Technical Data Report
(Phyllanthus niruri )
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or
by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any
information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from Sage Press, Inc.
This document is not intended to provide medical advice and is sold with the understanding
that the publisher and the author are not liable for the misconception or misuse of information
provided. The author and Sage Press, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any
person or entity with respect to any loss, damage, or injury caused or alleged to be caused
directly or indirectly by the information contained in this document or the use of any plants
mentioned. Readers should not use any of the plants or products discussed in this document
without the advice of a medical professional.
© Copyright 2003 Sage Press, Inc., P.O. Box 80064, Austin, TX 78708-0064. All rights reserved.
For additional copies or information regarding this document or other such products offered,
call or write at [email protected] or (512) 506-8282.
Chanca piedra (Stone Breaker)
Preprinted from Herbal Secrets of the Rainforest, 2nd edition, by Leslie Taylor.
Published and copyrighted by Sage Press, Inc., © 2003
Species: niruri, amarus
Synonyms: Phyllanthus carolinianus, P, sellowianus, P. fraternus, P. kirganella, P. lathyroides, P.
lonphali, Nymphanthus niruri
Common Names: Chanca piedra, quebra pedra, stone-breaker, arranca-pedras, punarnava, amli,
bhonya, bhoomi amalaki, bhui-amla, bhui amla, bhuianvalah, bhuimy-amali, bhuin-amla, bhumyamalaki,
cane peas senna, carry-me-seed, creole senna, daun marisan, derriere-dos, deye do, erva-pombinha,
elrageig, elrigeg, evatbimi, gale-wind grass, graine en bas fievre, hurricane weed, jar-amla, jar amla, kizha
nelli, malva-pedra, mapatan,para-parai mi, paraparai mi, pei, phyllanto, pombinha, quinine weed, sacha
foster, cane senna, creole senna, shka-nin-du, viernes santo, ya-taibai, yaa tai bai, yah-tai-bai, yerba de
Parts Used: Entire Plant
Chanca piedra is a small, erect, annual herb that grows 30–40 cm in height. It is indigenous to the
rainforests of the Amazon and other tropical areas throughout the world, including the Bahamas, southern
India, and China. P. niruri is quite prevalent in the Amazon and other wet rainforests, growing and
spreading freely (much like a weed). P. amarus and P. sellowianus are closely related to P. niruri in
appearance, phytochemical structure, and history of use, but typically are found in the drier tropical
climates of India, Brazil, and even Florida and Texas.
The Phyllanthus genus contains over 600 species of shrubs, trees, and annual or biennial herbs
distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. Unfortunately, there
remains a great deal of confusion among scientists regarding plant identification and, in many cases, plant
misidentification makes evaluation of published information difficult. P. amarus (Thonn. & Schum) and P.
sellowianus are often considered a variety of P. niruri, or no distinction is made among these three species
in published clinical research. Oftentimes one name is indicated to be synonymous with another and,
sometimes, both names are used interchangeably as if referring to one plant. It became so confusing that,
in the 1990s, a major reorganization of the Phyllanthus genus was conducted (which classified P. amarus
as a type of P. niruri).
The Spanish name of the plant, chanca piedra, means “stone breaker” or “shatter stone.” It was
named for its effective use to generations of Amazonian indigenous peoples in eliminating gallstones and
kidney stones. In Brazil, the plant is known as quebra-pedra or arranca-pedras (which also translates to
“break-stone”). The plant is employed for numerous other conditions by the indigenous peoples, including
blennorrhagia, colic, diabetes, malaria, dysentery, fever, flu, tumors, jaundice, vaginitis, and dyspepsia.
Based on its long documented history of use in the region, the plant is considered analgesic and as an
aperitif, carminative, digestive, emmenagogue, laxative, stomachic, tonic, and vermifuge.
Chanca piedra has a long history in herbal medicine systems in every tropical country where it
grows. For the most part, it is employed for similar conditions worldwide. The natural remedy is usually just
a standard infusion or weak decoction of the whole plant or its aerial parts. Its main uses are for many
types of biliary and urinary conditions including kidney and gallbladder stones; for hepatitis, cold, flu,
tuberculosis, and other viral infections; liver diseases and disorders including anemia, jaundice and liver
cancer; and for bacterial infections such as cystitis, prostatitis, venereal diseases and urinary tract
infections. It is also widely employed for diabetes and hypertension as well as for its diuretic, analgesic,
stomachic, antispasmodic, febrifugal, and cell protective properties in many other conditions. It is little
wonder that chanca piedra is used for so many purposes in herbal medicine systems: in clinical research
over the years, the plant has demonstrated antihepatotoxic, antilithic, analgesic, hypotensive,
antispasmodic, antiviral, antibacterial, diuretic, antimutagenic, and hypoglycemic activities.
