucks, heavy machinery, or while using heavy equipment such as
jackhammers.
5.2 Methods for identifying job tasks or work activities where work-related
ergonomic risk factors may be present include, but are not limited, to:
a. A review of first aid reports, accident reports, OSHA 200 Logs or workers'
compensation claims involving ergonomic-related injuries/illnesses.
b. Employee reports of signs and/or symptoms which may be related to the
development of a work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
c. Safety suggestion or hazard observation reports by employees regarding
ergonomic challenges with any jobs, processes or work activities.
6. ERGONOMIC WORKSITE EVALUATIONS
6.1 Linking musculoskeletal disorders to identifiable work-related ergonomic risk
factors is an important step in establishing work relatedness and defining the
basis for control measures. Most ergonomic risk factors can be easily identified
and corrected with low cost and easy-to-implement solutions. Ergonomic risk
factors that involve a higher degree of risk or more costly control measures
may require a more extensive analysis and implementation plan.
6.2 Whenever possible, several employees should be observed who perform the
same or similar jobs or work activities to determine if employees of different
body sizes use different postures or practices to accomplish the same task(s).
Videotaping may also be helpful in some situations. Sample ergonomic
evaluation checklists have been prepared that can be used to evaluate jobs,
processes or work activities and are located in the Appendix of this program.
The sample checklists contain the minimum evaluation requirements and can
be customized for use with different job tasks or types of work so that problems
and/or concerns may be identified.
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Ergonomics Program 4 January 1999
6.3 The purpose of conducting an ergonomic worksite evaluation is to:
a. identify ergonomic risk factors of jobs, processes or work activities that
have, or may cause or contribute, to the development of work-related
musculoskeletal disorders.
b. determine any feasible engineering and/or administrative control measures
to prevent or reduce employee exposure to work-related ergonomic risk
factors.
c. identify appropriate types of personal protective equipment where effective
engineering or administrative controls are not feasible (i.e., devices worn
on or attached to the body such as knee pads or anti-vibration gloves).
6.4 Ergonomic evaluations should be conducted:
a. when an employee reports a symptom which may be related to the
development of a work-related musculoskeletal disorder.
b. for job tasks, processes or work activities where work-related ergonomic
risk factors have been identified which have or may cause or aggravate
potential work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
d. before and after implementation of new or modified job tasks, tools,
equipment or processes.
6.5 Follow-up evaluations should be conducted within 60-90 days after the initial
evaluation to ensure that recommended control measures, where necessary,
have been implemented. Follow-up evaluations are also an important tool in
evaluating the effectiveness of control measures and to ensure that new risk
factors have not been introduced. Alternative control measures should be
explored if the risk factors have not been substantially reduced or eliminated.
6.6 Ergonomic evaluations should be conducted by trained personnel such as
department safety representatives, safety committee members, or supervisors.
The County Safety Office may conduct worksite evaluations upon the request
of department safety representatives or the Workers' Compensation Office.
7. CONTROL OF WORK-RELATED ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS
7.1 Most effective ergonomic solutions are accomplished through incremental and
cumulative improvements in the workplace, especially when combined with
employee awareness training. Most of the time, inexpensive, minor changes
will produce a significant improvement in worker comfort. Changes may be as
simple as:
showing employees how to alter their work methods by working in
"neutral" body postures which result in less stress and strain on the body.
showing employees how to adjust, rearrange or reposition equipment,
materials, work flow or workstation layout to facilitate better comfort and
"neutral" body postures.
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Ergonomics Program 5 January 1999
using existing mechanical assist devices to facilitate lifts (e.g. hand carts,
dollies).
encouraging employees to take appropriate rest pauses and stretch breaks.
7.2 Additionally, a three-tier hierarchy of control measures for ergonomic risk
factors should be used whenever possible to prevent and/or control exposures
to work-related ergonomic risk factors.
a. Engineering Controls - The preferred approach to prevent and control
work-related musculoskeletal disorders by designing jobs, including the
workstation layout, selection and use of tools/equipment, and work
methods to match the capabilities of the workers.
