• Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network


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    • Abstract: explains the different IP address classes and how the length of the network ID ... are not required to be accessible from the Internet. Emphasize to students that supernetting conserves IP addresses and is used ...

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Module 2: Assigning
IP Addresses in a
Multiple Subnet Network
Contents
Overview 1
Lesson: Assigning IP Addresses 2
Lesson: Creating a Subnet 19
Lesson: Using IP Routing Tables 29
Lesson: Overcoming Limitations of
the IP Addressing Scheme 45
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Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network iii
Instructor Notes
Presentation: This module provides students with the information and skills they need to
160 minutes construct and assign Internet Protocol (IP) addresses to host computers on a
network that is running the suite of Transmission Control Protocol/IP (TCP/IP)
Lab: protocols. IP addresses enable computers running any operating system on any
00 minutes platform to communicate by providing unique identifiers. To send data between
multiple subnets, IP must select a route. Understanding the IP routing
procedures will assist students in constructing and assigning the appropriate IP
addresses for hosts on a network.
After completing this module, students will be able to:
! Convert IP address from decimal notation to binary format.
! Create a subnet.
! Calculate a subnet mask.
! Use an IP routing table.
! Reduce the number of unused IP addresses.
! Implement supernetting.
Required materials To teach this module, you need the Microsoft® PowerPoint® file 2276A_02.ppt.
Preparation tasks To prepare for this module:
! Read all of the materials for this module.
! Complete the practices.
! Review the referenced Request for Comments (RFCs).
iv Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network
How to Teach This Module
This section contains information that will help you to teach this module.
Lesson: Assigning IP Addresses
This section describes the instructional methods for teaching this lesson.
Multimedia: The This presentation shows how media access control (MAC) addresses are linked
Components of an IP to IP addresses to create an efficient addressing scheme for networks. It also
Address explains the different IP address classes and how the length of the network ID
and host ID varies in the different classes.
What Are the Classes of Emphasize to students that the Internet service provider (ISP) decides which
IP Addresses? class is appropriate for IP addresses, based on the organization’s size, and that
only classes A, B, and C are used for host computers. Emphasize how the high
order bits define the class.
How Dotted Decimal Work through the examples in this topic to ensure that students understand the
Notation Relates to basic concept of binary numbers and how they use dotted decimal notation.
Binary Numbers
How to Convert Dotted Emphasize to students that, although they can use a calculator to do the
Decimal Notation to conversions, it is helpful to them if they can calculate the conversion manually.
Binary Format
Multimedia: How Subnet This presentation shows how a subnet mask defines which part of an IP address
Masks Work defines the host ID and which part defines the network ID. It also illustrates the
importance of understanding how binary numbers are used in defining a subnet
mask.
Lesson: Creating a Subnet
This section describes the instructional methods for teaching this lesson.
What Is a Subnet? Most students will be familiar with the concept of a subnet, so do not spend too
much time on this topic. The main point to reinforce is the concept of
subnetting. Review the considerations and steps for creating a subnet, and
emphasize that students will base their subnetting implementations on the
organization’s network requirements.
How Bits Are Used in a Use the animated slide to describe the relationship between the number of
Subnet Mask subnets and the number of hosts. Emphasize to students the requirements they
must follow when they create a subnet mask.
Defining Subnet IDs Review the longer process for defining subnet identifiers (IDs) before you
discuss the shortcut. This will assist students in understanding how the shortcut
works.
Practice: Calculating the Review the scenario and work through the practice for any students who are
Subnet Mask having difficulties. Explain that you must take numbers from the host ID for the
subnet ID.
Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network v
Lesson: Using IP Routing Tables
This section describes the instructional methods for teaching this lesson.
Multimedia: The Role of This presentation shows how routers join subnets together into a network. This
Routing in the Network includes the difference between local and remote routing, the way routers share
Infrastructure network status information, and how gateways and routers interact to send
packets to their destinations.
How the Computer The main emphasis of this topic is the concept of ANDing (doing a bitwise
Determines Whether an comparison), so make sure that students understand how it works. Tell students
IP Address Is a Local or that the logic behind the concept of ANDing is that 1 = true, 0 = false, and true
Remote is only true when combined with true; therefore, one is only one when
combined with one.
Practice: Determining Review the scenario and work through the practice for any students who are
Whether an IP Address having difficulties.