Since the mid-1960s, chanca piedra has been the subject of much phytochemical research to
determine the active constituents and their pharmacological activities. It is a rich source of phytochemicals,
including many which have been found only in the Phyllanthus genus. Many of the “active” constituents
are attributed to biologically active lignans, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, ellagitannins, and
phenylpropanoids found in the leaf, stem, and root of the plant. Common lipids, sterols, and flavonols also
occur in the plant. Because of the confusion among P. niruri, P. amarus, and P. sellowianus over the years
(and the reclassification of the genus), the research reviewed herein will encompass that which has been
reported on all three of these very similar species.
The first notable area of study has validated chanca piedra’s longstanding traditional use for kidney
stones. In 1990, the Paulista School of Medicine in São Paulo, Brazil, conducted studies with humans and
rats with kidney stones. They were given a simple tea of chanca piedra for 1–3 months and it was reported
that the tea promoted the elimination of stones.1 They also reported a significant increase in diuresis and
sodium and creatine excretion. Subsequently the medical school educated new doctors about the ability
to treat kidney stones with this natural remedy and now it is found in many pharmacies throughout Brazil.
In a 1999 in vitro clinical study, a chanca piedra extract exhibited a potent and effective inhibitory effect
on the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (the building blocks of most kidney stones).2 In a 2002 in vivo
study, researchers seeded the bladders of rats with calcium oxalate crystals and treated them for 42 days
with a water extract of chanca piedra. Their results indicated that chanca piedra “strongly inhibited the
growth of the matrix calculus and reduced the number of stone satellites compared with the group
receiving water.”3 Several of the animals even passed the stones which did form. Previously (in the mid-
1980s) the antispasmodic activity of chanca piedra was reported. This led researchers to surmise that
“smooth muscle relaxation within the urinary or biliary tract probably facilitates the expulsion of kidney or
bladder calculi.”4 Researchers had already reported chanca piedra’s antispasmodic properties5 and smooth
muscle relaxant properties (including a uterine relaxant effect) in earlier studies.6 In 1990, Nicole Maxwell
reported that Dr. Wolfram Wiemann (of Nuremburg, Germany) treated over 100 kidney stone patients with
chanca piedra obtained in Peru and found it to be 94% successful in eliminating stones within a week or
Chanca piedra is also used in herbal medicine for gallstones and, while no research has been
performed that specifically validated this use, one study does indicate that chanca piedra has an effect on
gallbladder processes. In a 2002 study, Indian researchers reported that chanca piedra increased bile acid
secretion (demonstrated choleretic activity) and significantly lowered blood cholesterol levels in rats.8 The
beneficial effects of lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels was also confirmed by another in vivo (rat)
study in 1985.9
The plant’s traditional use for hypertension has been explored by research as well. The hypotensive
effects were first reported in a dog study in 1952 (in which a diuretic effect was noted also).6 The
hypotensive effects were attributed to a specific phytochemical in chanca piedra called geraniin (an
ellagitannin phytochemical) in a 1988 study.10 In 1995 Indian researchers gave human hypertensive
subjects chanca piedra leaf powder in capsules and reported a significant reduction in systolic blood
pressure, a significant increase in urine volume, and in urine and serum sodium excretion.11 Chanca
piedra’s diuretic effect in humans was recorded as far back as 192912 and, in India, a tablet of chanca
piedra (called Punarnava) is sold as a diuretic there.13 In the above 1995 study, researchers also reported
that blood glucose levels were reduced significantly in human subjects studied.11 Two other studies with
rabbits 14 and rats 15 document the hypoglycemic effect of chanca piedra in diabetic animals. Yet another
study documented chanca piedra with aldose reductase inhibition (ARI) properties.16 ARIs are substances
that act on nerve endings exposed to high blood sugar concentration to prevent some of the chemical
imbalances that occur and thus protect the nerve. (This activity also supports chanca piedra’s traditional
use for diabetes). This ARI effect was attributed, in part, to another ellagitannin phytochemical—ellagic
acid—found in chanca piedra. This well-studied phytochemical has been documented with many other
beneficial effects in numerous clinical studies (over 300 to date).
