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Parasitic Copepods from the
Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea,
III: Caligns
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Robert McC. Adams
Smithsonian Institution
S M I T H S O N I A N C O N T R I B U T I O N S T O Z O O L O G Y • N U M B E R 4 9 7
Parasitic Copepods from the
Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea,
III: Caligns
Roger Cressey
Washington, D.C.
Cressey, Roger. Parasitic Copepods from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, III: Caligus.
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 497,53 pages, 220 figures, 1991.—Twenty-six
species of Caligus are described from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Most of the
collections were made off the west coast of Florida (Placida) and off Belize (Carrie Bow Cay).
Four species (kabatae, ocywrus, pomacentrus, and xystercus) are described as new and the
following 13 species are placed in synonymy: alatus, canthidermis, germoi, kuroshio,
microdontis, mirabilis, polycanthi, rectos, sarda, sciaenops, sensilis setosus, and tenax. Caligus
biaculeatus Brian is reported for the first time since its original description and is redescribed.
OFFICIAL PUBLICATION DATE is handstamped in a limited number of initial copies and is
recorded in the Institution's annual report, Smithsonian Year. SERIES COVER DESIGN: The coral
Montastrea caver nosa (Linnaeus).
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
(Revised for volume 3)
Cressey, Roger, 1930-
Parasitic copepods from the Gulf of Mexico and Carabbcan Sea.
(Smithsonian contributions to zoology ; no. 339)
Includes bibliographic references.
1. Holobomolochus and Neobomolochus. 2. Bomolochidac. 3. Caligus.
1. Copepoda—Mexico, Gulf of—Classification. 2. Copepoda—Caribbcan Sea—Classification. I. Title. II. Se-
ries: Smithsonian contributions to zoology; no. 339, etc.
QL1.S54 no. 339. etc. 591s 81-9055 [QL444.C7] [595.4'4]
Introduction 1
Acknowledgments 1
Caligus afurcatus Wilson, 1913 1
Caligus asperimanus Pearse, 1951 2
Caligus atromaculatus Wilson, 1913 3
Caligus balistae Steenstrup and Liitken, 1861 3
Caligus berychis Wilson, 1936 4
Caligus biaculeatus Brian, 1914 5
Caligus bonito Wilson, 1905 5
Caligus chelifer Wilson, 1905 6
Caligus chorinemi Kr0yer, 1863 6
Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup and Lutken, 1861 7
Caligus epinephali Yamaguti, 1936 7
Caligus haemulonis Kr0yer, 1863 8
Caligus isonyx Steenstrup and Lutken, 1861 8
Caligus kabatae, new species 9
Caligus longipedis Bassett-Smith, 1898 10
Caligus mutabilis Wilson, 1905 10
Caligus ocyurus, new species 11
Caligus pelamydis Kr0yer, 1863 11
Caligus pomacentrus, new species 12
Caligus praetextus Bere, 1936 12
Caligus productus Dana, 1852 13
Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898 13
Caligus rufimaculatus Wilson, 1905 14
Caligus suffuscus Wilson, 1913 14
Caligus wilsoni Delamare Deboutteville and Nunes Ruivo, 1958 15
Caligus xystercus, new species 15
Discussion 16
Appendix: Host-Parasite List 17
Figures 1-220 19
Literature Cited 52
Parasitic Copepods from the
Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea,
III: Caligns
Roger Cressey
Introduction Caligus known from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.
This is the first of 2 papers to result in a much needed In the present paper I have included only synoptic descriptions
revision of the circumglobal genus Caligus. This effort has and selected illustrations of those five species. The reader is
been facilitated by the Catalogue and Synopsis of Caligus by referred to the earlier work for more complete descriptions.
Margolis et al. (1975). Their work brought the literature up to I have included in the synonymies only citations of those
date and will facilitate a much needed generic revision. species that have been cited in the literature since Margolis et
al. (1975).
