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UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA
CULTIVATING CRITICAL AND CREATIVE THINKING SKILLS
THROUGH AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF
LITERARY TEXTS
SAROJA DHANAPAL
FPP 2008 10
CULTIVATING CRITICAL AND CREATIVE
THINKING SKILLS THROUGH AN INTEGRATED
APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF LITERARY
TEXTS
SAROJA DHANAPAL
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA
2008
CULTIVATING CRITICAL AND CREATIVE THINKING SKILLS THROUGH
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF LITERARY TEXTS
By
SAROJA DHANAPAL
Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, University Putra Malaysia, in
Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
FEBRUARY 2008
Abstract of Thesis presented to the Senate of Universiti Putra Malaysia in fulfilment of
the requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
CULTIVATING CRITICAL AND CREATIVE THINKING SKILLS THROUGH
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF LITERARY TEXTS
By
SAROJA DHANAPAL
FEBRUARY 2008
Chairman : Associate Professor, Malachi Edwin Vethamani, PhD
Faculty : Educational Studies
This research addressed the issue of critical and creative thinking skills (henceforth
abbreviated to CCTS) in relation to Malaysian secondary school students. The aim of the
study was to establish the current status of CCTS among Malaysian students and to prove
the hypothesis that an integrated approach to literary text will enhance the level of CCTS
among students. The integrated approach here refers to an approach which combines the
reader response approach and stylistics analysis to the teaching of literary texts. The
researcher adopted the combination of Benjamin Bloom’s and Cogaff Taxonomy (a
taxonomy derived by Dr Ghazali Mustapha) which is labeled as the CCT Taxonomy as a
base for the study.
The study adopted a quantitative and qualitative research method whereby it incorporates
an experiment conducted by way of a pre-test and post-test, an interview of teachers and
classroom observation. The data for this study was collected through a survey conducted
i
in two Malaysian secondary schools, one in a rural area and the other in an urban area.
The respondents consisted of Form 4 students.
In furtherance of the research, an analysis was done on the current methods adopted by
the teachers in the schools with the purpose of investigating how far these methods were
effective in cultivating CCTS among Malaysian students. The researcher also conducted
some classes using the integrated approach to seek evidence that the method advocated
(an integrated approach) is more effective for cultivating CCTS among students.
The research findings showed that an integrated method is more effective for the purpose
of cultivating CCTS. The pre test and post test results of the groups were analysed using
the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The
results obtained in the post test and its difference with the pre test results as well as the
vast difference between the results obtained by the control group and experimental group
showed that the method suggested which is an integrated approach to the teaching of
literary texts cultivates critical and creative thinking skills far more effectively than the
other methods used by the teachers currently. Findings from both the urban and rural
schools were consistent.
The findings from this study could contribute to the improvement of pedagogical
practices in the teaching and learning of literary texts. The approach can be used as a
modal system by the Ministry of Education as it can aid teachers, teacher trainers and
syllabus designers to develop a framework appropriate for cultivating CCTS through the
ii
teaching of literary texts. This approach can be adopted both at schools as well as at
tertiary levels. This approach will not only enhance CCTS among students, it will also
cultivate an interest in reading literary texts and other reading materials. In the long run,
if this approach is adopted, the objectives of our national leaders to cultivate citizens who
have both the ability to think critically and creatively will be achieved.
iii
Abstrak tesis yang di kemukakan kepada Senat University Putra Malaysia sebagai
memenuhi keperluan untuk ijazah Doktor Falsafah
MEMUPUK KEMAHIRAM BERFIKIR SECARA KRITIKAL DAN KREATIF
MELALUI KAEDAH INTEGRASI DALAM PENGAJARAN KARYA SASTERA
Oleh
SAROJA DHANAPAL
FEBRUARY 2008
Pengerusi : Professor Madya, Malachi Edwin Vethamani, PhD
Fakulti : Fakulti Pendidikan
Kajian ini merujuk kepada isu pemikiran kritikal dan kreatif di kalangan pelajar di
sekolah sekolah menengah di Malaysia. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji tahap
pemikiran kritikal dan kreatif di kalangan pelajar sekolah serta memastikan hypothesis
pengkaji bahawa, penggunaan system integrasi yang merangkumi teori “reader response”
dan ‘stylistics’ untuk mengajar komponen sastera dalam matapelajaran Bahasa Inggeris
akan dapat meningkatkan tahap pemikiran kritikal dan kreatif para pelajar. Bagi tujuan
ini, satu taxanomi yang dinamakan Taxanomi CCT akan digunakan sebagai dasar kajian.
