• DIKTAT MATA KULIAH BAHASA INGGRIS 3


  •   
  • FileName: English-3-MUA-ES-1.pdf [read-online]
    • Abstract: Perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat di bawah ini beserta keterangan tentang ... Setelah itu masing masing grup membuat contoh-contoh kalimat yang memiliki ...

Download the ebook

DIKTAT MATA KULIAH
BAHASA INGGRIS 3
DISUSUN OLEH
A. KEMAL RIZA
Nabiela Naily
Fakultas Syariah
IAIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya
2010/2011
BAB I
Reading
Ijtihad
During the Prophet's life the Muslim community respected the Prophet's authority as
their spiritual guide, community leader as well as a trusted and respected individual.
He intervened in cases of controversy and the Muslims listened and obeyed his
advice. However, this did not negate the benefits of using ijtihad, or independent
judgment. There Prophet encouraged the believers to apply the principles of ijtihad
to their everyday lives. For example, it is reported that when the Prophet appointed
Mu'adh ibn Jabal governor of Yemen, he asked him what he would do in case an
issue arises. Mu'adh said he would first refer to the Quran and then to the teachings
of Muhammad. The Prophet then asked him what he would do if there is no clear
answer from these sources. Mu'adh answered that he would do the best he could and
use his personal judgment. The prophet was satisfied with his answer.
After the death of the Prophet, the right of interpreting the Quranic regulations was
not the privilege of any special official body, but laymen could do it. To prevent
individuals from practicing ijtihad haphazardly, al-Shafi'i developed a methodology
for using ijtihad in his book, al-Risalah. Since then, the role of ijtihad has not been in
the hands of the laymen. Rather, only select experts in Islamic law could do ijtihad.
These people are Fuqaha or Muslim jurists. They issued fatwa or religious decisions.
Today in many Muslim countries, many Islamic decisions from personal to political
issues are fatwas of fuqaha.
Kosakata dalam Konteks
Intervened(v):melibatkan Select(adj): pilihan Aim (v): menuju
diri/mengintervensi
Negate(v):Menafikan Experts(n): Ahli Covenant(n): perjanjian
Judgment(n): Penilaian Issued(v): Mengeluarkan Interest(n): kepentingan
Encouraged(v):Mendorong Appointed:Mengangkat Arises(v): Muncul
Refer(v): merujuk Teachings(n): Ajaran Privilege(n): Hak istimewa
Satisfied(v): Puas/senang Official body(n): Lembaga resmi Laymen: Orang awam
Privilege(n): keistimewaan Haphazardly(adv): Since then: Sejak saat itu
sembarangan
Comprehension questions
1. Why oes the Muslim community respect the prophet?
2. Did the prophet interfere in controversial cases?
3. What did the prophet encourage the believers?
4. What was Muadh’s answer to the prophet’s question?
5. Can ordinary people with limited knowledge exercise Ijtihad after the
prophet passed away?
6. What is the reason Shafii developed methodology for using Ijtihad?
7. Who can perform Ijtihad after the Risala has been written by Shafii?
1
8. Are the fatwas of Ulama and Jurists in many Muslim countries concern
about private matters only?
9. What do you think of Ijtihad, is it allowed or in contrast should be
prohibited?
10. Who do you think will be best perform ijtihad in this country?
Put T If the statement is correct and f if the statement is false
1. Muslim community respects the prohet as successful merchant. (…….)
2. Risalah is the book by Shafii (…….)
3. Risalah is the famous book in Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) (…….)
4. Muadh Ibn Jabal is the governor of Yamen through Chalif Abu Bakr’s
appointment. (…….)
5. The prophet involves in controversial cases to show his authority. (…….)
6. Laymen tend to perform Ijtihad carelessly. (…….)
7. Shafii wrote Risalah as the strategy to prevent ignorant people from
conducting ijtihad. (…….)
8. Every Muslim should perform Ijtihad regardless their capacity. (…….)
9. The prophet motivates his Ummah (followers) to employ the principles
of Ijtihad in daily cases. (…….)
10. Fatwas of Fuqaha in many Muslim countries range from private to state
and public matters. (…….)