Is a Local or Remote
Address
Static and Dynamic This topic is included so that students can use static routing if necessary. Point
Routing out that, for the most part, they will use dynamic routing.
How the IP Protocol Review the steps outlined here, and use the procedure to review the role of the
Selects a Route default gateway.
How the Routing Table Use your computer to demonstrate the IP routing table to students.
Forwards Packets
Using the Routing Table Emphasize to students that the routing table will be crucial in helping them to
in Windows Server 2003 isolate connectivity issues.
Lesson: Overcoming Limitations of the IP Addressing Scheme
This section describes the instructional methods for teaching this lesson.
Multimedia: How IP This presentation explains the reason for assigning IP addresses to MAC
Addresses Are Wasted addresses and shows how the use of default subnet masks can lead to the
wasting of registered IP addresses by inefficiently reserving more addresses
than an organization will need. It then shows three common strategies for
avoiding the inefficient use of IP addresses. The strategies are: private
networks, supernets, and variable length subnet masks. The presentation
finishes by introducing the next version of IP, IP version 6, which will ship in
Microsoft Windows® Server 2003 and has limited support in Windows XP SP1.
The media briefly describes how IPv6 will replace the current version of IP and
make vast numbers of addresses available for Internet hosts.
What Are Private and Emphasize the requirement for registered IP addresses, and ensure that students
Public Addresses? understand that unregistered private addresses are used only for computers that
are not required to be accessible from the Internet.
What Is Supernetting? Emphasize to students that supernetting conserves IP addresses and is used for
large networks.
Using CIDR to Review the example and make sure students understand how Classless Inter-
Implement Supernetting Domain Routing (CIDR) creates the entry for the block of addresses.
vi Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network
Customization Information
This section identifies the lab setup requirements for a module and the
configuration changes that occur on student computers during the labs. This
information is provided to assist you in replicating or customizing Microsoft
Official Curriculum (MOC) courseware.
There are no labs in this module, and as a result, there are no lab setup
requirements or configuration changes that affect replication or customization.
Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network 1
Overview
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Introduction The information in this module describes how to construct and assign an
Internet Protocol (IP) address to host computers on a network that is running
the suite of Transmission Control Protocol/IP (TCP/IP) protocols. IP addresses
enable computers running any operating system on any platform to
communicate by providing unique identifiers. To send data between multiple
subnets, IP must select a route. Understanding the IP routing procedures will
assist you in constructing and assigning the appropriate IP addresses for hosts
on your network.
Note In this module, the term host refers to any device on the network that has
an IP address. The term client refers to a computer running a Microsoft®
Windows® operating system on a network running TCP/IP.
Objectives After completing this module, you will be able to:
! Convert IP address from decimal notation to binary format.
! Construct and assign IP addresses.
! Create a subnet.
! Calculate a subnet mask.
! Use an IP routing table.
! Reduce the number of wasted IP addresses.
! Implement supernetting.
2 Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network
Lesson: Assigning IP Addresses
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Introduction The primary function of IP is to add address information to data packets and
route them across the network. To understand how IP accomplishes this, it is
necessary for you to be familiar with the concepts that determine the
intermediate and final destination addresses of data packets. Understanding how
IP uses address information will enable you to ensure that IP routes data to the
correct destination.
Lesson objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
! Describe the components of an IP address.
! Describe the IP address classes.
! Convert dotted decimal notation to binary numbers.
! Describe how subnet masks work.
! Assign an IP address.
Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network 3
Multimedia: The Components of an IP Address
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File location To view the multimedia presentation, The Components of an IP Address, open
the Web page on the Student Materials compact disc, click Multimedia, and
then click the title of the presentation.
Objective Upon completion of this presentation, you will be able to describe how the
numbers in an IP address are grouped to designate network and host addresses.
4 Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network
What Are the Classes of IP Addresses?
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Introduction IP addresses are organized into classes. You obtain registered addresses through
an Internet service provider (ISP) or the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA). The size and type of the network determines the address class.
IP address classes The class of address defines which bits are used to identify the network, the
network ID, and which bits are used to identify the host computer, the host ID.
It also defines the possible number of networks and the number of hosts per
network. There are five classes of IP addresses: classes A through E. TCP/IP in
Windows Server 2003, and all previous versions of Windows, supports host
address assignment for classes A, B, and C.
