• The Social Neuroscience of Empathy


  •   
  • FileName: 0262012979index2.pdf [read-online]
    • Abstract: Rogerian empathy) aspects of therapist\'s experience of, 117–118. mimicry and perceived, 33 ... Rogerian model of client-centered, 85, 88 (see also Client-centered therapy; Rogerian ...

Download the ebook

The Social Neuroscience of Empathy
edited by Jean Decety and William Ickes
A Bradford Book
The MIT Press
Cambridge, Massachusetts
London, England
© 2009 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechani-
cal means (including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval) without permission
in writing from the publisher.
For information about special quantity discounts, please e-mail [email protected]
This book was set in Stone Sans and Stone Serif by SNP Best-set Typesetter Ltd., Hong Kong. Printed
and bound in the United States of America.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
The social neuroscience of empathy / edited by Jean Decety and William Ickes.
p. cm.—(Social neuroscience)
“A Bradford book.”
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-262-01297-3 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Empathy. 2. Neurosciences. 3. Social
psychology. I. Decety, Jean. II. Ickes, William John.
BF575.E55S63 2009
155.2′32—dc22
2008034814
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Subject Index
Abstract reasoning, 132–133 Altruistic motivation, 9
Academic achievement, 87–88 Amygdala, 128, 141, 174, 228
teacher empathy and, 88–89 cognitive empathy and, 224
Accurate empathy, 57. See also Empathic conditioning and, 144
accuracy emotion representation and, 188
benefits and limitations of, 154–156 facial expressions and, 140, 141, 174, 201, 207
Acquaintanceship effect, 64 fear and, 140, 141, 204
Actualizing tendency, 102 and mediation of emotional experiences, 227
organismic influence of, 102–103 morality and, 144
Adolescent adjustment, empathic accuracy in pain and, 77
peer relations and, 63 selective sociality, neuropeptides, and, 178,
Aesthetic empathy, 6, 7 179
Affective component of empathy, 153–154. sex differences and, 179
See also Empathy, components/dimensions simulation and, 226, 228
Affective empathy, 6, 215, 218–220, 226, 227. Analogical reasoning, 209
See also Emotional contagion; Emotional Anger, emotional empathic responses to
empathy; Simulation and reasoning about conventions, 145–146
Affective mentalizing, 223. See also Mentalizing Anger-mediated aggressive behavior, 87
Affective resonance, 71, 77, 184, 185, 200, 201. Angry expressions, 141
See also Empathic resonance Animals. See also Evolution
Affective responsiveness, 87 empathy and emotional contagion in, 25, 71,
Affective sharing, 109, 185, 189 169
Affinity continuum, 160–161 Anterior attention system, 74
Agency, sense of, 206 Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 38, 77, 78, 127,
Aggression, 86–87. See also Anger; Violent 186, 189, 201, 224–227
husbands Anterior insula, 38, 77, 186, 187, 189, 190, 201,
regulation of, 86 225. See also Insula
Alexithymia, 160 Anterior paracingulate cortex, 141
Altruistic behavior, 85, 203. See also Imitation, Anterior temporal cortex, 128
prosocial effects of being imitated Antisocial behavior, 143–144
Altruistic concern, 161 regulation of, 86
246 Subject Index
Anxiety. See also Fear Caring, 86
social, 224, 225 (see also Social phobia) “Chameleon effect,” 184
Appeasement displays, empathic responses to, Cheek muscle region, 21
147–148 Cingulate cortex, 201, 226. See also Anterior
Appraisal theory, 202 cingulate cortex
Approach-avoidance reactions, 176, 177 Citizen Curriculum, 91
“As if” condition, 103, 125, 126 Classroom, empathy-stimulating experiences in,
Asperger syndrome (AS), 219, 224, 225 90. See also Student empathy, fostering
Attachment processes, 78–79 Client-centered therapy, 109–110. See also
Attentional disengagement, 61 Psychotherapy; Rogerian empathy
Attentional resources, 141 conditions of the therapeutic process, 102–104
Audience design hypothesis, 47, 52 empathy in, 103–104
Audition and social communication, 172 and activities of therapist, 104–105
Auditory communication, 172 theory, 101–102
Auditory mirror neuron systems, 131 therapeutic relationship, 105, 132
Autism, 26, 60, 146–147, 180, 190–192, 224, 225 Client empathic resonance. See Empathic
Automatic imitation, 32 resonance, in psychotherapy
Automatic mimicry, 200 Clinical empathy. See Psychotherapy, empathy
Automatic/uncontrolled vs. deliberative/ in; Rogerian empathy
reflective/controlled empathic reactions, 157 Cognition
Automatic vigilance, 113 embodied, 209
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. social, 188, 191, 200, 216, 217
See also Evolving autonomic and social Cognitive-affective model of empathy, 85, 86, 91
nervous system Cognitive appraisal and reappraisal, 207
facial feedback and, 23 Cognitive-behavioral therapies, 120
Cognitive capacities related to empathy,
Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES), 189 132–133
Basal ganglia, 205 Cognitive component of empathy, 153.