Examples:
redesigning or rearranging the workstation layout.
providing fully adjustable equipment where necessary (e.g., chairs, work
tables).
providing ergonomic computer accessory equipment (e.g., footrests,
keyboard trays, wristrests, headsets, slantboards, task lights, copy
holders, anti-glare screens, fatigue mats).
using smaller, lighter-weight containers.
providing handles or slotted hand holes in packages.
changing tool, equipment or vehicle design.
using tilted work surfaces.
using mechanical assist devices (e.g, hand carts, dollies, lift tables,
hoists, forklifts).
b. Administrative Controls - Using management policies or work practices
to prevent or control the work schedule or manner in which work is
performed. Although engineering controls are preferred, administrative
controls can be helpful as temporary measures until engineering controls
can be implemented or when engineering controls are not feasible.
However, since administrative controls do not eliminate hazards,
management must assure that the practices and policies are followed.
Examples:
rotating workers through several jobs with different physical demands to
reduce various body stresses.
adjusting the work pace to relieve repetitive motion risks.
training employees in the recognition of potential work and non-work
related ergonomic risk factors and the work practices that can ease task
demands.
allowing more rest breaks to allow adequate rest and recovery of
overused muscles, tendons, and nerves.
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Ergonomics Program 6 January 1999
c. Personal Protective Equipment - Using equipment which provides a
barrier between the employee and a work-related ergonomic hazard where
effective engineering or administrative controls are not feasible.
Examples:
anti-vibration gloves
knee pads
Note 1: Wrist braces/splints are not considered personal protective
equipment and may only be prescribed by a licensed physician.
Note 2: Although back belts are being bought and sold under the premise
that they reduce the risk of back injuries, the National Institute
for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has not yet
supported their use due to inconclusive scientific evidence that
they actually prevent back injuries.
7.3 In order to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures, follow-up
evaluations should be conducted within 60-90 days after the initial evaluation
to ensure that control measures have been implemented. If the risk factors are
not substantially reduced or eliminated, alternative control measures should be
explored.
7.4 Employee input and acceptance of recommended control measures is critical to
the success of the intervention. Regular monitoring, positive reinforcement and
feedback are also necessary to ensure that control measures are not
circumvented for convenience, schedule, or production.
8. TRAINING
8.1 Training in basic ergonomic principles is the first and most important step
departments can take towards preventing or reducing the potential for
ergonomic-related injuries from occurring. Training is intended to enhance the
capacity of management and employees to effectively recognize both work-
related and nonwork-related ergonomic risk factors and to understand and
apply appropriate control strategies. It ensures that employees are well
informed about potential ergonomic hazards so they can actively participate in
identifying and controlling exposure to injuries, both on and off the job.
8.2 Training must be provided to all employees:
a. who report a symptom which may be related to the development of a work-
related musculoskeletal disorder.
b. whose job tasks or work activities have been identified where work-related
ergonomic risk factors have, or may cause or aggravate, the development of
work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
c. before and after implementation of new or modified job tasks, tools,
equipment or processes where work-related ergonomic risk factors may
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Ergonomics Program 7 January 1999
cause or aggravate the development of work-related musculoskeletal
disorders.
8.3 Training must also be provided to supervisors so that they may familiarize
themselves with the:
a. potential work-related ergonomic risk factors that employees under their
direct control may be exposed to.
b. signs, symptoms and types of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
c. prevention and control measures for preventing or minimizing exposures to
work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
8.4 Training for employees and supervisors shall include an explanation of:
a. the content and scope of this program.
b. work-related ergonomic risk exposures which have been associated with
the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
c. non-work related activities which have been associated with the
development of musculoskeletal disorders.
d. specific tasks or operations associated with jobs which pose ergonomic
risks.
e. signs, symptoms and types of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
f. prevention or control measures used to prevent or minimize employee
exposure to work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
g. proper use and adjustment of tools, devices and equipment to control
identified ergonomic risks.
h. procedures for early reporting of symptoms associated with work-related
musculoskeletal disorders and any perceived work-related ergonomic risks
to supervision.