Taxanomi ini adalah gabungan taxonomi Benjamin Bloom dan Cogaff (Taxonomi yang
dihasilkan oleh Dr Ghazali Mustapha).
Data bagi kajian ini telah dikumpulkan melalui satu survey yang dijalankan di dua buah
sekolah menengah, satu di bandar dan satu lagi di luar bandar. Para responden yang
terlibat dalam kajian ini terdiri daripada pelajar-pelajar Tingkatan 4. Kajian ini
iv
merangkumi satu experimen dengan kaedah “pre test” dan “post test”, temuduga dengan
para guru dan pemerhatian pengajaran guru di bilik darjah.
Kajian ini mengamalkan methodologi “kualitatif dan kuantitatif”. Kaedah pengajaran
yang diamalkan oleh para guru pada masa kini dikaji untuk mengetahui keberkesanan
kaedah-kaedah tersebut dalam memupuk pemikiran secara kritikal dan kreatif di
kalangan pelajar-pelajar di Malaysia. Pengkaji juga telah mengajar pelajar-pelajar di
sebuah kelas di kedua-dua buah sekolah dengan menggunakan kaedah integrasi untuk
membuktikan kaedah ini lebih efektif untuk memupuk pemikiran kritikal dan kreatif.
Hasil kajian telah membuktikan methodologi integrasi lebih efektif bagi tujuan memupuk
pemikiran kritikal dan kreatif.
Kajian statistik ANOVA dan ANCOVA telah dilakukan ke atas keputusan ‘pre-test’ dan
‘post-test’ kedua-dua kumpulan di kedua-dua sekolah. Hasil kajian di sekolah-sekolah
tersebut membuktikan bahawa kaedah integrasi lebih efektif berbanding dengan kaedah
yang diamalkan oleh para guru pada masa kini. Hasil kajian di kedua-dua sekolah adalah
konsisten.
Hasil kajian ini akan menyumbang kepada perkembangan dalam bidang pedagogi.
Dalam bidang pengajaran karya sastera, kaedah integrasi ini juga boleh dijadikan sebagai
model oleh Kementerian Pendidikan memandangkan ia berupaya membantu guru-guru,
pelatih guru-guru dan pengubal kurikulum bagi membentuk rangka yang sesuai untuk
memupuk pemikiran kritikal dan kreatif melalui pengajaran karya sastera. Kaedah ini
v
boleh digunakan di sekolah-sekolah dan pusat pengajian tinggi. Kaedah ini bukan sahaja
dapat meningkatkan tahap pemikiran kritikal dan kreatif di kalangan pelajar, malah
boleh juga memupuk minat membaca hasil karya sastera dan bahan-bahan bacaan lain.
Jika kaedah ini diamalkan, pengkaji yakin bahawa dalam jangka masa panjang objektif
para pemimpin untuk melahirkan rakyat yang berkebolehan berfikir secara kritikal dan
kreatif akan tercapai.
vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am grateful to my supervisors, Dr. Malachi Edwin Vethamani, Dr. Ghazali Mustapha
and Dr. Ganakumaran Subramaniam who have helped generously in the completion of
this dissertation. All three of them are wonderful persons not only as my supervisors but
also as persons who have touched my life in significant and memorable ways. Their
advice and guidance have helped me through this challenging journey. Their invaluable
suggestions and constructive criticisms has made the writing of this thesis a reality.
