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Blended Learning: Concept and Application
3rd International Malaysian Educational Technology Convention
24-26 October 2009
Yusup Hashim (Ph.D)
Asia e University Kuala Lumpur
If we teach today as we taught yesterday, then we
rob our children of tomorrow
John Dewey
Key Points
Introduction: Online and Blended Learning Development of BL
OnLine Benchmark Learning Tools and theories
Recommendations Research findings BL
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
INTRODUCTION
What is Online Learning?
Teaching and Learning System mostly delivered via
network/Internet operated by computer
What learning system is used to conduct online learning?
It uses Learning management system (LMS) consists of a set of
learning/communication tools to plan, prepare, develop, deliver,
communicate and manage online courses
What is Blended Learning?
Combination of online learning components with conventional FtF
instruction. Also called hybrid learning
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
BLENDED/HYBRID LEARNING
ONLINE LEARNING CONVENTIONAL FTF TEACHING
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Proportion of Type Of Course Typical Description
Content delivered
0% Traditional Course with no online technology used —
content is delivered in writing or orally.
Course which uses web-based technology
1 to 29% Web Facilitated
to facilitate what is essentially a face-to-
face course. Uses a course management
system (CMS) or web pages to post the
syllabus and assignments, for example.
Course that blends online and face-to-face
30 to 79% Blended/Hybrid
delivery. Substantial proportion of the
content is delivered online, typically uses
online discussions, and typically has some
face-to- face meetings.
A course where most or all of the content
80+% Online is delivered online. Typically have no
face-to-face meetings.
Source: Allen, E, Seaman, J & Garrett, R. (2007). Blending in: The extent and promise of blended
education in United States, Annual Report, Sloan Consortium
http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/survey/staying_course
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
Type of Learning Definition
Online Synchronous or asnychronous online
learning with 20% or less F-t-F time
Blended Synchronous or asnychronous online
learning with more than 20% F-t-F
time
Hybrid Courses that combined two or more
synchronous or asnychronous online
learning tools combined with F-f-F
time
Source: Swenson & Redmond (2009) Issues in Teacher Education, 18(2) pp.3-10
http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/survey/staying_course
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Development of Blended Learning
In America:
I989 Berners invented World Wide Web
About 96% Universities and Colleges offer online courses (Allen &
Seaman, 2006)
University of Phoenix started online learning
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TIM BERNERS
A graduate of Oxford University, England, in
1989, Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide
Web, an internet-based hypermedia initiative for
global ...
http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
Development of Blended Learning
Sloan Survey online Learning (2008) reported that:
Over 3.9 million students took at least one online course during
the fall 2007 term; a 12 % increase over the number reported the
previous year. (3.2 million Fall Semester 2005 (Sloan
Consortium, 2006)
Over 20% of all U.S. higher education students were taking at
least one online course in the fall of 2007.
Higher fuel costs will lead to more students selecting online
courses.
Institutions that offer programs for working adults are the most
positive about the potential for overall enrolment growth being
driven by rising unemployment.
Allen, I. E., Seaman, J. (2008). Staying the Course Online Education in United States. United States of America:
Sloan Consortium. Retrieved November 16, 2008, from
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
http://www.sloanc.org/publications/survey/pdf/staying_the_course.pdf
Continue:Development of Blended Learning
First Preference by Delivery Mode
Sloan Consortium (2007) reported that:
• A course/program that is primarily on-campus (web-
facilitated) (24%)
• A totally on-campus course/program (22%)
• Totally online course/program (20%)
• Primarily online course/program (blended) (19%)
• A course/program that is equally balanced between online
and on-campus (blended) (14%)
• A course/program by another form of distance learning (e.g.
audio, video, CD-ROM) (2%)
Source: Allen, Seaman & Garrett (2007). Blending in: The extent and Promise of
Blended Education in the United States, Sloan Consortium
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Continue:Development of Blended Learning
Do Academic Leaders and Faculty Agree?
Both chief academic officers and online teaching
faculty agreed that flexibility in meeting the needs of
students was the most important motivation for
teaching online.
Being required to teach online had the lowest rated
motivation in each group.