Most of the collections reported herein were made from the
The abbreviation USNM refers to the former United States
west coast of Florida and Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. Carrie Bow
National Museum, collections now in the National Museum
Cay, located 15 miles southeast of Dangriga, Belize, is a small
of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
island on the barrier reef leased to the Smithsonian Institution
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.—I thank the staff of the Mote Marine
as a research station. During my participation, seven 2-week
Laboratory and in particular, 2 former directors, Eugenie Clark
trips were taken from 1980 to 1989. Fish were collected by
and Perry Gilbert, for their support during the study. The Carrie
poison stations, trawl, spearfishing, rod and reel, trapping, and
Bow Cay studies were supported in part by the Exxon
donations of "trash" fish from the local fishermen. Although
Corporation, and the program is administered by Klaus
Carrie Bow Cay is on the barrier reef, several mangrove islands
Ruetzler, whose support is gratefully acknowledged. This
lie between the reef crest and the Belize shore. The fish
paper is contribution number 254 of the Reef and Mangrove
examined during the study were from both of these habitats.
Study—Belize, Smithsonian Institution.
The Florida collections were made from a substation of the The following people contributed considerably to this effort
Mote Marine Laboratory located in Placida, Florida, on the in various ways: Marjorie Stodgell, Tony Rath, Mike
estuary of Charlotte Harbor. Fish were collected mostly by Carpenter, Brian Kensley, Paula L. Rothman, and special
trawl, poison, and rod and reel. thanks goes to Hillary Boyle Cressey, who illustrated most of
During the study 192 species of marine fishes and over 4400 the species. Thomas Byrnes donated a small collection of
individuals were examined for parasitic copepods from both Caligus species from Jamaica that included specimens of C.
collection areas. The parasites are the basis for the present epinephali Yamaguti, previously known only from the
paper. Indo-Pacific.
The genus can be divided into subgroups based on the
character of the fourth leg. A discussion of that and other Caligus afurcatus Wilson, 1913
taxonomic characters follows the descriptions.
Cressey and Cressey (1980) redescribed the known species FIGURES 1-8
and described new species of copepods parasitic on scombrid Caligus afurcatus Wilson, 1913:215.
fishes. That paper contained descriptions of 5 species of
MATERIAL EXAMINED.—Wilson (1913) described this spe-
Roger Cressey, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, National cies from the typehost Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre) from
Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, Montego Bay, Jamaica. The description below is based on the
D.C. 20560. type material (USNM 43518).
FEMALE.—Total length 2.77 mm, greatest width 1.44 mm the typehost Lutjanus analis (Cuvier) collected off Bimini
(Figure 1). Cephalothorax widest posteriorly and comprising (Bahamas). The description below is based on Pearse's material
more than half total length. Genital complex longer than wide and subsequent collections by the author from L. apodus
and comprising about one-third of total length. Abdomen very (Walbaum), L. analis, L. jocu (Bloch and Schneider), and L.
small, indistinctly articulated with genital complex (length of synagris (Linnaeus) from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize.
genital complex about S times longer than abdomen). Caudal FEMALE.—Body form as in Figure 9. Total length 4.42 mm.
rami (Figure 2) small, about as long as wide and placed at outer Cephalothorax comprising less than half total body length (1.6
lateral corners of abdomen and somewhat divergent, terminal mm). Genital complex widest posteriorly and about as long as
setae broken on specimen. wide. Abdomen about 3 times as long as wide (700 x 233 urn)
(genital complex about 1.4 times longer than abdomen). Caudal
Lunules widely spaced. Second antenna (Figure 3a) claw
rami (Figure 10) somewhat longer than wide (116 x 70 \im)
curved but not at right angle, posterior spine pointed.
and armed with setae as in figure.
Postantennal process (Figure 3b) reduced to a sclerotized knob.