Belief-reasoning errors, 220 See also Cognitive empathy; Empathy,
Bilateral insulae, 77 components/dimensions
Bilateral insular cortices, 204 Cognitive-emotional empathy, 133
Bipolar disorder, 145, 224, 225 Cognitive empathy, 4, 7, 33, 218, 224.
Body-oriented perspective. See Embodied See also Projection; Theory of mind
empathy defined, 141
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), 61, 224, and moral and conventional reasoning,
225 146–147
Brain damage and empathic abilities, 217–219. nature of, 215
See also specific regions of brain and other types of empathy, 133, 139, 215,
Brow muscle region, 21 218–220
“Burnout,” 156 Cognitive flexibility, 132, 133, 217–219
Cognitive mentalizing, 223. See also Mentalizing
Canonical neurons, 24 Cognitive perspective taking. See Perspective
Caregiving, interest in, 153 taking
Subject Index 247
Cognitive (processing) style, 36–37 Dialogue, empathic, 116
and interpersonal behavior, 37 Domain-specific modules, 186
Cognitive psychology and empathic accuracy, 62 Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, 77
Common ground, 47 Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLC), 218, 219,
Common-ground assumptions, 44 225
in communication, 47–48
Common knowledge, 48, 52 Effortful control, 71, 74–76, 79
Compassion, 8, 86, 117, 153, 161 Egocentrism, 203
Comprehension, 47–48 overprojection as, 49
Concept, empathy of. See Aesthetic empathy Egoistic motivation, 9
Conceptualizing skills, 119 Einfühlung, 6, 31, 38, 183
Concern, empathic/other-oriented, 131, 183, Electromyography (EMG), 20
188, 189, 199, 202, 208. See also Sympathy Embarrassment, 147, 148
Conflict monitoring, 38 Embodied cognition, 209
Congruence in psychotherapy, 102, 103 Embodied empathy, 113–114, 116–117, 120.
Congruence with other person’s welfare, 8 See also Resonating, bodily; Somatic
Conscientiousness, 76 resonance
Contact reflections, 116 Emotion, 19
Contagion, 24–26 Emotional arousal, 11
Context/contextual factors, 129–130. See also Emotional competence, 86
Relationship between empathizer and target Emotional contagion, 6, 19, 24–26. See also
of empathy Affective empathy
Cooperation, 86, 170, 173 in animals, 25, 169
Cooperative learning curriculum, 90 defined, 19
Corrugator supercilii (brow) muscle region, 21 facial expression and, 32, 225
Corticobasal degeneration, 223 implications of existing research regarding, 26
Corticospinal motor representations, 201 in infants and toddlers, 185
Counterempathic responding, 208 mechanisms and stages in the process of, 20–26
Countertransference (psychotherapy), 119, 132 merging and, 131
Cross-target consistency, 59 mimicry and, 32
Curriculum Transformation Project, 92–94 vs. other types of empathy, 73, 206
pain and, 78, 155
Decentering, 7, 131 primitive, 19, 20, 27
Defensiveness, 178 questions regarding, 26–27
Deliberate/intentional empathic responses, 157 shared affect and, 184
Development, moral, 139. See also Moral Emotional Contagion Scale, 20, 189
reasoning Emotional countercontagion, 61
Developmental approaches to empathy, 185 Emotional empathy, 133, 139–141, 189, 228.