Souce: Allen, Seaman & Garrett (2007). Blending in: The extent and Promise of
Blended Education in the United States, Sloan Consortium
http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/survey/staying_course
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
How online learning benefits teacher.
Opinion of Teachers who teach online classes (n=678)
1. Control own learning
2. Feel more connected to schools
3. More motivated to learn
4. Collaborate with classmates
5. Comfortable asking questions
Learning in the 21st Century, 2009 Trends Update
www.tomorrow.org
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
How online learning improve teacher
effectiveness
Opinion of Teachers who teach online classes
(n=678)
1. Encouraged students to be more self-directed
2. Facilitated collaboration between students
3. Facilitated student-centered learning
4. Gave more personalized attention
5. Took time to differentiate instruction
6. Better understand of how my students
were doing
7. Spent more time with individual students
Learning in the 21st Century, 2009 Trends Update
www.tomorrow.org
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
How online learning benefits 6th-12
graders students
Opinion of students who attended online classes)
(n=18,230)
1. Control own learning
2. More motivated to learn
3. Comfortable asking questions
4. Collaborate with classmates
5. Feel more connected to schools
Learning in the 21st Century, 2009 Trends Update
www.tomorrow.org
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
Development of Online Learning in Malaysia
• Internet introduced in 1996
• UNITAR was the first IPTS (Private institution) to offer online courses
followed by Multimedia Universiti, OUM, UWM and AeU.
• OUM has 75,000 students (Cumulative student enrolment)
• Online Learning in IPTA (Public Institutions)
• UITM, UPM, UKM, UPSI, UM, UTM, UTHM, USM, UNIMAS, dll.
• As of 2009, there were 21 public and 51 private universities in
Malaysia
(http://www.expat.com.my/Expatriate%20Malaysia%20Info%20%20Universities%20and%20Colleges%
20in%20Malaysia%20.htm
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ONLINE LEARNING TOOLS
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Types of LMS (Learning Management Systems)
1. Open Source (Free)
Moodle, Atutor, Claroline, Sakai dan Illias, dll
2. Licenced (Commercial)
MyLms (OUM), MyGuru (UPSI),
Blackboard+WebCT (UTHM), VOISS(UNITAR),
MMLS (Multimedia University) SalMas (UKM)
UM(COL), LMS (AeU)
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
MyGuru2 (UPSI)
• Started with MyGuru 1 in 2005 and updated to My
MyGuru2.
• MyGuru2 was created with the cooperation of OUM
• Originated from myLms from OUM.
• Has some WebCT influence
• MyGuru2 was introduced in December 2006/2007
under the 2+1 Credit hour
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MyGuru has the following features/online learning tools:
Course Tools:
• Announcement,
• About the course,
• Glossary,
• Assignment,
• General Forum,
• Chat,
• File Sharing.
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Continue MyGuru2
Group Tools:
Coursemate,
• Staff Information,
• Online Evaluation Server,
• Administration Tool
Content Management:
• About the Course
• Announcement
• Course Materials
• Assignment
• Glossary
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Sambungan MyGuru2
Online Assessment:
• Question bank Pool,
• Assessment Report
Communication Management:
• General Forum
• Chat
• File Sharing
• Group Tool
• Assessment Manager
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LMS Learning Tools at Asia electronic University (AeU}
• Announcement
• Courseware (Course Content)
• Learning materials (Supported digital teks and visuals,
• eg. PowerPoint)
• Web- links
• Quiz (Online Assessment)
• Question Banks (Developed by the course instructor or
Academic Facilitator
• Discussion/forums
• Chat Room
• Messaging
• Assignment and Submission
• Tutorial/Timetable
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AeU LMS
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AeU LMS
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E-Learning activities at IGNOU)
IGNOU: Super mega open universities with 2.2 million students
Discussion Forums, Online Calendar and Alert Systems
TVTV & Webinar Sessions
& Webinar Sessions Community RadioSessions
Community Radio Sessions
File/Assignments U/D
TV & Webinar Sessions Query Management System
Community Radio Sessions
Counsellors Support & Web Mentoring System
Online Library and Multimedia Publishing System
Regional/Study Centres Support System
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Indra Ghandi National Open University (IGNOU) Open Course Guide