Another area of research has focused on the pain-relieving and/or antinociceptive effects of chanca
piedra and performed at a Brazilian university. So far, they’ve published six studies on their findings. The
first three studies (published in 1994–1995) reported strong and dose-dependent analgesic effects in mice
administered water and/or alcohol extracts of chanca piedra (orally, intragastrically, and intraperitoneally)
against six different laboratory-induced nociception (pain) models.17–19 Even when mice were fed orally with
a hydroalcohol extract at only 35 mg/kg these marked analgesic effects were recorded.19 In 1996, they
isolated and tested the hypotensive phytochemical geraniin from chanca piedra and reported that it was
seven times more potent as an analgesic than aspirin or acetaminophen.20 Their last two studies, published
in 2000, continued to document chanca piedra’s analgesic properties against normal pain models in mice
(as well as newly-tested neurogenic pain models) and report their effectiveness.21,22 Again they related this
effect to the phytochemical geraniin and reported its ability to inhibit several neurotransmitter processes
that relay and receive pain signals in the brain.22 Unlike aspirin (which can harm the mucosal lining of the
stomach and cause ulcers), geraniin has been reported to have antiulcerous and gastroprotective
properties instead.23 This analgesic effect is probably why so many people taking chanca piedra for kidney
stones (a very painful affair) report such quick relief (and long before chanca piedra could actually break
down and expel a stone).
The antihepatotoxic (liver-protecting) activity of chanca piedra is another subject which has been
established with clinical research. These effects have been attributed to (at least) two novel lignan
phytochemicals named phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin. The researchers who reported the cholesterol-
lowering effects also reported that chanca piedra protected rats from liver damage induced by alcohol, and
normalized a “fatty liver.”9 One in vitro study and four in vivo studies (with rats and mice) document that
extracts of chanca piedra effectively protect against liver damage from various chemical liver toxins.24–27
Two human studies reported chanca piedra’s antihepatotoxic actions in children with hepatitis and
jaundice. Indian researchers reported that chanca piedra was an effective single drug in the treatment of
jaundice in children,28 and British researchers reported that children treated with a chanca piedra extract
for acute hepatitis had liver function return to normal within five days.29 Researchers in China also reported
antihepatotoxic actions when chanca piedra was administered (900 mg powdered herb twice daily) to
adults with chronic hepatitis.30 A recent (2000) study even documented that chanca piedra (in a water
extract given orally) increased the life span of mice with liver cancer from 33 weeks (control group without
treatment) to 52 weeks.31 Another research group tried to induce liver cancer in mice that had been pre-
treated with a water extract of chanca piedra. Their results indicated the chanca piedra extract dose-
dependently lowered tumor incidence, levels of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, levels of liver cancer
markers, and liver injury markers.32 Both studies indicate that the plant has more of a protective and
antiproliferative effect against cancer than a direct anti-tumorous effect or selective ability to kill a cancer
It may well be that chanca piedra’s documented antimutagenic effect plays an important factor in
this reported anticancerous activity. In several animal studies (as well as within cell cultures), extracts of
chanca piedra have stopped or inhibited cells (including liver cells) from mutating in the presence of
chemical substances known to create cellular mutations and DNA strand breaks (which can lead to the
creation of cancerous cells).33–36 One of these studies indicated that chanca piedra inhibited several
enzyme processes peculiar to cancer cells’ replication and growth—rather than a direct cytotoxic ability
to kill the cancer cell (sarcoma, carcinoma, and lymphoma cells were studied).36 This cellular-protective
quality was evidenced in other research which indicated that chanca piedra protected against chemically-
induced bone marrow chromosome damage in mice,37 as well as against radiation-induced chromosome
damage in mice.38 The latter study reported that only 25 mg of extract per kg of animal body weight
protected mouse chromosomes against 4 gy of gamma radiation damage.
The last area of published research (which is the most extensive and the most confusing) concerns
chanca piedra’s antiviral properties. Both human and animal studies indicate that chanca piedra can
protect the liver, even during hepatitis infection. Chanca piedra has also been reported to have direct
antiviral activity in human, animal, and test tube studies against the Hepatitis B virus. Over 20 clinical
studies have been published to date about these effects, and the results have been inconsistent and
confusing (unless thoroughly evaluated).
Hepatitis is enough of a worldwide concern to merit sifting through the disparate studies. Hepatitis
B infection (HBV) is the leading cause of liver cancer (hepatoma) worldwide; hepatoma is considered 100%
fatal. Carriers of HBV are 200 times more likely to develop liver cancer decades after initial infection. Many
people who contract HBV become chronic (and, often, asymptomatic) carriers of the disease while still
being contagious to others. HBV is reported to be 100 times more infectious than HIV and, like HIV, is
transmitted through blood transfusions, needles, sexual contact, and in utero (from mother to child).