6. RECORDKEEPING
9.1 As part of each department's IIPP, accurate records should be maintained of
all:
a. employee reports of symptoms of work-related musculoskeletal disorders
and any perceived work-related ergonomic risks.
b. ergonomic worksite evaluations conducted in the workplace.
c. prevention and/or control measures implemented to prevent or minimize
employee exposure to work-related ergonomic risk factors. Costs should
be included for future budgetary and planning reasons.
d. training records, including date(s), name of instructor(s), training
materials/curriculum used, and list of attendees.
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Ergonomics Program 8 January 1999
7. RESPONSIBILITIES
10.1 Management is responsible for:
a. giving ergonomic improvement recommendations, including training,
priority with other cost reduction, productivity and quality activities.
b. providing direction to department personnel to ensure that ergonomic
factors and design principles be used when designing, modifying or
purchasing tools, equipment, machines or workstations.
10.2 The County Safety Office is responsible for:
a. providing training to individuals who will be conducting ergonomic
training and worksite evaluations within their departments.
b. assisting departments in evaluating exposures to work-related
musculoskeletal disorders and conducting ergonomic worksite evaluations,
upon request.
c. making appropriate recommendations for the prevention and control of
exposures to work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
d. evaluating the effectiveness of control measures for exposures to work-
related musculoskeletal disorders and making recommendations for
continuous process improvement as technology improves.
e. updating this program, as required.
10.3 Department / Division Safety Representatives are responsible for:
a. ensuring that the requirements of this program are implemented.
b. reviewing accident reports, OSHA 200 Logs, safety suggestions, etc. to
determine if job tasks, processes or work activities in their department may
cause work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
c. conducting and/or coordinating ergonomic worksite evaluations and
training.
d. ensuring that individuals have received the appropriate training prior to
conducting ergonomic worksite evaluations and/or training.
e. ensuring that appropriate and effective control measures for exposures to
work-related musculoskeletal disorders are determined and implemented in
a timely manner.
f. ensuring that a procedure is in place for employees to report symptoms and
perceived work-related ergonomic risk factors to supervision or
management.
g. ensuring that accurate records are maintained in accordance with the
recordkeeping section of this program and providing such documentation to
the County Safety Office, Workers' Compensation Office, or representative
of Cal/OSHA, upon request.
h. monitoring the effectiveness of their department's ergonomic program on
an on-going basis.
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Ergonomics Program 9 January 1999
10.4 Supervisors are responsible for:
a. ensuring that employees are provided with and use the appropriate tools,
equipment, parts and materials required for the job.
b. ensuring that employees know and understand how to report safety
suggestions, hazard observations (including ergonomic hazards) and signs or
symptoms of injury that may be related to a work-related musculoskeletal
disorder.
c. reporting employee concerns regarding ergonomic hazards and signs or
symptoms of employee injury to safety representatives.
d. completing accident reports and workers' compensation forms for employee
injuries.
e. attending ergonomics training to familiarize themselves with the recognition
and prevention of work-related ergonomic risk factors, and the signs and
symptoms of employee exposure to work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
f. ensuring that affected employees attend ergonomics training.
g. conducting or participating in ergonomic worksite evaluations, as required.
h. assisting with the determination and/or implementation of effective control
measures for exposures to work-related musculoskeletal disorders, as
required.
10.5 Employees are responsible for:
a. using the appropriate tools, equipment, parts and materials in the manner
established by the supervisor, department safety representative, treating
physician, and/or manufacturer.
b. following established procedures to ensure that equipment is properly
maintained in good condition.
c attending ergonomics training, as required, and applying the knowledge and
skills acquired to actual job tasks, processes or work activities.
d. reporting damaged, malfunctioning tools, equipment, or materials to
supervision.
e. reporting signs and symptoms of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and
perceived work-related ergonomic hazards to supervision.
8. PROGRAM ENFORCEMENT
All employees are responsible for adhering to the requirements of this policy.