Network and host ID The four octets that make up an IP address are conventionally represented by w,
fields x, y, and z respectively. The following table shows how the octets are
distributed in classes A, B, and C.
Class IP address Network ID Host ID
A w.x.y.z w x.y.z
B w.x.y.z w.x y.z
C w.x.y.z w.x.y z
Class A Class A addresses are assigned to networks with a large number of hosts. Class
A allows for 126 networks by using the first octet for the network ID. The first,
or high-order bit in this octet, is always set to zero. The next seven bits in the
octet complete the network ID. The 24 bits in the remaining octets represent the
host ID, allowing for 126 networks and approximately 17 million hosts per
network. Class A network number values for w begin at 1 and end at 127.
Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network 5
Class B Class B addresses are assigned to medium-sized to large-sized networks. Class
B allows for 16,384 networks by using the first two octets for the network ID.
The two high-order bits in the first octet are always set to 1 0. The remaining 6
bits, together with the next octet, complete the network ID. The 16 bits in the
third and fourth octet represent the host ID, allowing for approximately 65,000
hosts per network. Class B network number values for w begin at 128 and end
at 191.
Class C Class C addresses are used for small local area networks (LANs). Class C
allows for approximately 2 million networks by using the first three octets for
the network ID. The three high-order bits in a class C address are always set to
1 1 0. The next 21 bits in the first three octets complete the network ID. The 8
bits of the last octet represent the host ID allowing for 254 hosts per network.
Class C network number values for w begin at 192 and end at 223.
Classes D and E Classes D and E are not allocated to hosts. Class D addresses are used for
multicasting, and Class E addresses are not available for general use: they are
reserved for future use.
Using a default subnet When classes are used for IP addresses, every address class has a default subnet
mask mask. When you divide a network into segments, or subnets, you can use the
default subnet mask for the class to divide the network IP address. All TCP/IP
hosts require a subnet mask, even on a single-segment network. The default
subnet mask you will use depends on the address class. All bits that correspond
to the network ID are set to 1. The decimal value in each octet is 255. All bits
that correspond to the host ID are set to 0.
The following table describes the bit values and number of networks and hosts
for the A, B, and C address classes.
First Byte Network Number of Number of
Class First Bits Values ID bits Host ID bits networks hosts
A 0 1-127 8 24 126 16,777,214
B 10 128-191 16 16 16,384 65,534
C 110 192-223 24 8 2,097,152 254
6 Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network
Practice: Determining the Class of an IP Address
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Objective In this practice, you will determine the address class for several IP addresses.
Practice
! Determine the class of each IP Address
1. Write the address class next to each IP address.
Address Class
172.16.2.1 B
10.15.7.100 A
192.168.0.100 C
126.0.0.1 A
1.1.1.1. A
2. Which address class(es) will allow you to have more than 1,000 hosts per
network?
Answer: Class A (16,777,214) and class B (65,534)
3. Which address class(es) will allow only 254 hosts per network?
Answer: Class C
Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network 7
How Dotted Decimal Notation Relates to Binary Numbers
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Introduction When you assign IP addresses, you use dotted decimal notation, which is based
on the decimal number system. Computers use a binary format. For you to use
dotted decimal notation, you must understand the relationship between these
numbering systems.
Computers use a binary number system of base 2 (2 digits, 0 and 1) rather than
the decimal system of base 10 (10 digits, 0 to 9). In the IP addressing scheme,
computers use the binary format of four 8-bit octets, which yields 32 bits. IP
addresses are normally expressed in dotted decimal notation which is four
numbers separated by periods, for example, 192.168.0.200. Each of the four
numbers represents an octet, ranging from the value 00000000 to 11111111. In
decimal notation, the equivalents of these values are 0 to 255.
Each bit position in an octet has an assigned decimal value. A bit that is set to 0
always has a zero value. A bit that is set to 1 can be converted to a decimal
value. The low-order bit, the right-most bit in the octet, represents a decimal
value of one. The high-order bit represents a decimal value of 128. The highest
decimal value of an octet is 255—that is, when all bits are set to 1.
Example of an IP The following table shows the binary format and dotted decimal notation of an
address in binary and IP address.
dotted decimal formats
Binary format Dotted decimal notation
10000011 01101011 00000011 00011000 131.107.3.24
8 Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network
How to calculate the To calculate the decimal value of a binary representation:
decimal value of a
binary number 1. Starting with the leftmost digit of the octet, multiply each number in the
octet by decreasing powers of 2, beginning with 27 and moving from left to
right.