Statistics on HBV are staggering: one out of every 250 Americans are HBV carriers! The Center for
Disease Control (CDC) estimates that 200,000 new U.S. cases of HBV infection per year are added to the
current estimate of one million carriers in the U.S. (and an estimated 300 million worldwide). The CDC also
reports that (in the U.S.) 3,000–4,000 annual deaths from cirrhosis and 1,000 deaths from hepatoma are
HBV-related. So when Dr. Baruch Blumberg reported that chanca piedra could clear up the chronic carrier
state of Hepatitis B in 1988, it was a big deal. Dr. Blumberg was the winner of the 1963 Nobel Prize for
discovering the HBV antigen. This led to the discovery that HBV was the primary cause of liver cancer and
initiated development of HBV vaccines.
Most of Blumberg’s early research was carried out in India in collaboration with an Indian research
group. Their first human study reported that a water extract of Phyllanthus amarus cleared the HBV
surface antigen from 22 of 37 chronic HBV patients in only 30 days (and they continued to test negative
for 9 months, at which time the report was published).39 This same group had published several earlier in
vitro studies as well as animal (woodchuck) studies. (Woodchucks respond to chronic HBV infection in
much the same manner as do humans). All reported similar and effective anti-HBV effects.40,41 By that time,
Blumberg was employed with the Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia; he, Fox Chase, and the Indian
researchers filed two patents on the plant’s (now called P. niruri) ability to treat HBV and its antiviral
properties in 1985 and 1988.42,43 The first patent was specific to HBV; the second stated that the plant’s
antiviral properties were achieved in part through a strong inhibition of reverse transcriptase (which made
it possible to treat such retroviruses as HIV and sarcoma and leukemia viruses). It was also during this
time that the group developed a new and “better” extraction process. This process involved multiple,
complicated extractions (in which the plant was first macerated in cold water, then filtered to extract the
resulting fluid first in hexane, then in benzene, then in methanol, and back into water). Their documentation
revealed, however, that they didn’t know specifically what the active chemicals were in the final extract that
were providing the antiviral effects. While it was certainly a patentable process, much of the subsequent
published research by this group throughout the 1990s using this new, patented “water extract” conflicted
with their earlier studies, and was not as effective in the in vivo research for HBV. This caused much
confusion as to whether chanca piedra (P. niruri or P. amarus) was an effective treatment or not. To add
to the confusion, in 1994, a New Zealand research group prepared a chemically-altered extract (of P.
amarus) which was standardized to the geraniin content (the chemical documented with analgesic and
hypotensive properties). They started a double-blind HBV human trial, later discontinued it due to lack of
response, and published another negative result study.
Meanwhile, a separate research group in China (where HBV is endemic ) working with a straight
water extract and/or herb powder published two positive studies showing good results with human HBV
patients in 1994 and 1995.44,45 Their second study suggested that different results were obtained through
different Phyllanthus species of plants used (and that yet another species–P. urinaria provided the best
anti-HBV results). The Chinese published a more recent (2001) study which compared 30 chronic HBV
patients taking a chanca piedra extract to 25 patients taking interferon (IFN-alpha 1B) for three months.
Both treatments showed an equal effectiveness of 83%, but the chanca piedra group rated significantly
higher in the normalization of liver enzymes (ALT, AG, and SB) and recovery of liver function than the
interferon-treated group.46 Finally, The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Research Group in Copenhagen reviewed
all the HBV published research (22 randomized trials) and published an independent review of the results.