Review on Grammar
Sentence
Sentence (Kalimat) adalah group of words that, at least, has subject (sebagai
pokok kalimat) and predicate (sebutan kalimat) and has a complete meaning
(pengertian yang lengkap atau sempurna).
Examples:
Fariha smiles
S P
Muhammad is a prophet
S P
Parts of sentence
Kalimat bisa juga memiliki parts of sentence (bagian kalimat) selain hanya
subjek dan predikat, tapi juga Objek dan atau complement. Objek adalah noun
atau pronoun yang menjadi sasaran predikatnya (tujuan kerja dari subjek) yang
bisa dibagi menjadi direct object(Do atau obyek langsung) dan indirect
Object(Ido atau obyek tidak langsung) . Sedangkan complement adalah kata
atau kata-kata yang melengkapi sebuah kalimat baik itu melengkapi
subjeknya(Cs) maupun melengkapi objeknya (Co). Selain itu ada juga yang
disebut sebagai adjunct yang merupakan keterangan tambahan. Adjuct bisa
2
memberikan keterangan tambahan baik pada subjek maupun pada objek.
Keterangan ini bisa berupa keterangan tentang waktu, keterangan tentang
tempat, keterangan tentang waktu, dan lain-lain.
Perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat di bawah ini beserta keterangan tentang
bagian-bagian kalimat yang ada:
Muslim community respected the Prophet's authority
S V O
Muslims apply principles of ijtihad to their every day lives
S P O(DO) (ID O)
The prophet appointed Muadh Ibn Jabal Governor of Yamen
S P O C
Islamic banks develop very well nowadays
S p C A
To be noted:
Membuat kalimat bukan hanya mensyaratkan terdapatnya subjek dan predikat
saja, tapi juga bahwa susunan unsur atau bagian kalimat juga harus tepat
supaya memberi pengertian lengkap atau sempurna. Jika susunan subjek dan
predikat tidak benar sehingga pengertiannya tidak sempurna atau lengkap,
maka sekumpulan kata tersebut tidak bisa dikategorikan sebagai kalimat.
Examples;
smiles Fahira
Ihdina a fashion magazine reads
in the bathroom
very expensive car
Recites Al-Quran every morning
Nominal and verbal sentence
Berdasarkan jenis predicate, maka kalimat terbagi menjadi kalimat nominal
dan kalimat verbal. Kalimat verbal adalah kalimat yang predikatnya verb
Examples:
The Prophet prohibits mut’a marriage
S V O
Maryam sleeps
S V
Shafii wrote al-umm
S p O
Kalimat nominal adalah kalimat yang predikatnya berupa selain verb, sehingga
membutuhkan helping verb (auxiliary verb; is, are)
3
Examples:
Shafii was a famous scholar
S P
Nafisa is an architect
S P
The dinner is delicious
S P
The jurists are clever
S P
Exercise
Buat satu grup berpasangan tiga sampai empat orang, masing-masing grup
membuat empat contoh kalimat nominal dan dua contoh kalimat verbal.
Setelah itu masing masing grup membuat contoh-contoh kalimat yang memiliki
object dan juga complement serta adjunct (minimum 3). Jadi, masing-masing
grup mempunyai 7 kalimat. Setelah itu, grup bsa menunjuk grup lain untuk
menunjukkan bagian-bagian kalimat(mana subjek, predikat, object dan
seterusnya). Grup yang telah manjawab bisa menunjuk grup lain dan
seterusnya.
Speaking skill (discussion or presentation)
1. Although the prophet interfered in controversial cases, he encouraged the
Muslim to also apply principles of Ijtihad to daily lives.
2. Ijtihad should only be performed by competent people such as jurists or
judges. To what extent do you agree?
3. Some argue that the door for Ijtihad is closed already. On the other hand,
some argue that the door is always open due to changing situation.
4. Can you mention several fatwas of MUI (Majlis Ulama Indonesia) along
with the basis and reasons and discuss whether you agree or not.
4
BAB II
Reading
Background to Islamic banking
Since its emergence in the late 1970s, Islamic banking has emerged from being a
niche offering to becoming part of the mainstream financial services landscape.
Although there are few official statistics on the size of the market and estimates vary,
the total volume of Islamic bank’s assets is believed to be about US$ 500BN.