First I have to thank God whose strength has helped me through all the difficult moments
while writing this dissertation. A number of people have contributed for the successful
realization of this thesis. I would like to give my sincere gratitude to my previous
employer, Mr. Andrew Choo of Stamford College whose invaluable contribution lies in
his providing me with the required equipments needed for carrying out the classroom
observations and also giving me ample opportunities to carry out my survey in terms of
time-off and leave. I also owe a great deal to my current employer, Madam Janet Wooi
whose friendship and constant faith in my abilities went a long way in motivating me to
complete my thesis. In addition, she also contributed extensively in terms of giving me
time-off to pursue my research. Both their assistance is greatly appreciated as they have
helped extensively in the perseverance of this dissertation.
vii
I would also like to give my sincere gratitude to Nirmala and her husband for their
invaluable contribution to me during the period of finalizing the submission of my thesis.
In addition a number of very close and considerate friends provided me support and
assistance in assiduously typing and editing my work. Among them are R.Kala Devi,
R.Uma Devi, Sheila Dass, Khairul Rizal, Ms Zaharah, Chan Siew Chong, Raghu, Mr
Murugian, Ms Chandralekha, Madam Rekha, Dinesh Kumar and Karthiyani. Special
thanks should also be given to my sister, Latchumy and her two sons and daughter,
Rajasegaran, Mahadevan and Vinothini whose moral and physical support helped
extensively in the completion of this thesis.
Lastly, I would like to dedicate this dissertation to my husband, T. Jaganathan and my
three sons, Jeeva Nandanan, Suresh Nantha and Harish Kumar for their tolerance,
forbearance as well as their love and prayers without which this would not have been
possible.
viii
I certify that an Examination Committee has met on 13th February 2008 to conduct the
final examination of Saroja Dhanapal on her Doctor of Philosophy thesis entitled
“Cultivating Critical and Creative Thinking Skills through an Integrated Approach to the
Teaching of Literary Texts” in accordance with Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (Higher
Degree) Act 1980 and Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (Higher Degree) Regulations 1981.
The Committee recommends that the student be awarded the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.
Members of the Examination Committee were as follows:
Arshad Abd. Samad, PhD
Associate Professor
Faculty of Educational Studies
Universiti Putra Malaysia
(Chairman)
Tajularipin Sulaiman, PhD
Senior Lecturer
Faculty of Educational Studies
Universiti Putra Malaysia
(Internal Examiner)
Jayakaran Mukundan, PhD
Associate Professor
Faculty of Educational Studies
Universiti Putra Malaysia
(Internal Examiner)
Fatimah Hashim, EdD
Professor
Department of Language and Literacy Education
University Malaya
(External Examiner)
________________________________
HASANAH MOHD. GHAZALI, PhD
Professor and Deputy Dean
School of Graduate Studies
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Date:
ix
This thesis was submitted to the Senate of Universiti Putra Malaysia and has
been accepted as fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy. The members of the Supervisory Committee are as follows:
Malachi Edwin Vethamani, PhD
Associate Professor
Faculty of Educational Studies,
Universiti Putra Malaysia
(Chairman)
Ghazali Musthapa, PhD
Senior Lecturer
Faculty of Educational Studies,
Universiti Putra Malaysia
(Member)
Ganakumaran Subramaniam, PhD
Senior Lecturer
Faculty of Social Science,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
(Member)
AINI IDERIS, PhD
Professor and Dean,
School of Graduate Studies
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Date: 14 AUGUST 2008
x
DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the thesis is based on my original work except for
quotations and citations which have been duly acknowledged. I also declare that
it has not been previously or concurrently submitted for any other degree at UPM
or other institutions.