It stated that treatment with “Phyllanthus herb” (they acknowledged the confusion in nomenclature among
the species) had “a positive effect on clearance of serum HBsAg” (HBV surface antigen) comparable to
interferon and was better than nonspecific treatment or other herbal medicines for HBV and liver enzyme
normalization.47 They also indicated that large trials were warranted due to these documented effects and
the lack of standardization of the research methods and herb species used in the various published
Concerned with HIV specifically, a Japanese research group reported P. niruri’s HIV-1 reverse
transcriptase inhibition properties in 1992 when a simple water extract of the plant was used.48 They
attributed this effect to a phytochemical in chanca piedra called repandusinic acid A. When they tested
chemical individually it demonstrated significant reverse transcriptase inhibition and cytotoxicity to HIV-1
at very small dosages (a 90% in vitro inhibition using only 2.5 mcg). In 1996, Bristol-Myers Squibb
Pharmaceutical Research Institute isolated yet another chemical in chanca piedra with HIV reverse
transcriptase inhibition activity—a novel compound that they named niruriside and described in a 1996
study. 49 In addition to these antiviral properties, the plant has also been documented other antimicrobial
effects. Chanca piedra demonstrated in vitro antibacterial actions against Staphylococcus, Micrococcus,
and Pasteurella bacteria50,51 as well as in vivo and in vitro antimalarial properties,52,53 which validates other
Chanca piedra is a perfect example of a highly beneficial medicinal plant which is deserving of
much more research—but one which is fraught with the typical problems of working with a complicated,
phytochemically-rich plant. Unless a major (and well-funded) pharmaceutical or research company can
isolate a single, patentable chemical (or can come up with a patentable extraction process that actually
works as well as a simple water extract) to justify the high cost of research, chanca piedra probably will
remain in the “unproven herbal remedy” category. There just aren’t enough non-profit dollars or
government grant funds available to fund research on natural plant extracts that can’t be patented. Since
chanca piedra’s many biological activities and benefits are attributed to many different chemicals (whose
synergistic interactions are unclear), and most seem to be completely water soluble, for-profit research
dollars will probably be spent elsewhere.
But what a natural remedy it is! With its applications for kidney and gallstones, cellular and liver
protection, hypertension and high cholesterol, cancer prevention, and its analgesic and antiviral effects,
it is gaining in popularity on many continents as an herbal remedy. It's also important to note than in all the
research published over the last 20 years, no signs of toxicity or side effects have been reported in any
of the human or animal studies, even in acute or chronic use. Animal studies report no genotoxic,
mutagenic or carcinogenic effects.
Documented Properties and Actions: Analgesic, antibacterial, antihepatotoxic, anti-inflammatory,
antilithic, antimalarial, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antispasmodic, antiviral, aperitif, carminative,
choleretic, deobstruent, digestive, diuretic, febrifuge, hepatotonic, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic,
hypotensive, laxative, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge
Main Phytochemicals: Alkaloids, astragalin, brevifolin, carboxylic acids, corilagin, cymene, ellagic acid,
ellagitannins, gallocatechins, geraniin, hypophyllanthin, lignans, lintetralins, lupeols, methyl salicylate,
niranthin, nirtetralin, niruretin, nirurin, nirurine, niruriside, norsecurinines, phyllanthin, phyllanthine,
phyllanthenol, phyllochrysine, phyltetralin, repandusinic acids, quercetin, quercetol, quercitrin, rutin,
saponins, triacontanal, tricontanol
Traditional Remedy: A standard herb infusion or weak decoction is prepared as the traditional remedy.
Depending on what it’s employed for, 1–3 cups are taken daily. Prevention and health maintenance
dosages are reported by practitioners to be 1–3 cups weekly. Some pharmacies in Brazil and South
America sell concentrated fluid extracts or water/glycerine extracts. Depending on the concentration of the
extracts, 2–6 ml are taken 2–3 times daily. Alcohol tinctures have not been traditionally used with chanca
piedra (as the more fragile, water-soluble phytochemicals and sterols are thought to be damaged in
• Chanca piedra has demonstrated hypotensive effects in animals and humans. People with a heart
condition and/or taking prescription heart medications should consult their doctor before taking this
plant. It may be contraindicated for some individuals depending on the condition and/or medications
may need monitoring and adjusting.
• Chanca piedra has been considered in herbal medicine to be abortive (at high dosages) as well as an
emmenagogue. While not studied specifically in humans or animals, animal studies do indicate it has
uterine relaxant effects. It is therefore contraindicated during pregnancy.
• Chanca piedra has been documented with female antifertility effects in one mouse study (the effect
was reversed 45 days after cessation of dosing).54 While this effect has not been documented in
humans, the use of the plant is probably contraindicated in women seeking pregnancy or taking fertility
drugs. This effect has not been substantiated sufficiently to be used as a contraceptive, however, and
should not be relied on for such.
• Chanca piedra has demonstrated hypoglycemic effects in animals and humans. It is contraindicated
for people with hypoglycemia. Diabetics should consult their doctor before taking this plant as it may
be contraindicated for some individuals and/or insulin medications may need monitoring and adjusting.
• Chanca piedra has been documented in human and animal studies with diuretic effects. Chronic and
acute use of this plant may be contraindicated in various other medical conditions where diuretics are
not advised. Chronic long-term use of any diuretic can cause electrolyte and mineral imbalances;
however, human studies with chanca piedra (for up to three months of chronic use) has not reported
any side effects. Consult your doctor if you choose to use this plant chronically for longer than three
months concerning possible side effects of long term diuretic use.