Dubai Islamic Bank is generally acknowledged to be the first full-fledged Islamic
bank. Since its formation in 1975, the number of institutions operating in line with
Islamic law (Shari’ah) has mushroomed. Today there are more than 500 Islamic
financial services institutions world-wide.
Over the past two to three years alone, more than 50 Islamic financial services
institutions have been launched globally. In particular the Middle East has witnessed
an explosion in the number of Islamic financial services institutions. For example,
Noor Islamic Bank and Al Hilal Bank have been formed in the Uni Arab Emirates,
Boubyan Bank has been launched in Kuwait, while Al Bilad Bank has been launched
in Saudi Arabia, and Al Inma Bank is under formation. The total capital of these banks
alone is in the region of US$ 7BN.
Historically, the growth in Islamic banking came mainly from the desire of retail
banking customers who were seeking to borrow and invest in accordance with their
personal beliefs. This was despite the fact that Islamic banking products were
initially not as competitive as conventional banks. In certain countries, governments
fostered the development of the Islamic banking sector. For example, in Malaysia,
the Government was the driver behind the development of the sector by funding
Islamic financial services institutions and by creating the enabling legal and
regulatory frameworks.
Kosakata Kontekstual
Emergence: kemunculan Niche: kecil BN: billion/ milyar
Late: akhir Being: berupa Becoming: menjadi
Mainstream: utama landscape: wilayah Offering: tawaran
Official: resmi Statistics: data Generally: umumnya
Estimates: perkiraan Vary: berbeda-beda Assets: aset
Acknowledge: mengakui Formation: pembentukan full-fledged: sepenuhnya
Institutions: lembaga Operating: beroperasi Number: jumlah
Mushroom: menjamur world-wide: di seluruh dunia in line: sejalan
Witness: menyaksikan Explosion: ledakan Launch: meluncurkan
Seek: mencari in accordance: sesuai Region: wilayah
5
Certain: tertentu Foster: mendukung Retail: eceran
Initially: awalnya Enabling: mendukung Development: pertumbuhan
Regulatory: aturan Frameworks: kerangka Legal: hukum
Pertanyaan Pemahaman
1. When did Islamic banking emerge?
2. How much is Islamic bank’s asset nowadays?
3. What is the first bank to fully operate based on shari’ah law?
4. How many Islamic banks in the world nowadays?
5. What happen in last a couple of years?
6. Name some Islamic banks which had been launched in the Middle East!
7. What is the main reason of the emergence of Islamic banking?
8. Was Islamic banking more profitable than conventional banks?
9. What is the role of Malaysian government in the development of Islamic
banking?
10. What are the countries mentioned in the reading text?
Review Tata Bahasa: Kalimat Pasif
Basic rule
Kalimat aktif Kalimat pasif
Muslims prefer Islamic banks Islamic banks are preferred by Muslims
S aux V by O
S V O
Todays topic : kalimat pasif yang tidak menyebutkan obyek (by + objek)
Example : Islamic banks are preferred
S aux V
Seringkali dalam kalimat-kalimat pasif tidak ditemukan obyek. Formula kalimat
pasif (Subyek + to be + verb 3 + by + Obyek) tidak sepenuhnya digunakan, (by +
obyek) tidak disebutkan. Hal ini disebabkan karena memang tidak diketahui
obyeknya, obyeknya sudah maklum atau sengaja disembunyikan.
Perhatikan kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini:
1. The total volume of Islamic bank’s assets is believed to be about US$
500BN.
2. Dubai Islamic Bank is generally acknowledged to be the first full-fledged
Islamic bank.
6
3. Over the past two to three years alone, more than 50 Islamic financial
services institutions have been launched globally
4. For example, Noor Islamic Bank and Al Hilal Bank have been formed in the
Uni Arab Emirates,
5. Boubyan Bank has been launched in Kuwait,
6. Al Bilad Bank has been launched in Saudi Arabia
Dalam kalimat-kalimat pasif seperti contoh di atas, tidak ditemukan obyek.
Formula kalimat pasif (Subyek + to be + verb 3 + by + Obyek) tidak sepenuhnya
digunakan (by + obyek) tidak disebutkan. Hal ini disebabkan karena memang
tidak diketahui obyeknya, obyeknya sudah maklum atau sengaja
disembunyikan.