SAROJA DHANAPAL
Date: 14 JULY 2008
xi
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1.1 Learning Outcomes 8
2.1 Difference between Critical Thinking and
Creative Thinking 47
2.2 Models of Thinking 51
2.3 Approaches to Teaching Thinking Skills 59
2.4 Analysis of Approaches to Literature 79
2.5 Analysis of Module (The Lotus Eater) 105
2.6 Analysis of Module (The Necklace) 107
2.7 Analysis of Module (The Drovers Wife) 111
2.8 Analysis of Module (The Sound Machine) 113
2.9 Analysis of Module (Looking for a Rain God) 115
2.10 A Comparative Analysis of the Approaches and Critical
and Creative Thinking Skills (CCTS) Levels adapted in
the 5 Short Stories 119
2.11 Current Critical Thinking Test, Types and Weaknesses
(Based on Information from U.S. Department of
Education, 2000) 132
3.1 Particulars of the Interviewees 155
3.2 Critical and Creative Thinking (CCT) Taxonomy 169
4.1 ANOVA of pre-test and post test of Control Group
(Rural School) 203
4.2 ANOVA of pre-test and post test of Control Group
(Urban School) 209
4.3 Analysis of Data in Record Book 211
4.4 Levels of Language Analysis 228
xii
4.5 ANOVA of pre-test and post test of Treatment Group
(Rural School) 246
4.6 ANOVA of pre-test and post test of Treatment Group
(Urban School) 251
4.7 ANCOVA of Experiment Test Results Rural Area 252
4.8 ANCOVA of Experiment Test Results Urban Area 253
xiii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
1.1 Critical and Creative Thinking
(Adapted Bloom’s and Cogaff Taxonomy) 21
1.2 Theoretical Framework, 32
1.3 Research Structure 38
2.1 Skills in Critical Thinking 44
2.2 Blooms Taxonomy 49
2.3 Five Stages of Readers Response 127
2.4 Integrated Approach Process 129
3.1 Framework of Research Methodology 144
4.1 Pre and Post Test Results of Control Group
(Rural School) 199
4.2 Pre and Post Test Results of Control Group
(Urban School) 205
4.3 Model of Narrative Structure 229
4.4 Pre and Post Test Results Treatment
(Rural School) 244
4.5 Pre and Post Test Results Treatment
(Urban School) 248
5.1 CCT Taxonomy 261
xiv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ABSTRACT i
ABSTRAK iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vii
APPROVAL ix
DECLARATION xi
LIST OF TABLES xii
LIST OF FIGURES xiv
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problem 15
1.3 Objectives of Study 22
1.4 Research Questions 23
1.5 Significance of Study 24
1.6 Scope of Study 27
1.7 Limitation of Study 28
1.8 Theoretical Framework 31
1.9 Research Structure 35
1.10 Operational Definitions 39
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 42
2.2 Critical and Creative Thinking Skills 42
2.3 Differences between Critical and Creative Thinking
Skills 46
2.4 Models of Thinking Skills 48
2.5 The Role of Critical and Creative Thinking Skills
in Education 54
2.6 Approaches to Teaching Thinking Skills 59
2.7 Definitions of Literature 63
2.8 Functions of Literature 64
2.9 The Teaching and Learning of Literature 68
2.10 Approaches to the Teaching and Learning of Literature 73
2.11 Reader Response as an Approach to the Teaching and
Learning of Literature 81
2.12 Stylistics as a Method Analysis of Literary Texts 87
2.13 Approaches to the Teaching and Learning of Literature in
Malaysia 98
2.14 Reader Response Approach and Stylistic Analysis as
an Approach to Teaching Creative and Critical
Thinking Skills (Integrated Approach) 121
2.15 Assessing Critical Thinking Skills 132
2.16 Summary 136
3. METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 137
3.2 Purpose of Study and Research Questions 137
3.3 Validity and Reliability of Research 138
3.4 Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods 139
3.5 Research Design 141
3.6 Framework of Research Methodology 144
3.7 Sampling 145
3.8 Data collection 148
3.9 Document Analysis 148
3.10 Interview 149
3.11 Particulars of Teachers Interviewed 155
3.12 Classroom Observation 159
3.13 Particulars of Teachers Observed 164
3.14 The Study 164
3.15 Rational for CCT Taxonomy 167
3.16 CCT Test 170
3.17 Data Collection Procedure 171
3.18 Data Analysis 172
3.19 Pilot Study 177
3.20 Summary 178
4. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Introduction 179
4.2 Research Question 1 180
4.2.1 Interviews 181
4.2.2 Classroom Observation 190
4.2.3 Analysis of Experiment Results (Control Group)
Using ANOVA 202
4.2.4 Analysis of Data in Record Books 210
4.2.5 Challenges Faced in Teaching Literary Text 223
4.2.6 Summary 224
4.3 Research Question 2 226
4.3.1 Lesson 1 233
4.3.2 Lesson 2 235
4.3.3 Lesson 3 237