Developmental issues, 76–77 See also Affective empathy; Simulation
Developmental psychology and empathic Emotional intelligence, 67, 88
accuracy, 62–63 Emotional Regulation Scale, 189
Dialogical perspective, 113, 114, 120. See also Emotional resonance. See Affective resonance
Psychotherapy Emotional responding, 139
248 Subject Index
Emotion “catching,” 5, 6, 20. See also Emotional Empathic processing, 215, 227–228.
contagion See also specific topics
ways emotions can be caught, 20–26 Empathic resonance, 134. See also Affective
Emotion matching, 5, 6 resonance; Resonating
Emotion regulation, 73, 115, 119, 189, 206–207, in psychotherapy, 114–118, 125
216. See also Self-regulation Empathic responding, modulation of, 206–209
Emotions, primary vs. secondary, 132 Empathic understanding, 102–104, 109, 119,
Empathic ability, 60, 65. See also Empathic 134, 155
accuracy Empathic Understanding Responses, 101
Empathic accuracy, 4, 57, 67–68, 115, 156. Empathy
See also Pain assessment, accuracy in as answer to two different questions, 3–4, 8–11
in clinical psychology, 59–62 components/dimensions of, 91, 103, 117–118,
cognitive psychology and, 62 133, 153–154 (see also Cognitive-affective
contributions of different information channels model of empathy)
to, 62 conditions for (see under Psychotherapy)
defined, 57 consequences of showing, 33–34
developmental psychology and, 62–63 (see also Imitation)
individual differences in perceivers’, 59 definitions/uses of the term, 19, 31, 43, 71, 85,
physiological psychology and, 65–66 103, 104, 125, 126, 139, 183–185
social psychology and, 64–65 concept 1: knowing another’s internal state,
Empathic accuracy construct, “theory neutral” 4, 8–11
nature of, 67 concept 2: adopting the posture/expression of
Empathic accuracy measures, 58–59, 155. an observed other, 4, 8–10
See also Empathy, measurement of concept 3: coming to feel as another feels,
performance vs. self-report, 66 5–6, 9–11 (see also Emotional contagion)
reliability and validity, 67 concept 4: intuiting/projecting oneself into
Empathic accuracy model, 65 another’s situation, 6, 7, 9, 10
Empathic accuracy research concept 5: imagining how another is thinking/
appeal and integrative potential of, 66 feeling, 7, 9–11
flexibility in, 66 concept 6: imagining how one would think/
Empathic accuracy research paradigm, 58 feel in the other’s place, 7, 9, 10
alternative research paradigms, 58–59 concept 7: feeling distress at witnessing
Empathic attunement in therapy, 114, 116 another’s suffering, 7–11
functions, 118–119 concept 8: feeling for another who is suffering,
Empathic communication, 85, 125, 134 8–11
Empathic distress, 7 implications, 8–11
Empathic distress reaction, inborn rudimentary, 7 evolutionary history and the capacity for, vii
Empathic failures, 115. See also Empathic factors modulating, 132–134
accuracy function of, 86–88
“Empathic guesses,” 108, 109 levels of, 71
Empathic immersement, deep, 117 lost in translation, 31–32
Empathic inference, 57 measurement of, 105, 189 (see also Empathic
Empathic motivation, 65 accuracy measures)
Subject Index 249
models of Facial feedback hypothesis, 22
cognitive-affective model, 85, 86, 91 Facial mimicry, 20–21
neural model, 226 False belief tests, first- and second-order, 219, 220
perception-action model, 33 Fantasizing, capacity for, 131
naturalness of, 52–53 Fantasy, 188, 189, 218
origin and history of the term, vii, 6, 31, 57 Fear, 140, 141, 178, 204. See also Anxiety; Social
phases in the process of, 125 (see also Empathy phobia
cycle) Feedback, 22, 26, 60
as process vs. state, 104 Feedback training, 60
skills required for, 19 (see also Rogerian Field dependence vs. independence, 36–37
empathy) Fight/flight and freeze behaviors, 174
training for (see Training) Flexibility. See Cognitive flexibility; Mental
types of, 6, 7, 133 (see also specific types) flexibility
ultimate criterion for determining, 104 Formative tendency, 102
Empathy cycle (EC), 114 Freudian theory, empathy in, 101
Empathy deficits, psychopathologies marked by, Frontal cortex. See Medial frontal cortex
199 Frontal gyrus, inferior, 187, 226–228