7
LATIHAN
Ubahlah kalimat-kalimat aktif di bawah ini menjadi kalimat pasif dengan tanpa
menyebutkan obyeknya (by + obyek)
1. Interestingly, non-Muslim countries such as the UK, Japan and China have
recognized this shift and are preparing Shari’ah banks to target the
liquidity rich Middle East.
2. The market for Islamic finance faces one major problem – the absence of
universal standards.
3. The absence of universal standards, and the lack of transparency
regarding the application of Shari’ah places a huge burdens on the
marketing of Islamic financial services.
4. the market for Islamic banking shows rich potential.
5. the Islamic banking industry has experienced rapid growth over the past
few years, and this growth is expected to continue for the foreseeable
future.
6. A major impediment, however, to realizing the future potential of Islamic
banking is the limited available talent pool because it takes many years of
education and practical experience to become a Shari’ah scholar.
Diskusi dalam Bahasa Inggris
Pilihlah salah satu topic di bawah ini dan diskusikan bersama teman secara
berpasangan
1. The growth in Islamic banking came mainly from the desire of retail
banking customers who were seeking to borrow and invest in accordance
with their personal beliefs.
2. A major impediment, however, to realizing the future potential of Islamic
banking is the limited available talent pool because it takes many years of
education and practical experience to become a Shari’ah scholar.
3. In Malaysia, the Government was the driver behind the development of
the sector by funding Islamic financial services institutions and by creating
the enabling legal and regulatory frameworks.
8
BAB III
Reading
The Wisdom of Riba Prohibition
That riba or interest is forbidden in Islam is known by all Muslims. This strict
prohibition of interest in Islam is a result of its deep concern for the moral, social and
economic welfare of mankind. Islamic scholars have given sound arguments
explaining the wisdom of this prohibition. According to al-Razi, There are at least
four reasons for forbidding interest.
First is unfair exchange. The taking of interest implies appropriating another
person’s property without giving him anything in exchange, because one who lends
one dirham for two dirhams gets the extra dirham for nothing. Normally, a man’s
property is for the purpose of fulfilling his needs. According to the hadith, a man’s
property is as sacred as his blood. This means that taking it from him without giving
him something in exchange is haram.
Second is that riba is not good for economy. Dependence on interest prevents
people from working to earn money. The person with dirhams can earn extra
dirhams through interest, either in advance or at a later date, without working for it.
The value of work will consequently be reduced in his estimation. He will not bother
to take the trouble of running a business or risking his money in trade or industry.
This will lead to depriving people of benefits, and the business of the world cannot
go on without industries, trade and commerce, building and construction, all of
which need capital at risk.
That riba corrupts morality is the third reason. Permitting the taking of interest
discourages people from doing good to one another, as is required by Islam. If
interest is prohibited in a society, people will lend to each other with good will,
expecting back no more than what they have loaned. While if interest is made
permissible the needy person will be required to pay back more on loans than he
has borrowed. It will weaken his feelings of good will and friendliness toward the
lender.
Fourth is social argument. The lender is very likely to be wealthy, and that the
borrower is usually poor. If interest is allowed, the rich will exploit the poor, and this
is against the spirit of mercy and charity.