4.3.4 Lesson 4 239
4.3.5 Summary 241
4.4 Research Question 3 243
4.4.1 Analysis of Experiment Results Using ANOVA
(Treatment Group-Rural) 243
4.4.2 Analysis of Experiment Results Using ANOVA
(Treatment Group-Urban) 248 4.5
ANCOVA of Experiment Results
(Treatment and Control) 252
4.6 Summary 255
4.7 Related Issues that Emerged 256
4.7.1 Integration of Literature of Component 256
4.7.2 Selection of Text 258
4.7.3 Time Allocation 259
5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction 260
5.2 Summary 260
5.3 Conclusion 265
5.4 Recommendations for Further Research 267
REFERENCES 270
APPENDICES 290
BIODATA OF STUDENT 325
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
This research addresses the issue of critical and creative thinking skills (henceforth
abbreviated to CCTS) in relation to Malaysian secondary school students. The topic of
critical and creative thinking skills has been debated extensively over the years.
Academicians all over the world have accepted that the central goal of education is to
help students learn how to think more effectively. Although critical and creative thinking
skills have been identified as important skills to be inculcated in students, the question
on how this is being implemented and its success has yet to be analyzed. The aim of this
study is to show how CCTS can be cultivated in the Malaysian secondary schools. The
study also advocates an integrated approach, an approach which combines the reader
response theory and stylistic analysis (the term will be explained in depth in Chapter
Two) to the teaching of literary texts as a method of cultivating CCTS among Malaysian
students.
Over the years there is evidence to show that CCTS skills are much needed in modern
societies. Marzano (1988) claims that the success of any democratic system depends on
the individual’s ability to analyze problems and make thoughtful decisions. Cotton
(1996) asserts that in the twentieth century, the ability to engage in careful, reflective
thought has been viewed in various ways: as a fundamental characteristic of an educated
person, as a requirement for responsible citizenship in a democratic society, and, more
recently, as an employability skill for an increasingly wide range of jobs. In line with
1
this, the former Prime Minister of Malaysia, Mahathir Muhammad (1998) had stated that
education should prepare children to cope with changes rather than become dependent
on habits. He is of the opinion that education for the future should emphasize less on
acquiring knowledge that is transient in nature and should focus more on developing
critical and creative thinking minds. The former Minister’s reminder can be said to have
come at the right time.
The awareness as to the need to cultivate CCTS among students in Malaysia has been an
issue of concern to many. Malachi Edwin (1992) stated that literature in English besides
developing reading skills will also help develop students’ critical thinking skills. He
adds that these skills will in turn provide students opportunities to understand
themselves and their fellow human beings better. In line with Malachi Edwin’s view on
the potentials of literature and its role in the cultivation of CCTS, the present research is
aimed at using literature as the base through which CCTS can be promoted effectively.
Literature in English has been chosen from the many subjects offered in the Malaysian
curriculum for two reasons. Firstly, literature in English can be seen to cut across the
various subjects in the curriculum as the contents of literary texts are so diverse that they
incorporate social, political, scientific, technological, medical and all other areas of life.
Secondly it is an undeniable fact that literature plays an important role in our present
curriculum since it is now being taught to students from Form 1 to Form 5 as a
component of the English Language syllabus. Ganakumaran S. (2007) gives further
illustration as to why literature is a suitable subject for cultivating CCTS. He claims that
“in literary reading we are engaged with the multitude of possibilities underlying the
aspects we are reading [and that] this engagement leads us to the realm of explorations
2
of how the various elements of the texts – language, style and content – leads us through
a wondrous journey of interpretations of the entire work”. There is no doubt that the
very nature of the subject which requires analysis and interpretation in itself encourages
critical and creative thinking.