Empathy induction techniques, 143 Frontal lobes, role in emotion regulation and
Empathy Quotient, 189 social cognition, 216–217
Empathy-related responding, 71–74 Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), 223
Encephalization, 78 Fusiform gyrus, 174
Ethnically diverse student populations, 89
Ethnic prejudice. See Prejudice Gage, Phineas, 216
Evolution Gender and empathic ability, 60
of social awareness in mammals, 173–175, Gender differences, 180
179–180 in empathic accuracy, 64–65
of social behaviors, 169–170, 179–180 in sociality and empathy, mechanisms for,
Evolving autonomic and social nervous system, 178–179
170–171 “Grasping” metaphor, 118
connecting the head and heart, 172 Guilt, 147, 148
evolution of head and face, 172 Gyrus
Executive functioning, 76, 217 fusiform, 174
Executive processes, 74–75 inferior frontal, 187, 226–228
Expectancy violation, 38
External frame of reference, 102 Helping behavior, effective, 155, 156
Eye gaze, 174, 224 Hidden Figures Test, 37
Humanistic therapists, 125, 130. See also
“Face-heart” connection, 172, 173, 177 Client-centered therapy; Rogerian empathy
Facial expressions, 22, 140, 173, 174, 200–201, Humanity, principle of, 44
219 Human Relations Training, 101
amygdala and, 140, 141, 174, 201, 207 Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, 172,
emotional contagion and, 32, 225 174
Facial feedback, 22–23 Hypothalamus, 128, 177
250 Subject Index
Identification, 160 Interpersonal Skills Training, 101
vs. empathy, 125 Interpersonal understanding, 191. See also Social
Imagery, mental, 203 understanding
“Imagine him” perspective, 7 Intersubjective reasoning, 78
“Imagine other” perspective, 7, 204 Intersubjectivity, 33, 209
“Imagine-self” perspective, 7, 204 Involuntary vicarious response, 104
Imagining, 129, 203 Isolation, 177, 179
vs. observing, 127
Imitation, 31, 190. See also Mimicry “Jigsaw classroom,” 87
automaticity, 32 Judging what others know, necessity of, 43–44
behavioral consequences, 35
conscious forms, 32 Kafka, Franz, 51
covert vs. overt, 129 Knowing, sense/feeling of, 44–45, 154, 156
empathy and, 4, 31, 33–34, 38 (see also Knowledge
Empathy, definitions/uses of the term, necessity of judging others’, 43–44
concept 2; Mimicry) over- vs. underestimating others’, 50–51
neural correlates of being imitated, 38 Knowledge projection. See Projection
prosocial effects of being imitated, 34–36
social neuroscience of being imitated, 37–38 Language comprehension, perspective
spontaneous social, 184 adjustment model of, 47
Immobilization, 171 Lateral orbital frontal cortex, 141
Individuating information, 48 Lateral septum, 179
Inferior frontal gyrus, 187, 226–228 Learning to Care Curriculum, 91
Inferior parietal cortex, right, 72, 127 Letting go, 117
Inferior parietal lobe, 186 Limbic system, 157
right, 127 Listening, 174
Inferior parietal lobule, 187 empathic, 115
Information-processing mechanisms underlying
empathy, viii Magnetoencephalography (MEG), 140
Inhibition of aggression, 87 Maritally abusive men, empathic inaccuracy of,
Inhibitory control, 204 61–62
Insula, 127, 140, 187, 188, 201, 204, 207, Matching neural representations, 10
225–228. See also Anterior insula; Bilateral Maternal behavior, 175
insular cortices Medial cingulate cortex (MCC), 201
Intention, 174 Medial frontal cortex, 144
Internal frame of reference, 102–104 Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), 128, 141, 146,
Internalizing problems, 63 186, 219, 227
Interoceptive monitoring, 205 Meditative therapy, 107
Interpersonal behavior and cognitive style, 37 Medulla, 171
Interpersonal competence, 183, 184, 188, Mental flexibility, 73, 115, 119
190–191. See also Social skills Mentalizing, 57, 185, 186, 221–225
Interpersonal priming, 115 Mental-state attributions, 161, 216
Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), 188, 208, 218 Merging, 131
Subject Index 251
“Metaphorphosis” (Kafka), 51 Motor imitation, 32–34
Microsynchrony, 21 Motor mimicry, 4, 5, 20
Mimicked neural representations, 5 Music education training, 90
Mimicking another’s posture, 10 Mutual empathic resonance, 115–116