Lunules about as wide as space between lunules. Second
Spiniform process of first maxilla (Figure 3c) pointed. Sternal
antenna (Figure l l a ) with prominently recurved distal hook,
furca (Figure 4) very small, tines somewhat divergent and
posterior spine spatulate. Postantennal spine (Figure lib)
longer than box.
recurved at or nearly at right angle. Spiniform process of first
Leg 1 (Figure 5) exopod with 4 terminal setae, medial 2 maxilla (Figure 1 Ic) with pointed tip. Sternal furca (Figure 12)
with accessory process; medial lateral setae relatively short, tines widely divergent and about same length as box.
each bearing pinnules, endopod reduced. Leg 2 (Figure 6) first Leg 1 (Figure 13) basipod with a patch of spinules as in the
segment of exopod with prominent, inwardly directed spine at figure; last segment of exopod with 3 terminal spines
outer distal corner, extending well beyond second segment; (medialmost 2 with accessory spine on medial margin),
second segment short, bearing much smaller spine at outer terminal seta at medial corner pinnate on outer margin, 3 setae
distal corner (spine less than half length of first segment spine); on medial margin, each bearing row of setules at base of outer
last segment bearing 2 small outer spines, outer terminal spine margin, followed by pinnules and sparsely pinnate on medial
bearing terminal flagellum and medial pinnae; all remaining margin, as in figure. Leg 2 (Figure 14) exopod first segment
medial exopod setae pinnate; endopod outer margins of all 3 with stout spine at outer distal corner, outer margin with narrow
segments with short setules as indicated in figure, all terminal hyaline, fringed membrane; second segment with stout spine
to medial setae pinnate. Leg 3 exopod (Figure 7) spine on outer at outer distal corner, about three-fourths as long as spine on
corner of first segment extending to base of last segment, first segment, both margins fringed; last segment with small
remaining segments armed as in figure; endopod 2-segmented, outer spine on outer margin followed by longer stout spine
first segment with 1 medial seta, second segment with 2 medial with membrane on inner margin and terminal semipinnate seta
setae, last segment with 6 setae. Leg 4 (Figure 8) exopod with membrane on outer margin; all other medial setae on
2-segmented, first segment with terminal spine extending to exopod segments pinnate. Endopod first segment with sparse
about mid-margin of second segment, second segment with patch of setules at outer distal corner; second segment with
spine on outer margin and 3 terminal spines; terminalmost 2-3 rows of blunt-tipped spines on outer margin; last segment
spine about twice as long as other 4 lateral spines; fringed with small patch of setules at outer proximal corner. Leg 3
processes at bases of 2 terminal spines. basipod with scattered spinules on outer surface; exopod
MALE.—Unknown. (Figure 15) first segment with spine across second segment
REMARKS.—This species has not been reported since not reaching last segment, spine with fine membrane along
Wilson's original collection. The author has examined several outer margin and slightly recurved; second segment with weak
specimens of S. viride from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, and, so outer spine and medial pinnate seta; last segment with 3 weak
far, has been unsuccessful in collecting additional material. outer spines and 4 pinnate setae; exopod setal formula 0,1,4.
Wilson based the species name on the observation that the Endopod setal formula 1,6. Leg 4 (Figure 16) exopod
sternal furca was missing. Examination of the type specimens 2-segmented; first segment with outer spine reaching beyond
reveals the presence of a small sternal furca. Ho and base of first spine of last segment, last segment with spine at
Bashirullah (1977) examined the holotype and also noted that, outer mid-margin and 3 terminal spines, medialmost spine
contrary to Wilson's description, a small sternal furca is about one-third longer than other 4 (it should be noted that
present. Their observation is reconfirmed in this paper. spine on first segment is somewhat longer than following 3
spines of last segment); all spines with pecten.
Caligus asperimanus Pearse, 1951
MALE.—Body form as in Figure 17. Total length 2.33 mm,
FIGURES 9 - 1 9 greatest width 1.16 mm. Genital complex somewhat longer
than wide (0.35 x 0.30 mm). First abdominal segment shorter
Caligus asperimanus Pearse, 1951:344.