2. Add these values to obtain the number.
For example, for the number 10000011;
1*27 = 1*128 = 128
0*26 = 0*64 = 0
0*25 = 0*32 = 0
0*24 = 0*16 = 0
0*23 = 0*8 = 0
0*22 = 0*4 = 0
1*21 = 1*2 = 2
1*20 = 1*1 = 1
128+0+0+0+0+0+2+1 = 131
Example of converting The following table shows the bit values and the decimal values for all the bits
from binary to decimal in one octet.
Binary format Bit values Decimal value
00000000 0 0
00000001 1 1
00000011 1+2 3
00000111 1+2+4 7
00001111 1+2+4+8 15
00011111 1+2+4+8+16 31
00111111 1+2+4+8+16+32 63
01111111 1+2+4+8+16+32+64 127
11111111 1+2+4+8+16+32+64+128 255
Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network 9
How to Convert Dotted Decimal Notation to Binary Format
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Introduction Although you can use the calculator in Windows Server 2003 to convert dotted
decimal notation to binary format, it helps you to understand the conversion if
you can do the calculation manually.
The following table represents the decimal number 131 in binary format
10000011.
Base 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20
Decimal 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
Binary 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
131 = 128 0 0 0 0 0 2 1
Procedure for To manually convert a number from decimal notation to binary format:
converting an octet from
decimal to binary 1. Construct a table similar to the preceding one.
2. Determine the largest base 2 number possible in the octet
(1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128) which is still less than the decimal number.
3. Place a “1” in the column of that number and zeros to the left.
4. Subtract the base 2 number’s decimal equivalent from the decimal number.
5. If there is a remainder, repeat steps 2-4 until no remainder exists.
The 1s and 0s in your table represent the binary equivalent of your decimal
number.
10 Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network
Procedure for using the To use the Microsoft Windows Calculator to convert a number from decimal to
Windows calculator to binary:
convert a number from
decimal to binary 1. Click Start, click Run, type calc.exe and then click OK.
The Calculator window appears.
2. On the View menu, click Scientific.
3. Using the calculator keys, enter a number.
4. Click Bin.
Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network 11
Practice: Converting Numbers Between Decimal and Binary
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Objective In this practice, you will convert numbers between decimal and binary.
Scenario You have been given a set of IP addresses to apply to client computers, and you
suspect that one of them has a different network ID. You decide to convert the
IP address to its binary equivalent to later determine the correct network ID.
Practice
! Convert the following numbers from decimal to binary
1. Log on to your computer with your ComputerUser account (where
Computer is the name of your computer) with a password of P@ssw0rd.
2. Click Start, point to All Programs, click Accessories, and then click
Calculator.
3. On the View menu, click Scientific.
4. Click Dec, type 44 and then click Bin.
5. Repeat for each conversion.
Decimal Binary
44 Answer: 101100
97 Answer: 1100001
255 Answer: 11111111
192.168.1.100 Answer: 11000000.10101000.00000001.01100100
255.255.255.248 Answer: 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111000
12 Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network
! Convert the following numbers from binary to decimal
Binary Decimal
1111111 Answer: 127
11111111 11111111 11111111 11111000 Answer: 255.255.255.248
00001010. 01100100.00000111.00010101 Answer: 10.100.7.21
Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network 13
Multimedia: How Subnet Masks Work
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File location To view the multimedia presentation, How Subnet Masks Work, open the Web
page on the Student Materials compact disc, click Multimedia, and then click
the title of the presentation.
Objectives Upon completion of this presentation, you will be able to describe how subnet
masks are used to distinguish the host ID from the network ID in an IP address.
Example of the binary A subnet mask's 1 bits indicate the network identifier, and its 0 bits indicate the
equivalent of a dotted host identifier. For example, the following is the binary equivalent of
decimal number 255.255.255.0:
11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000
14 Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network
Practice: Identifying the Components of an IP Address
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Objective In this practice, you will identify the components of an IP address.
Scenario You are an administrator and need to identify the network and host ID for a
given IP address so that you can determine whether a router is needed to
communicate between the two computers.
Practice
! Identify the class of IP address and the default subnet mask
1. Use the first octet of the IP address to identify the default class and
associated subnet mask for the address.
2. Calculate the network ID by using the numeric values in the IP address that
correspond to 255 in the subnet mask, and then fill in the remaining portion
with zeros (0s).