• May potentiate insulin and antidiabetic drugs.
• This plant contains a naturally-occurring phytochemical called geraniin. This chemical has been
documented with negative chronotropic, negative inotropic, hypotensive and angiotensin-converting
enzyme inhibitor effects in animal studies with frogs, mice and rats.10 As such, this plant may potentiate
antihypertensive drugs, Beta-blocker drugs and other heart medications (including chronotropic and
• May potentiate prescription diuretic drugs.
WORLDWIDE ETHNOBOTANICAL USES
Anodyne, apertif, blennorrhagia, carminative, colic, diabetes, digestive,
diuretic, dropsy, dysentery, dyspepsia, emm enagogue, fever, flu,
Am azo nia gallstones, gonorrhea, itch, jaundice, kidney aliments, kidney stones,
laxative, malaria, proctitis, stomachache, stomachic, tenesmus, tonic,
tumor, vaginitis, vermifuge
Antihepatotoxic, antispasm odic, appetite stim ulant, antiviral, aperitif,
bactericidal, cold, constipation, diuretic, fever, flu, hypoglycemic, laxative,
Ab ortifacient, a che (joint), album inuria, analgesic, antib acterial,
anticancerous, antidiabetic, anti-inflamm atory, antilithic, antispasmodic,
antiviral, aperient, arthritis, biliary conditions, bladder problems, bladder
stones, calculi, catarrh (liver and kidney), chologogue, cystitis,
deobs truent, diabetes, diaphoretic, digestion stimulant, diuretic, fever,
Bra zil gallblad der, g allstones, gastritis, gastro intestinal problem s, gout,
hepatitis, hepatoprotective, hydropsy, hypertension, hypoglycemic,
jau ndice, kidney colic, kidney pain, kidney ston es, liver, m alaria, m uscle
relaxant, obesity, prostatitis, purgative, renal colic, renal problems,
stomachic, sudorific, tonic, uric acid excess, urinary problems, uterine
Carminative, colic, digestive, diuretic, fever, indigestion, malaria,
spasmolytic, stomachache, stomachic, tenesmus
Anemia, asthma, astringent, bronchitis, conjunctivitis, cough,
deobstruent, d ropsy, diabetes , diarrhea, diuretic, d ysente ry, fe vers, eye
disorders, galactagogue, genitourinary disorders, gonorrhea, hepatitis,
jaundice, leucorrhea, menorrhagia, oligogalactia, ringworm, scabies,
stomachic, thirst, tuberculosis, tumor (abdomen), urogenital tract
infec tions, w arts
Caterpillar sting, dermatosis, diarrhea, diuretic, emm enagogue, itch,
miscarriage, piscicide, purgative, renosis, syphilis, vertigo
Calculus, diuretic, emm enagogue, gallstones, hepatitis, kidney pain,
Peru kidney problems, kidney stones, renal problems, urinary infections,
Analgesic, bronch itis, chologogue , deobstruent, diabetes, fever,
United gallbladder problems, gallstones, gout, hepatitis, hypertension, kidney
States problems, kidney stones, liver disease, uric acid excess, urinary tract
Analgesic, antipyretic, appetite stimulant, blennorrhagia, bruises,
chologogue, c ough, cu ts, diabetes , diarrhea, diuretic, d ropsy, dys entery,
dyspepsia, emm enagogue, eye diseases, fever, gallstones, gonorrhea,
Elsew here itch, jaundice, kidney disease, kidney stones, laxative, malaria,
menorrhagia, menstrual problems, poultice, purgative, rectitis,
stomachache, tonic, tuberculosis, urinary tract infections, vaginitis,
1. Santos , D. R . Cha de “qu ebra-pedra” (Phyllanth us niru ri) na litiase urinaria em hum ano s e ra tos. Thesis,
1990. Esc ola Paulista de Medicina (São Paulo, Brazil).
2. Ca m pos , A.H., et al. “Ph yllanth us niru ri inhibits calcium oxalate endocytos is by ren al tubular cells: its role in
urolithiasis.” Ne phro n. 1999; 81(4): 393–97.
3. Freitas, A. M., et al. “The effec t of Phyllanthus niruri on urinary inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization
and other factors as sociated with renal stone form ation.” B. J. U . Int. 2002; 89(9): 829–34.
4. Calixto, J. B. “Antispasmodic effects of an alkaloid extracted from Phyllanthus sellowianus: a com parative
study with papaverine.” Braz. J. Med. Biol . Res. 1984; 17(3–4): 313–21.