Kosakata dalam konteks
Wisdom: hikmah Prohibition: larangan Forbid: melarang
Concern: kekhawatiran Welfare: maslahat Mankind: manusia
Unfair: tidak adil Sound: tepat Imply: berarti
Appropriate: mengambil Exchange: pertukaran Lend: meminjamkan
Purpose: tujuan Property: harta Sacred: suci
9
Dependence: ketergantungan Fulfill: memenuhi in advance: di depan
Value: nilai Earn: menghasilkan Reduced: berkurang
Estimation: perhitungan Consequently: tentu Run: menjalankan
Risk: mempertaruhkan Bother: peduli Deprive: menghalangi
Benefit: keuntungan Lead to: mengarah Commerce: trade
Capital: modal Building: bangunan Construction: building
Discourage: melemahkan go on: berlanjut Corrupts: merusak
Expect: mengharap Required: diminta good will: ketulusan hati
Weaken: memperlemah Loan: lend Needy: poor people
Against: berlawanan Friendliness: persahabatan Exploit: memperbudak
Charity: kedermawanan Spirit: semangat Mercy: kasih sayang
Pertanyaan Pemahaman 1
Jawablah pertanyaan-pertanyaan di bawah dalam Bahasa Indonesia ini
berdasarkan bacaan di atas
1. Can bank interest defined as riba?
2. What is the concern if riba is left unprohibited?
3. How many are the reasons to probihibit riba?
4. Can you explain what does the unfair exchange means?
5. How does the hadith regarding a man’s wealth say?
6. Why is riba not good for economy?
7. Why rich people are reluctant to work if riba is allowed?
8. What does Islam teach rich people?
9. Why does riba destructs moral?
10. What is negatif affect of riba on life?
Pertanyaan Pemahaman 2
Pertanyaan Benar atau Salah (True or false question)
1. Almost all Muslims know that riba is haram. (T/F)
2. Islamic scholars had beautiful sound. (T/F)
3. There are many reasons to prohibit riba. (T/F)
4. Unfair exchange means that a person can get
money without efforts. (T/F)
5. Riba makes rich people lazy. (T/F)
6. Interest gives funding for industry, commerce and construction. (T/F)
7. Muslims do not give charity because of interest. (T/F)
8. The rich people use interest money to help poor people. (T/F)
Review Tata Bahasa: Noun Clause
General Rule (Aturan umum): Clause adalah grup atau serangkaian kata-kata
yang memiliki subject dan predicate. Berdasarkan kesempurnaan/
10
ketidaksempurnaan makna, clause dibagi menjadi independent/main clause
(induk kalimat) dan subordinat/dependent clause (anak kalimat). Berdasarkan
penggunaan dapat dibagi menjadi 3: Noun clause, Adjective clause, dan
adverbial clause.
Noun clause adalah clause yang berfungsi sebagai noun (kata benda), baik itu
sebagai subjek maupun obyek. Biasanya didahului oleh kata that, how,
whether, who etc.
Perhatikan kalimat-kalimat berikut ini:
1. That riba or interest is forbidden in Islam is known by all Muslims.
2. That riba corrupts morality is the third reason.
3. That bank interest is riba remains debatable.
4. This means that taking it from him without giving him something in
exchange is haram.
5. Second is that riba is not good for economy.
6. Islam teaches that Muslims must work.
Bagian-bagian yang dicetak miring di atas adalah clause (bagian dari kalimat
yang terdiri dari subyek dan kata kerja). Clause tersebut berfungsi sebagai
subyek (nomor 1 dan 2) dan sebagai obyek (nomor 3, 4 dan 5). Bagian-bagian
kalimat yang biasanya berfungsi sebagai subyek dan obyek adalah kata benda
(noun). Clause di atas menggantikan fungsi kata benda sebagai subyek
ataupun obyek. Clause yang berfungsi seperti noun (berfungsi sebagai subyek
atau obyek) ini dinamakan noun clause. Bandingkan kalimat-kalimat ini
Dalam contoh (a), the sayings of
(a) The sayings of the prophet is hadith
the prophet adalah noun yang
subyek kata kerja
berfungsi sebagai subyek.
Dalam contoh (b), what the
(b) What the prophet says is hadith
prophet says adalah clause
subyek kata kerja
(karena memiliki subyek dan
kata kerja) yang berfungsi
sebagai subyek.
Dalam contoh (c), his sayings
(c) The companions listened to his sayings
adalah noun yang berfungsi
Subyek kata kerja obyek
sebagai obyek.
Dalam contoh (d), what he says
(d) The companions listened to what he says
adalah clause (karena memiliki
Subyek kata kerja obyek
subyek dan kata kerja) yang
berfungsi sebagai obyek.
11
Kata-kata yang mengawali noun clause antara lain:
(1) kata-kata tanya: who, what, (2) whether, if (3) that
when, where, why, how, whom,
which, whose.
Beberapa contoh:
1. I know where the prophet was born
2. Muslims understand when they should perform pilgrimage
3. why we must obey God is out of question
4. I do not know whether I will enter heaven or hell
5. I know that God’s blessing is comprehensive.
Latihan 1 (gunakan kata-kata Tanya untuk memulai noun clause)
Where did the prophet migrate? (I know…)
I know where the prophet migrated.