than second segment (0.19 x 0.16 mm and 0.21 x 0.16 mm,
MATERIAL EXAMINED.—Pearse described this species from respectively). Caudal rami somewhat longer than wide (0.10
x 0.08 mm). Second antenna (Figure 18) claw bifid. Other setae; outermost pinnate seta only about two-thirds length of
appendages as in female except middle segment of endopod other 2; proximal outer edge pinnules thicker at base; outer
of leg 2 with thick setules (Figure 19) rather than stout recurved distal edge of all 3 setae with much shorter pinnules than others
spines present in corresponding segment of female. on setae. Leg 2 (Figure 25) exopod first segment with
REMARKS.—This species appears to be host-specific to prominent, inwardly directed spine on outer corner, outer edge
species oiLutjanus and is so far known only from the western of spine with fine fringe; second segment with inwardly
Atlantic. directed spine on outer distal corner but spine only about
one-half length of spine on first segment, spine fringed as in
Caligus atromaculatus Wilson, 1913 figure; last segment with 3 outer spines and 5 pinnate setae as
in figure; endopod first segment without ornamentation on
FIGURES 20-29 outer distal corner, second segment with setules along outer
edge; last segment with patch of setules at base of outermost
Caligus atromaculatus Wilson, 1913:214.—Cressey and Nutter, 1987:600.
seta; pinnate setae on all segments as in figure. Leg 3 exopod
MATERIAL EXAMINED.—Wilson (1913) described this spe- (Figure 26) with spine on first segment, outer edge of spine
cies from Teuthis (Acanthurus) hepatus (Bloch and Schneider) with hyaline fringed membrane; other spines and setae as in
from Montego Bay, Jamaica (holotype USNM 42348). figure. Leg 4 (Figure 27) exopod 2-segmented; first segment
Additional material was collected by the author from the with terminal seta extending beyond base of spine at
following hosts at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize: Acanthurus mid-margin; last segment with seta near mid-margin of outer
bahianus Castelnau (4 collections), A. chirurgus (Bloch) (2 edge and 3 terminal setae (outermost very short and difficult
collections), A. coeruleus Schneider (9 collections), Anisotre- to see behind pecten).
mus virginicus (Linnaeus) (1 collection), Aulostromus macula- MALE.—Body form as in Figure 28. Total length 1.30 mm,
tus Valenciennes, Bodianus rufus (Linnaeus) (2 collections), greatest width 0.80 mm. Genital complex somewhat longer
Calamus pennatula Geuchenot (1 collection), Chaetodon than wide (0.21 x 0.19 mm). Abdominal segments measure
striatus Linnaeus (2 collections), C. capistratus Linnaeus, 0.04 x 0.21 and 0.08 x 0.21 mm respectively. Caudal rami
Haemulon sciurus (Shaw) (1 collection), Halichoeres radiatus somewhat longer than wide (0.07 x 0.05 mm). Second antenna
(Linnaeus) (6 collections), Holacanthus ciliaris (1 collection), terminal claw not bifurcate. Other appendages as in female.
Lachnolaimus maximus (3 collections), Malacanthus plwnieri REMARKS.—Wilson (1913) described this species from the
(Bloch) (1 collection), Odontoscion dentex (Cuvier), Pomacan- "doctorfish," Teuthis hepatus, from Jamaica. This paper
thus arcuatus (Linnaeus), Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch and records this species from 16 different host fish from Belize.
Schneider) (1 collection). Additional material is present in the Although it appears that there is little host specificity for the
Smithsonian collections from the following hosts and locali- parasite, 15 records were from 3 species of acanthurid fishes
ties: Haiti: Chaetodon capistratus; North Carolina: Chaetodon (like Wilson's record). The remaining records were scattered
ocellatus Bloch; Barbados and St. Thomas: Chaetodon among 13 diverse species of hosts. From most hosts there are
striatus; Jamaica: Sparisoma viride. only 1 or 2 records with the interesting exception of 6 records
FEMALE.—Body form as in Figure 20. Total length of type from Halichoeres. It would be premature in this paper to
specimen 1.98 mm. Cephalolhorax somewhat triangular, speculate on the host-parasite relationships but an analysis of
widest posteriorly and comprising about half total body length. Caligus host specificity is anticipated when more collections
Lunules not as wide as space between. Genital complex also are completed.
widest posteriorly and about as wide as long. Abdomen (Figure
21) very small, about as wide as long (length of genital Caligus balistae Steenstrup and Liitken, 1861
complex approximately 5.5 times longer than abdomen).
