What is a frame?
what is a frame?
• structured representation of concept
– causal, temporal, intentional relationships
– attributes and values
frame semantics – default values
• also ref***ed to as:
script, scenario, scene, cultural model, cognitive model, idealized
cognitive model, domain, schema, experiential gestalt
language, mind, and culture • frame semantics
– word meanings are defined relative to frames
zoltan kovecses – contrasts with truth conditional semantics in which meaning is
defined by necessary and sufficient conditions
• how to define by • essential feature: fifth day of the week?
• knuckle part of finger – week only has meaning in terms of its constituent
• finger part of hand days
• hand part of arm – day only has meaning in terms of earth’s movement
• finger-hand-arm part of around sun
• defined against background of frames for day
relationship between and week
knuckle and other body
parts is crucial for • note that week is a culturally constructed
understanding the concept
meaning of this concept
– nature only has alternation of light and dark
framing friday framenet project
superstition frame weekend frame
• project at ucb to specify frames needed
to understand language
competition frame competition frame: elements
• competition: name of • prize: the prize won in a
• elements competition competition
– competition, participants, place, prize, rank, score, – joe lost the democratic primary – john won a bronze medal.
• participant i: identifies first or • rank: ranked results of a
and venue only participant in the competition competition
– joe won the lottery – john came in third
• people (participants) participate in an organized – joe defeated leslie at tennis • score: the score in the game
rule-governed activity (competition) in order to • participant 2: identifies the – the yankees won the game 2-0
second participant in the – the yankees won the game by 2
achieve some advantageous outcome. rank competition runs
and score are different criteria by which the – joe defeated leslie at tennis • venue: the venue of the
degree of achievement of the advantageous – the yankees won the world – the padres will play in petco
outcome is judged. • place: where the event takes
• elements connected by events place
– john’s 3-0 win at wimbledon
– lose, win, defeat, come in, play, etc. sur
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