1. What does a Muslim believe? (All Muslims must understand…)
2. Who is Umar ibn Khattab? (A good Muslim knows…)
3. When did the prophet receive his first revelation from God? (Do you
know…?)
4. What do you do before prayer? (Do you know…?)
5. Who do you trust to distribute your zakat? (…. is my personal choice)
6. What are zakat commodities and their nisab? (An IAIN student can
explain…)
7. Why do we have to pay zakat? (A Muslim must not question…)
8. Which one is your mushaf? (I do not know…)
9. What are the duties of a wife over her husband? (Before you marry
someone you must understand…)
10. Where is Ka’ba? (I can’t believe that you do not know…)
Latihan 2 (gunakan whether, if dan that untuk memulai noun clause)
Mothers should be respected
Muslim children must know that mothers should be respected.
1. Muslims must respect the elderly (All Muslims are aware ….)
2. Adultery is forbidden in Islam. (that….is a basic teaching in Islam)
3. Bank interest is not riba. (Some Muslims believe…)
12
4. Husbands must treat their wives appropriately. (That… is a cornerstone of
an Islamic marriage)
5. Democracy is compatible with Islam (some Muslims do not believe…)
6. Islam upholds human rights (many western observers are skeptical ….)
7. A president is not similar with a caliph. (Many Muslims argue…)
8. Jihad must be waged by government. (The general rule of war in Islam
is…)
9. Islam does not endorse polygyny. (It must be understood…)
10. Suicide bombing is not a lawful method of jihad. (The majority of Muslims
believe…)
Latihan 3
Buatlah noun clause dari kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini:
1. Shura is similar to the principle of democracy.
2. Islamic banks are free from riba
3. What is an Islamic bank?
4. Apostasy is a crime in Islam.
5. Why should we avoid riba?
6. Profit and loss sharing is a principle of Islamic banks.
7. Where I can find an interest-free bank in Surabaya?
8. A husband must provide livelihood for his family.
9. Islam has its distinct inheritance law.
10. Changing religion is not a right in Islam.
11. What is the function of KUA?
12. Liberal democracy is not the only form of democracy.
13. Why should Muslims support democracy?
14. Who was Anwar Sadaat?
15. When should a man get married in Islam?
Penggantian Noun Clause dengan To Infinitive
Noun Clause yang menggunakan Kata tanya (when, where, hw, who, whom,
whose, what, which) dan whether dapat diganti dengan to invinitive bila
menggunakan ungkapan should atau can/could. Penggantian ini tidak
merubah makna. Perhatikan contoh di bawah ini:
a. I am not sure what I should say about polygamy.
⇒ I am not sure what to say about polygamy
b. Many Muslims cannot decide whether they should apply
democracy or not.
⇒ Many Muslims cannot decide whether to apply
13
democracy or not
c. He does not know where he can find an Islamic bank.
⇒ He does not know where to find an Islamic bank.
Latihan 4
Ubahlah noun clause dalam kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini menjadi to invinitive
1. Some Muslims has no plan when they should get married.
2. A good Muslim knows whether they should avoid alchohol or not.
3. Muslim wives must know what they should do with ill-treating husband.
4. Muslims have many good reasons why they should avoid riba.
5. Al-Quran has taught Muslims how they should distribute inheritance.
6. A judge of religious court knows how they could reunite fighting couples.
7. Islamic banks know how they can attract new costumers.
8. Islam shows Muslims how they can live peacefully with non Muslims.
9. Muslims know where they can save their money according to sharia.
10. I am not sure whether I should believe western-style human rights.
Percakapan dalam Bahasa Inggris
Tulislah opini anda tentang alasan-alasan pelarangan riba di atas. Pilihlah
salah satu alasan di atas dan ungkapkan pendapat anda tentang alasan
tersebut. Apakah alasan tersebut sesuai dengan kenyataan yang ada saat
ini atau sudak tidak sesuai lagi. Setiap orang akan diminta menyatakan
pendapat masing-masing secara oral (diucapkan) dengan disertai alasan-
alasannya.