Caudal rami small, about as wide as long and usually somewhat
divergent at outer corners of abdomen; each ramus bearing 3 Caligus balislae Steenstrup and Lutken, 1861:354s.—Cressey and Nutter,
terminal setae of about equal length, 2 shorter outer setae and 1987:600.
1 short medial seta (see Figure 21). Second antenna (Figure Caligus alatus Heegaard, 1943:14 [new synonymy].
Caligus polycanthi Gnanamuthu, 1950:159 [new synonymy].
22a) claw bent nearly at right angle at outer third, posterior
Caligus canlhidermis Yamaguti and Yamasu, 1959:112 [new synonymy].
process pointed. Postantennal spine (Figure 22b) digitiform Caligus sensilis Kabata amd Guzev, 1966:156 [new synonymy].
and somewhat recurved. Spiniform process of first maxilla
(Figure 22c) long, digitiform. Sternal furca (Figure 23) tines MATERIAL EXAMINED.—This species was originally de-
somewhat divergent and spatulate, tines somewhat longer than scribed from specimens collected from Balistes in the West
box. Indies. Two additional specimens were found by the author in
Leg 1 (Figure 24) basipod with a patch of spinules; exopod a collection in the Smithsonian (USNM 69885) identified by
last segment with 4 terminal naked setae, medial 2 each with Wilson as C. atromaculatus from Monacanthus hispidus
an accessory spine extending to tip of seta; 3 medial pinnate (Linnaeus) from the Sargasso Sea. Additional material included
herein was collected by the author from hosts housed in the Caligus berychis Wilson, 1936
fish collections of the Smithsonian Institution as follows: 7
females, 4 immature females from Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck);
1 female from Canthidermis sobaco Poey; 2 females from C. Caligus berychis Wilson, 1936:107.
maculatus (Bloch), and 1 female from Coryphaena hippurus
Linnaeus. All collections were from the northeast coast of MATERIAL EXAMINED.—Wilson (1936) described this spe-
South America and southern United States. These new cies from a single collection containing both females and
collections are incorporated into the collections of the males. The females and holotype male were deposited at
Smithsonian Institution. Harvard University (MCZ) and paratypes at the Smithsonian
FEMALE.—Body form as in Figure 30. Cephalothorax Institution (USNM 69836). The description of the female
comprising about half of total body length. Lunules widely herein is based on the USNM material. The host (Beryx
spaced; distance between lunules about three times lunule decadactylus Cuvier and Valenciennes) is a relatively deep-
diameter. Genital complex about as wide as long, posterolateral water form and, as such, is unusual as a host for Caligus
corners somewhat produced posteriorly. Abdomen small, species, more commonly found on inshore, shallow-water
pedunculate, 1-segmented, about as wide as long (genital fishes. An additional collection made by the author consists
complex about 3.2 times longer than abdomen). Caudal rami of 4 females (USNM 180660) collected from Strongylura
(Figure 31) truncate, greatest width about equal to total length. notata (Poey) off Sarasota, Florida.
Second antenna (Figure 32a) robust; terminal claw acutely FEMALE.—Body form as in Figure 46. Total length 6.6 mm,
recurved at distal third; posterior process pointed. Postantennal greatest width 2.6 mm, measured at widest part of cephalotho-
spine (Figure 326) stout; sickle-shaped; spiniform process of rax. Genital complex about twice as long as wide (2.4 x 1.4
first maxilla (Figure 32c) pointed, heavily sclerotized, and mm), produced at posterior corners. Abdomen somewhat
broad. Sternal furca (Figure 33) tines divergent; tips somewhat longer than wide (1.0 x 0.8 mm). Caudal rami (Figure 47)
rounded, tines shorter than box. short, about as long as wide, armed as in figure (length of
Leg 1 (Figure 34) exopod last segment with 1 short spine genital complex approximately 2.6 times longer than abdo-
on outer corner, 3 terminal spines, medialmost longest and men).