Before delving into how studying literature can help cultivate CCTS among students, it
is essential for us to understand a little as to the development of this subject in our
curriculum. The role of literature in English in the Malaysian curriculum has gone
through tremendous changes. The subject itself had been in existence since the
colonization of Malaysia by the British. Ganakumaran S. (2003) has traced the history of
the teaching of literature in Malaysia in a comprehensive manner. He states that the
downturn in the teaching and learning of literature as a subject is crucially marked by the
change in the medium of instruction in schools from English to Malay. He goes on to
add that prior to the changes brought about by the Education Enactment Bill in 1971
which replaced English with the National Language, Bahasa Malaysia as a medium of
instruction, the teaching of literature in English played a core part in the curriculum.
With the amendments, literature was considered as a relic from the colonial past and was
considered irrelevant in the age of science and technology (Fernando, 2004). Even with
these turbulent changes, today, literature has reemerged in a stronger and renewed form.
In 1999, the Ministry of Education made the move to incorporate literature as part of the
English Language syllabus (KPN/JPNS 2000). This resurgence of literature was the
effect of development over the last decade seen in the economic boom together with
factors related to globalization and the age of Internet (Ganakumaran S., 2003). Malachi
3
Edwin (2002) claims that there are many reasons for incorporating literary texts in our
syllabus and that these reasons can be placed under two broad categories which is to
educate and to entertain. He goes on to add that literature develops the imagination,
gives various experiences, develops insight into human behaviour, presents the
universality of experience besides enhancing language development. Ganakumaran S.
(2002) claims that in Malaysia, the arguments regarding the benefits of using literary
texts is seen for its merits of interactive and imaginative learning as well as the ability of
literary texts in developing emotional and cultural maturity. The above views clearly
indicate that literature is an effective subject through which critical and creative thinking
skills can be enhanced.
The issue of cultivating CCTS among Malaysian students is not something new as there
is focus on this in the school curriculum and the evidence is seen in the objectives of the
curriculum and the teaching manuals provided by the Curriculum Development Centre
for the teaching of the literary component. The English language syllabus for Form Four
states clearly a number of objectives of the curriculum but the objective which is of
relevance to the present study is Objective Number Three as quoted below:
‘listen to, view, read and respond to different texts, and express ideas, opinions,
thoughts and feelings imaginatively and creatively in spoken and written form’.
(Huraian Sukatan Pelajaran, Ting IV. KPM, 2003)
4
The curriculum does indicate specific focus on critical and creative thinking skills and
this is seen in the third objective. The phrase ‘express ideas, opinions, thoughts and
feelings imaginatively and creatively’ indicates this. This clearly supports the view that
the curriculum focuses on the ability of students to think imaginatively and creatively.
In analysing the syllabus specifications further, the focus on critical thinking is seen
under the section titled ‘Education Emphases’. Under this heading, the syllabus indicates
clearly that ‘critical and creative thinking skills are incorporated in the learning
outcomes to enable learners to analyse information, make decisions, solve problems, and
express themselves accurately and creatively in the target language’ (Huraian Sukatan
Pelajaran Ting IV. KPM 2003)
The syllabus lists down the objectives for Form 4. For the purposes of this study, only
the relevant objectives will be addressed. These objectives include the following:
Interact with people and develop skills in forming and maintaining
friendships by expressing care and concern and willingness to help; and
creating a sense of togetherness;
Give feedback on products and services and respond appropriately to
feedback given;
Obtain information from various sources including factual material and
present the information clearly and accurately to others both orally and in
writing;
Read and respond to poems and stories;
Have a positive outlook and act appropriately in social situations; and
Show an awareness and appreciation of moral values and love towards the
nation.
(Huraian Sukatan Pelajaran, Ting IV. KPM, 2003)
5


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