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Ergonomics Program 10 January 1999
APPENDIX
1. Ergonomic Design Principles
General Ergonomic Workstation Design Principles
Ergonomic Design Principles for Repetitive Hand and Wrist Tasks
Hand Tool Use and Selection Principles
Ergonomic Design Principles for Lifting and Lowering Tasks
Ergonomic Design Principles for Pushing and Pulling Tasks
Ergonomic Design Principles for Carrying Tasks
Design Principles for Vibration and Cold Temperature Exposures
2. Ergonomic Guidelines for Computer Workstations
Examples of Exercises and Stretches
Potential Ergonomic Solutions for Computer Users
3. Workstation Evaluation Checklists
Ergonomic VDT (Computer) Workstation Evaluation
Ergonomic Job Task Evaluation
4. Applicable Occupational Safety & Health Regulations
Title 8, California Code of Regulations, 3203 Injury and Illness Prevention
Program
Title 8, California Code of Regulations, Article 106 Ergonomics, 5110
Repetitive Motion Injuries
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Ergonomics Program 11 January 1999
General Ergonomic Workstation Design Principles
1. Make the workstation adjustable, enabling both large and small persons to fit comfortably
and reach materials easily. Adjust the height of the workstation to fit the person and the
task.
2. Locate all frequently used tools, equipment, parts and materials in front of employees and
close to the body within an easy arm=s reach to reduce twisting motions. Provide
sufficient work space for the whole body to turn.
3. Provide adjustable, properly designed chairs with the following features:
adjustable seat height.
back rest with lumbar (lower-back)support and adjustable height
padding that will not compress more than an inch under the weight of a seated
individual.
stable to floor at all times with a 5-leg base.
4. Allow employees, at their discretion, to alternate between sitting and standing. Provide
floor mats or padded surfaces for prolonged standing.
5. Avoid static loads, fixed work postures, and job requirements which require frequent or
prolonged:
leaning to the front or the side.
holding of hands or wrists in a bent or extended position.
tilting of the head forward more than 15 degrees.
support of the body=s weight with one leg.
6. Allow arm movements to pivot about the elbow rather than around the shoulder to avoid
stress to shoulders, neck and upper back.
7. Whenever possible, design or modify the primary work area so that arm movements or
extensions of more than 15 inches are minimized.
8. Provide dials and displays that are simple, logical, and easy to read, reach, and operate.
9. Eliminate or minimize the effects of undesirable environmental conditions such as
excessive noise, heat, humidity, and poor illumination.
10. Train employees on the proper methods of adjusting workstation furniture and equipment.
Source: Adapted from "Elements of Ergonomics Programs", National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH),
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Publication No. 97-117.
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Ergonomics Program 12 January 1999
Ergonomic Design Principles for
Repetitive Hand and Wrist Tasks
1. Reduce the number of repetitive motion activities (i.e., intensive and rapid data entry, collating or
sorting, hand tool usage of screwdrivers, hand saws). Where possible:
substitute full or semi-automated systems.
enlarge work content by adding more diverse activities.
use power tools instead of hand tools.
alternate or vary work tasks.
encourage frequent rest pauses to prevent fatigue and provide rest for overtired tendons and
muscles.
2. Maintain straight (neutral) hand/wrist positions:
Design jobs and select appropriate tools and equipment that eliminate or minimize bent or
flexed hands/wrists.
Avoid inward and outward rotation of the forearm to minimize elbow disorders.
Use wrist rests to encourage neutral hand/wrist positions.
3. Reduce the amount of force or pressure placed on wrists and hands:
Wherever possible, reduce the weight and size of objects that must be handled repeatedly.
Avoid using tools that create pressure on the base of the palm which can obstruct blood flow
and nerve function.
Avoid repeated pounding with the base of the palm.
Avoid repetitive, forceful pressing with the finger tips.
4. Design tasks so that a power grip, rather than finger pinch grip, can be used to grasp materials. A
pinch grip is five times more stressful than a power grip.
5. Avoid reaching more than 15 inches in front of the body for materials:
Avoid reaching above shoulder height, below waist level, or behind the body to minimize
shoulder disorders.
Avoid repetitive work that requires full arm extension (i.e., the elbow held straight and the arm
extended).
6. Provide support devices where awkward body postures (elevated hands or elbows and extended
arms) must be maintained. Use fixtures to relieve stressful hand/arm positions.
7. Select power tools and equipment with features designed to control or limit vibration transmissions
to the hands, or alternatively design work methods to reduce time or need to hold vibrating tools.
8. Provide for protection of the hands if working in a cold environment. Furnish a selection of glove
sizes and sensitize users to problems of forceful over gripping when worn.
9. Select a


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