Mimicry, 5, 20, 25, 26, 129, 184. See also Imitation Mutually shared knowledge, 64
automatic, 200
behavioral effects, 35 Neural correlates. See also Neuroendocrine
unconscious, 184, 200 correlates
unobtrusive, 33, 34, 37 of being imitated, 38
Mind, theory of. See Theory of mind of empathy, 185–187
Mindblindness, 60 Neural model of empathy, 226
Mind reading, 19, 220 Neural network for cognitive and affective
everyday, 57, 67 response, 224–227
Mirroring, 160 Neural response matching, 5
Mirror neurons, 24–25, 32, 73, 92, 126–129, 133, Neuroanatomical basis of empathy, 216–217
155, 189, 200 Neuroception, 173
Mirror neuron system (MNS), 32, 183, 187, Neurodegenerative illness, prefrontal cortex, and
191–192 empathy, 223–225
auditory, 131 Neuroendocrine correlates. See also Neural
emotional understanding and, 187–188 correlates
empathy and, 188–189 of sociality, 175–176
affective, 227 Neuroscience and the neurobiology of empathy,
interpersonal competence and, 190–191 71, 126–128, 169, 173, 179–180, 185.
Mirror system, 25 See also specific topics
Mobilization, 171 Nonverbal behavior, 120
Modeling, 90. See also Imitation; Mimicry Nonverbal clues, 26
Monitoring-and-adjustment hypothesis, 52 Nonverbal expressions of pain, 158
Monkeys. See Primates Nucleus accumbens, 207
Moral behavior, 86
Moral development, 139 Occipitotemporoparietal junction, 128
“Moral intuition,” 144 Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), 77, 78, 146, 207,
Morality, 148 217–219, 224, 227, 228
neuroimaging studies, 144 lateral, 141
vs. social convention, 142–146 Other-oriented affective responses, 154, 156
Moral reasoning, 148, 203, 217 Other-oriented feelings, 8, 10, 11, 203
cognitive empathy and, 146–147 Other-perspectives, 186, 204, 206.
and emotional empathic responses to victims, See also Perspective taking
143–145 Overprojection, 48–51
Moral socialization, 144 Oxytocin, 175–179
Moral vs. conventional transgressions, 142, 143,
145 Pain
Mothers’ empathic accuracy, and children’s catastrophizing about one’s, 160
self-esteem, 63 complexities, 154
252 Subject Index
congenital insensitivity to, 159–160 guilt and, 72
defined, 154 as measured by IRI, 188, 189
emotional contagion and, 78, 155 mirror neurons and, 131
regulation of, and development of empathy, 78 perspective taking and, 199
Pain assessment, accuracy in, 155, 159 self- vs. other-centered responding and,
Pain expression/displays 207–208
automatic/reflexive vs. deliberate/intentional, social and cognitive factors modulating,
157 206–209
genuine vs. dissembled, 159 vs. sympathy, 72
individual differences in, 159 Person-centered approach, 102. See also
verbal and nonverbal, 158 Client-centered therapy
Pain processing, 204 Perspective adjustment model of language
sensory-discriminative and affective- comprehension, 47
motivational aspects of, 201–202 Perspective taking, 72, 77, 185, 215
Pain-related empathy, 77, 127, 131, 153, 154, “imagine him” perspective, 7
161–162, 186, 189, 207 and levels of empathy, 71
emotional regulation and, 207 measures of, 67 (see also Interpersonal
empathic responses oriented to self vs. other, Reactivity Index)
153–154 nature of, 7, 132, 188
model of adult capacity for, 156–158 neurobiology, 189, 191, 204–206, 219
contextual/relational factors, 160–161 during perception of pain in others, 204
factors related to observer, 159–160 training in, 90
factors related to person in pain, 158–159 Perspective-taking instructions, 199, 204, 205
neurobiology, 199–200 Phylogenetic states of polyvagal theory, 170, 171
Palsy, progressive supranuclear, 223 Physiological arousal, 76
Parietal cortex (PC), 218 Physiological synchrony, 65–66
right inferior, 72, 127 Pity, 8
Parietal lobe, inferior, 127, 186 Polyvagal theory, phylogenetic states of, 170,
Parietal lobule, inferior, 187 171
Parietal operculum, 226 Posterior cingulate cortex, 226
Pars opercularis, 188, 189, 191 Postural feedback, 24
Pars triangularis, 189, 191 Postural mimicry, 21–22
Peer relations, empathic accuracy in, 63 Prairie voles, 177–178
Perceived empathy, 33, 125. See also specific topics Prefrontal cortex (PFC), 217–221, 223–226.