(IOCG): leverages on Convergence for Learner Engagements
Course
Exercises
Self Study / Discovery
Course Map TV &
& Library
Webinars
QMS &
LMS
Web Web Mentoring
Content
IOCG Discussion
Personal Forums
Dash Board E-Mail
& Alerts
Web SMS Alerts
Resources M-Learn
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Group Interactions/ P2P Learning
ODL Learning materials
Printed materials:
Modules Computer mediated means
Teaching guides Web-based
Learning guides lessons/learning objects
Textbooks CD-Rom/DVD
Electronic libraries
Learner- Centred
Tutor feedback Approach
Greater flexibility in
pacing the programme to
meet learner needs
Audio
Audio CD Video
Audio tapes Videotape
Radio TV Broadcast
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Online Learning Theories
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Online Learning Model
(Types of Interactions)
STUDENT
Student- Content- Search & retrieval
Communication
Asynchronous
Or content KNOWLEDGE/ content Tutorials,
Synchronous CONTENT Simulations &
INTERFACE Games, Virtual
labs e-book
TEACHER
Adapted from Anderson,, T. (2004). Towards a theory of online learning. In T. Anderson & F. Elloumi,(Eds.).
Theory and practice of online learning, Canada Open University, Athabasca University http://cde.athabasca.caonline_book/copyright.html
Retrieved University Copyright 2009-2010
Asia e on 26 April, 2004
Influence of Technology on online Learning PCK
1. Based on Schulman theory of PCK (1986): Teachers need
more than pedagogy or content knowledge i.e. need to
integrate pedagogy and content (Neiss, 2008)
2. Intersection of technology, T & L and content (knowledge,
and skills) is vital to prepare students for 21st Century
learning (ACOT, 2008)
3. Interaction of technologies and PCK produce effective
teaching with technology
3. American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education
(AACTE) published the handbook of Technological
Pedagogical Content Knowledge
4. The National Educational Technology Standards (NETS,
2008) helps to improve teacher use of technology in T & L
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
TPACK (Technological Pedagogical And Content Knowledge)
Technology 21st Century
TPACK
TPACK &
Globalisation
Source: Adapted from http://www.tpack,org and the ACOT2 Report
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Online learning: Implications on Constructivism
Online learning approaches are often
associated with collaborative constructivist
view of learning
Four reasons for incoroperating constructivism activities
in online design course:
1. Increase student participation in constructing their
own knowledge
2. Increase student via interaction/collaboration
3. Provide opportunities for the application of content to
real life events
4. Increase student participation in learning process
Source: Morales, C.R. (2007). Perceptions and practices of instructional designers towards the use
of constructivist learning enviornments in online design course. Ph.D Dissertation,
Cappela University
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Online Learning: Implications on Constructivism
Five reasons that discouraged IDesigners to implement
constructivist activities :
1. Instructor not interested (40.48%)
2. Lack of expertise (19.5%)
3. Lack of time (Eg. To design and implement course
structure and content (14.29%)
4. Not Relevant (14.29%)
5. Lack of funding (0%)
Source: Morales, C.R. (2007). Perceptions and practices of instructional designers towards the use
of constructivist learning enviornments in online design course. Ph.D Dissertation,
Cappela University
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
Online Learning: Implications on Constructivism
Methods and constructivist activities preferred:
1. Problems solving (71.43%)
2. Collaborative learning (66.67%
3. Case-study (64.29%)
4. Real-life applications (64.29%)
Source: Morales, C.R. (2007). Perceptions and practices of instructional designers towards the use
of constructivist learning enviornments in online design course. Ph.D Dissertation,
Cappela University
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
Online Learning: Critics on Instructional Design
1. ISD is the recommended process for designing,
developing and implementing learning programs
2. ISD needs an overhaul so that it meets actual
practice
3. It is a methodology (Step by step)rather than a
model (observed phenomena)
4. ID has changed: Need creation of more flexible
approach to design and contextual issues
5. Poor need assessmen: ID has no experience with
content or learners; based on assumption and
documents.