each without accessory processes, and 3 pinnate medial setae; Lunules widely spaced, interspace more than twice lunule
very fine pinnules along outer edge, and medial edge with diameter. Second antenna (Figure 48a) claw bent at nearly right
stouter and more widely spaced pinnules. Endopod small, angle at tip and bearing a short, somewhat pointed process at
membranous. Leg 2 (Figure 35) exopod first segment spine inner posterior corner. Postantennal process (Figure 48ft)
toothed along medial margin; second segment spine with 1 digitiform, slightly recurved; spiniform processs of first
medial tooth and about half as long as first spine; last segment maxilla (Figure 48c) also long-digitiform. Sternal furca (Figure
with 2 outer spines, terminal semipinnate seta, and 5 pinnate 49) box longer than tines, latter divergent with rounded tips.
setae; endopod segments each with setules on outer margin as Leg 1 (Figure 50) exopod last segment bearing 3 terminal
indicated in figure; all setae on both rami pinnate. Leg 3 exopod claw-like spines, each with an accessory process, a seta, pinnate
(Figure 36) first segment with stout recurved spine on outer on outer edge at medial corner, and 3 medial pinnate setae, all
corner; second segment with medial seta and weak spine at about equal in length. Leg 2 (Figure 51) exopod first 2
outer distal corner, last segment with 4 medial setae and 3 segments each bearing an inwardly directed spine on outer
weak outer spines. Leg 4 (Figure 37) with 2-segmented distal corner; second segment spine nearly as long as first, each
exopod; first segment with terminal spine nearly reaching to spine with fringed membrane along outer edge; last segment
end of second segment; second segment without spine on outer with 2 outer spines and terminal semi-innate seta; pinnate setae
mid-margin and bearing 3 terminal spines, outer 2 about equal on medial exopod margin as in figure. Endopod first segment
in length, and medialmost longest, pecten at bases of spines. bearing patches of setules along outer margin and row of longer
MALE.—No males found in collections reported herein. spines at outer corner; second segment with fine setules along
Heegaard (1943) reported immature male and figured second outer margin; last segment bearing U-shaped row of spines on
antenna. Based on known differences between second antennae outer margin and pinnate setae as in figure. Leg 3 exopod
of Caligus females and males, his illustration appears more (Figure 52) with stout distal spine on first segment reaching
like typical female than usually modified male second antenna. to third segment; second segment with weak spine at outer
REMARKS.—So far, this species has been collected only from distal corner; last segment with 3 weak spines along distal outer
monocanthid fishes and it seems to be circumglobal in margin and 4 pinnate setae. Leg 4 (Figure 53) exopod
distribution. In 1950 Gnanamuthu described this species as 2-segmented; first segment bearing a spine at distal corner,
polycanthi, which Ho (1966) placed in synonymy with C. second segment with spine at mid-margin and 3 terminal spines
canthidermis described by Yamaguti and Yamasu (1959). I (medialmost somewhat longer than others), all spines fringed
consider both of these species and Heegaard's (1943) C. alatus along outer margin and those on last segment with prominent
to be synonymous with C. balistae. pecten at base of each.
MALE.—Body form as in Figure 54 and as in female except Leg 2 (Figure 61) exopod first segment with spine bearing
genital complex not produced at posterior corners. Second membrane along outer margin on outer corner extending across
antenna as in Figure 55; terminal hook recurved about 180°. second segment and second segment with spine at outer distal
Other appendages as in female. corner about half length of first segment spine and with fringe
along outer margin; last segment with small spine on outer
margin followed by a longer digitiform spine; tip of segment
Caligus biaculeatus Brian, 1914 with longer semipinnate seta with outer membrane and medial
pinnae; all segments with usual medial pinnate setae; all 3
endopod segments with setules on outer margin as in figure
Caligus biaculeatus Brian, 1914:2. and usual terminal to medial setae. Leg 3 (Figure 62) exopod
first segment with recurved terminal spine not reaching second
MATERIAL EXAMINED.—This species has not been reported segment; second segment with naked seta on outer distal
since Brian's original description. The specimens on which corner; last segment with 3 outer naked setae and inner pinnate
Brian based his description (holotype from the Musee setae. Leg 4 (Figure 63) exopod 2-segmented, first segment
Oceanographique in Monaco) were recovered from a trawl with terminal seta reaching base of next seta; last segment with
sample that contained specimens ofMacrurus and Bathygadus. 1 lateral and 3 terminal setae (outermost terminal seta very
The collections were apparently made near the Madeira Islands. small, covered by pecten; see arrow Figure 64), terminal seta
The recent collections4 6from Caribbean shallow-water fishes about twice length of subterminal seta.