Perceived social support, 175 See also Medial prefrontal cortex;
Perception-action coupling mechanism, 200 Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex
Perception-action model of empathy, 33 Prejudice, social, 87, 92
Perceptual emulator model, 129 Premotor cortex, 201
Personal distress, 7, 71, 73, 203 Primates. See also Evolution
affect sharing and, 189 emotional contagion and empathy in, 25, 169
definition and nature of, 72, 188, 199 Projection, 6, 7, 34, 43–44, 52–53
emotion regulation and, 206–207 as basic mode of knowing other persons, 44
vs. empathic concern, viii, 131, 200, 206 can fail, 48–51
Subject Index 253
evidence of, 45–46 Reading, 87
limits of, 51–52 Reasoning through what others feel, 185
a statistical case for, 46–47 Reflection in therapists, 128
Projective empathy, 7 Reflection (projection in reverse), 44–45
Prosocial behavior(s), 72, 86, 183, 192, 200, 206 Reflection (psychotherapy), 101, 116
highly social mammals and analysis of, Relational victimization, 63
176–179 Relationship between empathizer and target
Prosocial effects of being imitated, 34–36 of empathy, 132, 160–161. See also
Prosody, 174 Client-centered therapy, therapeutic
Psychiatric illness, prefrontal cortex, and relationship
empathy, 223–225 Relationships, close
Psychoanalysis, empathy in, 101 empathic accuracy in, 65
Psychological contact, 115–116 Representational competition, 141
Psychological empathy, 7 Resonating, bodily, 117. See also Embodied
Psychopathy, 143–144, 154 empathy; Somatic resonance
emotion dysfunction associated with, 144 Restitution behaviors, 148. See also Appeasement
Psychotherapy displays
conditions for change in, 102–104, 115–116 Risk detection, 174
empathic accuracy in, 59–60 Rogerian empathy, 101, 103, 109, 110, 131.
ways to improve, 60 See also Client-centered therapy
empathic attunement in, 116–120 clinical scenarios, 105–109
empathy cycle and embodied empathy, and organismic experiencing of client and
113–114 therapist, 104–105
empathy in, 101, 113, 120, 199 (see also vs. other forms of empathy, 103
Rogerian empathy) Role playing, 90
aspects of therapist’s experience of, 117–118 Role taking, 7, 87, 90, 203
mimicry and perceived, 33 Rule trangression, moral vs. conventional, 142
neuroscience and, 126–128
phenomenology of therapist empathy, Sadistic reactions, 154
116–118 Safety-threat detection system, 173
and treatment outcome, 119–120 Schizophrenia, 223–224
ways of enhancing therapists’ capacity for, School achievement, 87–88
128–131 Second Step, 91
experiential therapists, 130, 132–134 Selective social behaviors, 179
intervention-based, 120 Selective social interactions, 174
Rogerian model of client-centered, 85, 88 Selective sociality, neuropeptides and, 176–178
(see also Client-centered therapy; Rogerian Self-acceptance, 118
empathy) Self-actualizing tendency, 103
Self-agency, 119
Racism. See Prejudice Self and other, shared neural circuits between,
Rapport, 33 200–203
Reactive flexibility, 133 Self-awareness, 74, 115, 119, 128, 133, 206
Reactivity to stressors, 176 Self-expression, 119
254 Subject Index
Self-focused distress, 183 Social neuroscience, viii, ix, 12
Self-oriented affective responses, 154, 156, 203. Social phobia, generalized, 207. See also Anxiety
See also Other-oriented feelings Social psychology and empathic accuracy,
Self-other awareness, 72 64–65
Self-other distinction, 185, 186, 206 Social rule breaking, 142
Self-other overlap, 199, 200, 208 Social skills, 183, 184, 192. See also Interpersonal
Self-other separation, 73 competence
Self-perspectives, 186, 204–206. See also Social support, perceived, 175