5. Dhar, M . L., et al. “Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part I.” Indian J. Ex p. Biol. 1968; 6:
6. Kitisin, T ., et al. “Pharm aco logica l studies. 3. Phyllanthus niruri.” Sirriaj. Hosp . Ga z. 1952; 4: 641–49.
7. Ma xwell, N. A W itch-D octo r’s App rentice, Hunting for Medicinal Plan ts in the Am azon . Citadel Press, 1990.
8. Khann a, A. K., et al. “Lipid lowering activity of Ph yllanthus niru ri in hyperlipem ic rats.” J. E thn opharm acol.
2002; 82(1): 19–22.
9. Um arani, D., et al. “Ethanol induced m etabolic alterations and the effect of Phyllanthus niruri in their
reversal.” Ancient Sci . Life 1985; 4(3): 174–80.
10. Ueno, H., et al. “Chem ical and pharmaceutical studies on medicinal plants in Paraguay. Geraniin, an
angioten sin-converting enzym e inhibitor from ‘paraparai m i,’ Ph yllanth us niru ri.” J. Nat. Prod. 1988; 51(2):
11. Srividya, N., et al. “Diuretic, hypotensive and hypog lycaemic effect of Phyllanthus amarus.” Indian J. Exp.
Bio l. 1995; 33(11): 861–64.
12. Arauio, A. On Diuresis and its Medications Under the Influence of Various Fluid Extracts of Brazilian Plants.
Thesis, 1929. University of São Paulo, Brazil.
13. Devi, M. V., et al. “Effect of Ph yllanth us niru ri on the diuretic ac tivity of Punarna va tab lets. J. Res. Edu. Ind.
Med. 1986; 5(1): 11–12.
14. Ram akrishnan , P. N., et al. “Oral hypoglycaemic effect of Phyllanthus niruri (Linn.) Lea ves. Indian J. Pharm.
Sc i. 198 2; 44(1): 10 –12 .
15. Huk eri, V. I., et al. “Hypoglycemic activity of flavonoids of Phyllanthus fraternus in rats.” Fito terapia 1988;
16. Shim izu, M., et al. “Studies on aldose reductase inhibitors from n atural products. II. Active com ponents of a
Pa raguayan crude dru g, ‘paraparai m i,’ Ph yllanth us niru ri.” Chem. Ph arm. Bu ll. (Tok yo) 1989; 37(9):
17. Santos, A. R., et al. “Analgesic effects of callus culture extracts from s elected species of Phyllanthus in
m ice.” J. P harm . Ph armacol. 1994; 46(9): 755–59.
18. Santos, A. R., et al. “Further studies on the antinociceptive action of the hydroalcohlic extracts from plants of
the genus Phyllanthus.” J. P harm . Ph armacol. 1995; 47(1): 66–71.
19. Santos, A. R., et al. “Analysis of the mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of the extracts of
plants from the genus Phyllanthus.” Gen. Ph armacol. 1995; 26(7): 1499–1506.
20. Miguel, O. G., et al. “Chem ical and preliminary analgesic evaluation of geraniin and furosin isolated from
Phyllanthus sellowianus.” Planta Med. 1996; 62(2): 146–49.
21. Santos, A. R., et al. “Antinociceptive properties of extracts of new species of plants of the genus Phyllanthus
(Eupho rbiaceae).” J. E thn opharm acol. 2000; 72(1/2): 229–38.
22. Souza, C. R., et al. “Com pounds extracted from Phyllanthus and Jatropha elliptica inhibit the binding of
[3H]glutam ate and [3H]G MP -PNP in rat cerebral cortex me m brane.” Neurochem. Res. 2000; 25(2): 211–15.
23. Hung, C. R., et al. “Prophylactic effects of sucralfate and geraniin on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal
dam age in rats.” Chin. J. Physiol. 1995; 38(4): 211–17.
24. Syam asund ar, K. V., et al. “Antihepatotoxic principles of Phyllanthus niruri herbs.” J. E thn opharm acol. 1985;
25. Padm a, P., et al. “Protective effect of Phyllanthus fraternus against carbon tetrachloride-induced
m itochondrial dysfunction.” Life Sci. 1999; 64(25): 2411–17.
26. Sreenivasa, R. Y., “Experimental production of liver damage and its protection with Phyllanthus niruri and
Capparis spinosa (both ingredients of LIV52) in white albino rats.” Probe 1985; 24(2): 117–19.
27. Prakash, A., et al. “Comparative hepatoprotective activity of three Phyllanthus spe cies, P. u rinaria, P. niruri
and P.simplex, on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in the rat.” Phytother. Res. 1995; 9(8): 594–96.