3. Calculate the host ID by using the numeric values in the IP address that
correspond to 0 in the subnet mask.
Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network 15
4. Repeat for each IP address in the following table. The first IP address is
completed for you as an example.
IP Address Subnet Mask Network ID Host ID
192.168.0.100 Answer: Answer: Answer:
C/255.255.255.0 192.168.0 100
10.7.1.1 A/255.0.0.0 10.0.0.0 7.1.1
172.16.1.1 B /255.255.0.0 172.16.0.0 1.1
129.102.197.23 B/255.255.0.0 129.102.0.0 192.23
199.32.123.54 C/255.255.255.0 199.32.123.0 54
1.1.1.1 A/255.0.0.0 1.0.0.0 1.1.1
221.22.64.7 C/255.255.255.0 221.22.64.0 7
93.44.127.235 A/255.0.0.0 93.0.0.0 44.127.235
23.46.92.184 A/255.0.0.0 23.0.0.0 46.92.184
152.79.234.1 B/255.255.0.0 152.79.0.0 234.1
200.100.50.25 C/255.255.255.0 200.100.50.0 25
16 Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network
Guidelines for IP Addressing
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Introduction There are no exact rules that govern how to assign IP addresses on your
network, however, there are guidelines that you can use to ensure you assign
valid network and host identifiers.
Assigning valid network When you assign IP addresses, consider the following guidelines:
and host identifiers
! You must not use 127 for the first octet of the network ID. This value is
reserved for diagnostic purposes.
! Use public registered addresses only where essential to do so.
! Use addresses from the private address ranges reserved by the IANA for
private IP addressing.
! You must not use all 1s (binary) for the host ID in a class-based network. If
all bits are set to 1, the address is interpreted as a broadcast address.
! You must not use all 0s for the host ID in a class-based network. If host bits
are set to 0, some TCP/IP implementations interpret this as a broadcast
address.
! You must not duplicate host IDs within a network segment.
Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network 17
Practice: Identifying Invalid IP Addresses
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Introduction In this practice, you will identify which of the following IP addresses cannot be
assigned to a host and then explain why it is invalid.
Practice
! Determine which of the following IP addresses cannot be assigned to a
host
• Review the following class-based IP addresses. Identify the portion of the IP
address that would be invalid if it were assigned to a host, and then explain
why it is invalid. Assume a default subnet mask is applied according to the
class of the address.
a. 131.107.256.80____________________________________________
b. 222.222.255.222___________________________________________
c. 231.200.1.1_______________________________________________
d. 126.1.0.0_________________________________________________
e. 0.127.4.100_______________________________________________
f. 190.7.2.0_________________________________________________
g. 127.1.1.1_________________________________________________
h. 198.121.254.255___________________________________________
i. 255.255.255.255___________________________________________
18 Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network
Answers:
a. 131.107.256.80: 256. The highest possible value in an octet is 255.
b. 222.222.255.222: valid host IP address
c. 231.200.1.1: 231 is a class D address and is not supported as a host
address.
d. 126.1.0.0: valid host IP address
e. 0.127.4.100: Zero is invalid in the first octet. It indicates this
network only.
f. 190.7.2.0: valid host IP address.
g. 127.1.1.1: 127 addresses are reserved for diagnostics.
h. 198.121.254.255: 255 as a host ID indicates a broadcast.
i. 255.255.255.255: 255 is a broadcast address.
Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network 19
Lesson: Creating a Subnet
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Introduction You can expand a network by using physical devices, such as routers, to add
network segments, or subnets. You can also use routers to divide your network
into smaller subnets, thereby increasing the efficiency of the network.
Lesson objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
! Describe a subnet.
! Describe subnet mask bits.
! Calculate a subnet mask and range of IP addresses.
! Define subnet IDs.
20 Module 2: Assigning IP Addresses in a Multiple Subnet Network
What Is a Subnet?
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Introduction A subnet is a physical segment of a network that is separated from the rest of
the network by a router or routers. You can have multiple subnets on your
network. A network of multiple subnets connected by routers is often referred
to as an internetwork. When you create subnets, you must break up the network
ID for the hosts on the subnets. Assigning the appropriate subnet and host ID
enables you to locate a host on the network. You can also determine which
hosts are on the same subnet by matching network IDs.
Subnet IP addresses T


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