Perspective taking Social understanding, 86. See also Interpersonal
Self-recognition, 185 understanding
Self-reflection, 128, 133 Somatic resonance, 77. See also Embodied
Self-regulation, 72, 73, 75, 76, 79. See also empathy; Resonating, bodily
Emotion regulation Somatic sensorimotor mirroring, 78
Self-regulatory processes, effortful, 74–75 Somatosensory cortex, 127, 201, 204, 226
Self-understanding, 119 “Sorting through” metaphor, 118
Self used as a model, 186 Spontaneous flexibility, 133
Sensitive parenting, 79 Standard interview paradigm, 59, 66
Settle Conflicts Right Now, 90 Standard stimulus paradigm, 58–59, 66
Sex differences. See Gender differences Stanislavski, Konstantin, 24
Sexually dimorphic neural pathways, 179. Stimulus-specific fear, 178
See also Gender differences Student empathy, 85, 88
Shame, 147, 148 fostering, 89
Shared affect, 85, 184, 191 approaches to, 89–90
Shared feeling, 43 effects of, 91
Shared mental representations, 72, 74, 79 Superior temporal sulcus (STS), 174, 201, 219,
Shared physiology, 6 226, 227
Shared-representational theory of social Sympathetic distress, 8
cognition, 200 Sympathetic nervous system, 174
Similarity. See Common ground Sympathetic resonance, 78
Simulation, 7, 126, 227. See also Affective Sympathy, 4, 6, 8, 31, 33, 71–72, 117, 153, 156,
empathy; Emotional empathy 188, 199
Simulation perspective, 3, 9, 216 defined, 71–72
Simulation processing, 216, 223–226, 228 vs. personal distress, 71–72, 75, 76
Social bond formation, 176 (see also Personal distress)
Social cognition, 188, 191, 200, 216, 217
Social communication, 171, 172 Teacher empathy, 85, 88–89
Social engagement system, 170, 171 ways to enhance, 89
Social intelligence, 88 Temperament in children, Rothbart’s model of,
Sociality 74
sex differences in, 178–179 Temporal cortex, anterior, 128
species-typical patterns of, 170 Temporal poles (TP), 141, 146, 186, 219, 226,
Social nervous system. See Evolving autonomic 227
and social nervous system Temporal sulcus. See Superior temporal sulcus
Subject Index 255
Temporoparietal junction (TPJ), 38, 141, 146, Vicarious personal distress, 9
186, 206, 220, 226. See also Vicarious traumatization, 156
Occipitotemporoparietal junction Vigilance, 178
Thalamus, 127, 128 Violent husbands, empathic deficit in, 61–62
Theory of mind (ToM), 57, 60, 146, 147, 185, Visual information, 62
216. See also Cognitive empathy Visualization techniques, 128
cognitive empathy and, 146, 147, 215, Vocal feedback, 23–24
219–228 Vocal feedback hypothesis, 23
“hot” and “cold” aspects of, 221 Vocal mimicry, 21
Theory theories of mind, 6, 9
Training, 90, 101 “Women’s intuition,” stereotype about, 64–65
for empathy, 86, 88, 92–93
in teachers, 88–89 Yoked-subjects design, 59
feedback, 60
in perspective taking, 90 Zygomaticus major (cheek) muscle region, 21
Transference (psychotherapy), 115
Trust, 177, 179
Tutoring, cross-age, 90
Unconditional positive regard, 101–105, 109,
132
Unconscious empathic responding, 206
Unconscious mimicry, 184, 200
Unitary actualizing tendency, 103
Unstructured dyadic interaction paradigm,
58–59, 66
Vasopressin, 175–180
Ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC), 217
Ventral premotor cortex, 32, 187, 188
Ventral striatum, 227
Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, 141, 145, 146,
148
Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VM), 217–221,
223–226
Verbal empathic understanding responses, 109,
110
Verbal information and empathic accuracy, 62
Vicarious emotion, regulation of, 73
Vicarious emotional arousal, 73
Vicarious experience of pain, 158
Vicarious feeling, 43
Vicariously induced emotion, 74


Use: 0.0206