6. ID produces formal courses with specific objectives.
Online learning opens opportunities for informal
learning: Learner determines the objectives and
when learning has been successfully completed.
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
Online Learning: Implications on Instructional Design
7. ISD tends to favour mastery learning: a behavourist
approach
8. Most ISD models does not include steps for
estimating costs, budgets, staffing ect.
Source: Carliner, S. & Shank, P. (Editor) . (2008). The e-learning handbook New York: John Wiley
& Sons
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Online Learning: Implications on Instructional Design
According to Merrill (2008) much e-3 learning could be characterised
as e-3 learning (Pronounced as e sub-three learning).These three are:
1. Enervative: Rather than promoting skills acquisition interferes
with learning.
2. Endless: Leads to boredom by being too passive, devoid of
interaction, allowing learners to disengage
3. Empty: Fails to implement instructional strategies, only provides
information transferred to the Internet without appropriate
demonstration, practice, feedback, learner guidance/coaching.
Information alone is not instruction
Source: Carliner, S. & Shank, P. (Editor) . (2008). The e-learning handbook New York: John Wiley &
Sons
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Online Learning: Implications on Instructional principles
So Merrill suggested the e-3 learning (pronounced as third power
of learning: Effective, efficient and engaging). It applies 5
instructional principles:
1. The activation principles: Recall, describe or demonstrate
prior experience
2. The demonstration principle: Learners observe
demonstration of skills or through media
3. The application principle: Learning promoted when
learners engage in application of newly acquired skills
through coaching and feedback
4. The task-centred principle: Learning is promoted when
learners engaged in task: Task taught in context
5. The integration principle: Learning is promoted when
learners integrate new knowledge with everyday lives by
reflecting, discussing and defending, etc
Source: Carliner, S. & Shank, P. (Editor) . (2008). The e-learning handbook New York: John
Wiley & Sons
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Implementation of MyGuru at UPSI: Recommendations
Phase 1: Upload curriculum /instructional plan
Phase 2: Upload instructional/course materials
Phase 3: Use Forum for online discussions (teacher-learner and
learner-learner interaction)
Phase 4: Use Quiz online for formative evaluation/exercises
Phase 5: Develop web page to link/integrate web page with MyGuru
Phase 6: Collaborate with other learning institutions via video conferencing
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 Reserach findings on lecturer’s competencies on
online learning in teaching and (Yusup, Md Nor, Ismail
& Mahizer, 2007).
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Research Goal
 Identify lecturers’ competencies on online instruction
and learning
 To assist Private Institutions of Higher learning to plan
online instruction as an alternative approach to
conventional face-to-face teaching.
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Research Findings
Table 1: Technical and Operational Skills
(n=110)
Skills Mean Std.
Deviation
Navigate web-based materials 4.43 0.683
Electronic presentation(Eg: Power 4.35 0.656
Point)
Use and manage e-mails 4.25 0.848
Knowledge on Personal Digital 2.98 1.092
Assistant (PDA)
Design and develop web page 2.87 1.293
Use of video conferencing 2.68 1.100
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Table 2
Pengalaman Pensyarah Tentang PDT (n = 110)
Pengalaman Peratus (%)
First time use online learning (OL) 43.6
OL is not used full-time 75.5
OL is used to supplement FtF conventional teaching 85.5
Learner interested to use OL 71.8
Lecturer ready to use OL 80.9
OL has attended OL training/workshop 67.3
Lecturer had access to computer and Internet 90.9
OL assist conventional teaching
Institutions provide OL facilities and infrastructure 86.4
PDT dapat membantu mata pelajaran dan cara pensyarah mengajar 89.1
PDT mempengaruhi komunikasi pensyarah dengan pelajar 77.3
Pensyarah tidak terlibat dalam Jawatan Kuasa Perancangan dan Pelaksanaan kurikulum 17.3
PDT
Persekitaran PDT dapat mengubah cara pensyarah menjalankan penilaian terhadap 66.4
pembelajaran pelajar
Pembelajaran autentik/konteksual dapat dilaksanakan 73.6
Persekitaran PDT dapat menjamin kredibiliti kursus 70.0
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PDT tidak mengganggu beban tugas pensyarah 57.3
Table 2: Lecturers’ experience using online teaching
Experience %
First time using online learning (OL) 43.6
OL is not used full-time 75.5
OL is used to supplement FtF conventional teaching 85.5
Learner interested to use OL 71.8
Lecturer ready to use OL 80.9
Lecturer has attended OL training/workshop 67.3
Lecturer has access to computer and Internet 90.9
Institutions provide OL facilities and infrastructure to support OL 86.4
OL assist subject teaching and teaching method 89.1
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Continue
Table2: Lecturers’ experience using online teaching
Experience %
Lecturer not involved in curriculum planning and implementation 17.3
OL enviornment can change learner evaluation and assessment 66.4
Contextual and authentic learning can be implemented 73.6.