28. Bhum yam alak i , et al. “Phyllanthus Niruri and jaundice in children.” J. Natl. Integ. Med. Ass. 1983; 25(8):
29. Tha brew, M. R ., et al. “Phytogenic agents in the therapy of liver disease.” Phytother. Res. 1996; 10(6):
30. W ang. M.X ., et al. “Observations of the efficacy of Phyllanthus spp. in treatin g patie nts with chronic He patitis
B.” 1994; 19(12): 750–52.
31. Ra jesh kum ar, N. V., et al. “Phyllanthus amarus extra ct adm inistration increase s the life spa n of ra ts with
hepatoce llular carcinom a.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov; 73(1–2): 215–19.
32. Jeena , K. J., et al. “Effect of Em blica officin alis, Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa on n-
nitrosodiethylam ine induced hepa tocarcinogene sis.” Ca nce r Lett. 1999; 136(1): 11–16.
33. Agarwa , K., et al. “The efficacy of two species of Phyllanthus in cou ntera cting n icke l clastogen icity.”
Fitote rapia 1992; 63(1): 49–54.
34. Raph ael, K. R. “Anti-m utagenic activity of Phyllanthus amarus (Schum . & Thon n.) in vitro as well as in vivo.”
Teratog. Carcinog. Mutagen. 2002; 22(4): 285–91.
35. Sripanidkulchai, B., et al. “Antimutagen ic and anticarcinogenic effects of Phyllanthus amarus.”
Phytomedicine 2002; 9(1): 26–32.
36. Rajesh kum ar, N. V. “Antitumour an d anticarcinogenic activity of Phyllanthus amarus extract.” J.
Eth nopharmacol. 2002; 81(1): 17–22.
37. Dhir, H., et al. “Protection afforded by aqueou s extracts of Phyllanthus species against cytotoxicity induced
by lead and alum inium salts.” Phytother. Res. 1990; 4(5): 172–76.
38. Devi, P.U. “Radioprotective effect of Phyllanthus niruri on m ouse ch rom osom es.” Curr. Sci. 2000; 78(10):
39. Thyagara jan, S. P., et al. “Effect of Phyllanthus amarus on chronic carriers of H epatitis B virus.” Lancet
1988; 2(8614): 764–66.
40. Th yagarajan , S. P., et al. “In vitro inactivatio n of HBs AG by Eclipta alba (Hassk.) and Phyllanthus niruri
(Linn.)” Indian J. Med. Res. 1982; 76s: 124–30.
41. Venkateswaran, P. S., et al. “Effects of an extract from Phyllanthus niruri on Hepatitis B and wood chuck
hep atitis viruses: in vitro and in vivo studies.” Proc. Nat. A cad. S ci. (U.S.A.) 1987; 84(1): 274–78.
42. Venkateswaran, P. S., et al. “Composition, pharmaceutical preparation and method for treating viral
hepatitis.” U.S. Patent #4,673,575; June 16, 1987 (Filed April 26, 1985) (Assigned to Fox Chase Canc.
Cent., Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A.).
43. Venkateswaran, P., et al. “Method of treating retrovirus infection.” U.S. Patent #4,937,074; June 26, 1990
(Filed March 29 , 1988) (Assigned to Fox C hase C anc. Cen t., Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A.).
44. See reference 30 above.
45. W ang, M. X., et al. “Herbs of the genus Phyllanthus in the treatm ent of chronic Hepatitis B: Ob servation with
three preparations from different geographic sites.” J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1995; 126(4): 350–52.
46. Xin-Hua , W ., et al. “A com parative study of Phyllanthus amarus compound
- Related pdf books
- Literature Cited - Abuta (Cissampelos pareira)
- Biological Activities for Extracts of Cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa)
- Biological Activities for Extracts of Chanca Piedra (Phyllanthus niruri, amarus)
- Ethnomedical Information on Sangre de Grado (Croton lechleri)
- Presence of Compounds in Sangre de Grado (Croton lechleri)
- Technical Data Report
- Presence of Compounds in Cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa)
- Literature Cited – Pata de Vaca (Bauhinia forficata)
- Popular epubs
- arco series civil service exam
- jenis produk kerajinan nusantara
- inter maths 2a marks important questions
- Carbon Budget 2010
- Final PEPIP FORM USA 3 Cleaned
- Cardiovascular Aspects of Septic Shock
- Artgutachten 2004 Graphoderus bilineatus
- Board Meeting Minutes AC06 I
- block diagram of analog and digital communication
- Investor Presentation 2008
- internal audit plan