suggests that the deep-water fishes present in the trawl from MALE.—Unknown.
which the original collection was made are probably not the REMARKS.—Although this species was collected from 8
true hosts and it is more likely that fishes of the shallow water different hosts it was most common on the trumpetfish
around the Madeira Islands were. The collections reported (Aulostomus maculatus), wrasse (Halichoeres bivittatus), and
herein were recovered from off Belize from the following: parrotfish (Sparisoma viride). Its presence on 7 different hosts,
Aulostomus maculatus (6 collections), Sparisoma viride (4 however, indicates that it is not very host specific. This
collections), Halichoeres bivittatus (Bloch) (2 collections), evidence may support my previous comments about Brian's
Acanthurus bahianus (3 collections), Acanthurus coeruleus, (1914) original collection. If this species is not very
Acanthurus chirugus, Haemulon sciurus (Shaw), Malacanthus host-specific, it may spend a good part of its life in the
plumieri (1 collection each). The holotype was borrowed from plankton, moving from host to host and thus might be captured
the Musee Oceanographique, Monaco, and compared with the in a trawl tow.
material cited above.
FEMALE.—Body form as in Figure 56. Total length 3.5 mm, Caligus bonito Wilson, 1905
greatest width 1.4 mm. Cephalothorax widest posteriorly and
comprising less than half of total length (-40%). Genital FIGURES 65-68
complex about twice as long as wide (1.8 x 0.8 mm) and Caligus bonito Wilson. 1905:479.—Cressey and Cressey, 1980:26.—Pillai,
comprising about half total length. Abdomen very small, 1985:252.—Cressey and Nutter. 1987:600.
somewhat longer than wide (0.37 x 0.28 mm), articulation Caligus sarda Pearse, 1952:45 [new synonymy].
with genital complex not well defined (genital complex about Caligus productus.—Causey, 1953:6 [ex. C. hippurus]; 1955:5 [ex. C.
8 times longer than abdomen). Caudal rami (Figure 57) very Caligus kwoshio Shiino, 1959:51 [new synonymy].
small (0.9 x 0.7 mm), somewhat longer than wide and with
usual 6 setae as in figure. Holotype smaller (2.3 mm long) and MATERIAL EXAMINED.—This species has been reported
genital complex proportionaly shorter than new material many times from a variety of hosts (see Margolis et al., 1975
described above. for a comprehensive account). It was more recently redescribed
Lunules not widely spaced. Second antenna (Figure 58a) by Cressey and Cressey (1980). A, few additional details are
terminal claw at right angle; small accessory process near base added here.
of claw; posterior process pointed. Postantennal spine (Figure FEMALE.—The total length varies from 5 to 8 mm depending
5Sb) digitiform, not sharply curved. Spiniform process of first on geographic area (larger in colder water). The lunules are
maxilla (Figure 58c) with rounded tip. Sternal furca (Figure prominent but the diameter is not quite as great as distance
59) tines somewhat longer than box, widest near tip, recurved between them. Diagnostic characters are as follows. Second
distally. antenna bears a strongly recurved claw and posterior spatulate
Leg 1 (Figure 60) last segment with 4 terminal spines, process. Three main body divisions are of about equal length
middle 2 each with accessory process, medial setae each with (Figure 65). Furca tines (Figure 66) nearly parallel and blunt
an outer row of thickened setules on outer third followed by tipped and box slightly longer or equal to length of tines. Each
short, fine setules on remain

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