OL enviornment maintain course credibility 70.0
OL does not affect teachning workload 57.3
Lecturer interested to do OL in other courses 83.6
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
Influence of Technology on online Learning PCK
1. Based on Schulman theory of PCK (1986): Teachers need
more than pedagogy or content knowledge i.e. need to
integrate pedagogy and content (Neiss, 2008)
2. Intersection of technology, T & L and content (knowledge,
and skills) is vital to prepare students for 21st Century
learning (ACOT, 2008)
3. Interaction of technologies and PCK produce effective
teaching with technology
3. American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education
(AACTE) published the handbook of Technological
Pedagogical Content Knowledge
4. The National Educational Technology Standards (NETS,
2008) helps to improve teacher use of technology in T & L
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
ONLINE LEARNING BENCHMARK
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Online Learning Benchmark
0
Quality on the Line: Benchmarks for Success in Internet-Based Distance Education
(NEA, 2000)
1. Institutional Support
• Technology Plan for security: Password, Code,
encryption, back-up system, ect.
• Technology delivery system: Efficient and Reliability and
accessibility
• Central support system for infrastructure and
infostructure maintenance
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010
Continue………benchmark
2. Course design and development
• Follow standard instructional design procedure and
delivery
system
• Periodical course revision and evaluation to meet
program standard
• Course fulfill learner needs and learning domains:
Analysis, sinthesis dan evaluation
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Continue………benchmark
3. Teaching and Learning
• Learner interaction with lecturer and learner with
learner: Forum, chat, e-mail, voice mail, ect.
• Immediate feedback and according to negotiated
time
• Learner has research and information skills
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Continue………Benchmark
4. Course Structure
• Before OL starts, learner need s to be exposed on course
program, material access, media and technology use
• Course outline, learning outcomes, assignments and course
evaluations
• Library resources: Printed and digital materials including e-
journals
• Learner and lecturer agreed on assignment submission dateline
and feedback procedure
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Continue……….Benchmark
5. Student Support
• Provide information on course program: Admission,
registration, fees, books, technology, academic
adviser, ect.
• Provide Hand-ons training and information on e-
library, library loan and other resources
• Provide technical assistance to facilitate learning
• Provide efficient student support service
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Continue………benchmark
6. Faculty Support
• Instructional design and technical support to develop
online learning modules
• Guide on how to move from conventional to online
teaching
• Peer tutoring support
• Written document on copyright, intellectual property,
ethics, ect
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Continue………Benchmark
7. Evaluation and Assessment
• Overall Course effectiveness
• Enrolment data, cost and innovative use of
technology are used to evaluate program
• Learning outcomes are reviewed regularly to assure
quality
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SUGGESTIONS
Lecturer needs to have the following skills:
 To improve technical and operational skills
 To create web page and use video conferencing.
 To improve pedagogical skills and use of of online
learning technologies.
 To do small maintenance, to share expertise and
collaborate with others in and outside institutions
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Continue………Suggestions
Management:
 Instructional Technology and ICT Centre to conduct
training on OL: Pedagogy and technical skills
 ICT centre to set up hotline service and desk officer to
solve online problems
 Instructional technology Centre to give advice on
instructional system design
 Academic Division to plan online learning in stages
 Teaching workload reduced and provide icentives to
enculture online learning.
Asia e University Copyright 2009-2010


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