Berikut ini beberapa ungkapan yang sering digunakan (lihat buku English for
Islamic Studies halaman 77-78 untuk penjelasan yang lebih lengkap):
1. menyatakan pendapat pribadi seseorang berikut ini adalah beberapa
ungkapan pembuka yang sering digunakan:
I srongly believe that
I am certain that…
In my opinion….
In my personal view…
From my point of view…
14
2. mengutip pendapat orang lain untuk mendukung pendapat pribadi
berikut ini adalah beberapa ungkapan pembuka yang sering digunakan:
According to…
Based on my reading on …
As….has explained I think…
We must believe that God
will answer your do’a
15
BAB IV
Reading
Islamic Banking
Islamic banking is based on the adoption of Shariah as the guiding principle
governing transactions, deposits, investments and returns. The most distinctive
element of Islamic banking is the prohibition of riba, which is usually translated as
interest, whether nominal or excessive, simple or compound, fixed or floating. In so
far as the poor are more likely to be forced into borrowing than the rich, so one
Muslim’s objection to interest is that of equity.
Islamic banking involved all parties who participate on just terms. The profit and loss
sharing principle implied less likelihood of contracts being broken and promoted
solidarity and brotherhood. For proponents of Islamic finance it is beyond doubt that
riba is not restricted to usury only but covers all forms of interest in loan contracts. As
the alternative in harmony with ethics and morals of Islam, Islamic economists
designed a financial system which is based on the idea of partnership and sharing of
risks and rewards. The substitution of loans and debt by sharing agreements became
the distinguishing factor and the basic premise on which all claims of distinctiveness
and superiority were based. It is also observed that many of the characteristics of
Islamic banking such as risk and benefit sharing can benefit both the investors and
the players as it provides more equal opportunities to both parties.
Islamic banking not simply about interest-free financing, but rather has to be
understood in the context of Islam’s teaching on the work ethic, wealth distribution,
social and economic justice, and the role of the state for final justice goal. Virtues of
Islamic finance as it encourages risk-sharing, promotes entrepreneurship,
discourages speculative behavior and emphasizes the sanctity of contracts. Islamic
bankers do not expect to advance money and receive a predetermined sum on a
fixed date in the future. Instead, under the Shariah, the bedrock of the Islamic faith,
they are responsible for ensuring that money is invested in viable projects, with
reliable entrepreneurs. If the project succeeds, the banker shares in the profit. If it
fails banker suffers the losses.
The Shariah, which dictates the activities of the Islamic banks as well as forms the
basis of the daily lives of all Muslims, requires that reward come from risk sharing.
Profit must be justified through the creation of value that the banker brings to
complement the value of the entrepreneur's efforts and skills.
Kosakata dalam konteks
Guide: mengarahkan Govern: mengatur Deposit: tabungan
Return: hasil Distinctive berbeda Nominal: sedikit
Excessive: berlebihan Compound: berlipat Fixed: baku
Float: mengambang Likely: mungkin Force: memaksa
Objection: keberatan Equity: keadilan Involve: terlibat
Party: pihak Just: adil Term: syarat
16
Profit: laba Loss: rugi Sharing: berbagi
Imply: berarti Less: sedikit Likelihood: kemungkinan
Break(v1) broken (v3) Proponent: pendukung Beyond: di luar
Doubt: keraguan Restrict: membatasi Usury: interest
Covers: mencakup Form: bentuk Loan: pinjaman
Partnership: kemitraan Risk: resiko Reward: imbalan
Substitution:penggantian Debt: hutang Distinguish: membedakan
Premise: prinsip Claim: klaim Superiority: keunggulan
Observe: meyakini Benefit: profit Provide: menyediakan
Opportunity: kesempatan Simply: sekedar Wealth: kekayaan
Distribution: pembagian Virtue: Value: nilai
Encourage: mendorong Entrepreneurship: Predetermined: yang
kewirausahaan ditentukan sebelumnya
Emphasize: menekankan Sanctity: kesucian Advance: mencari
Discourage: menggembosi Sum: jumlah Bedrock: landasan
Ensure: memastikan Invest: melakukan investasi Viable: menguntungkan
Reliable: dapat diandalkan Fail: mengalami kegagalan Suffers
Dictate: mendikt Justify: membernarkan Complement: melengkapi
Effort: usaha Skill: keahlian
Pertanyaan Pemahaman 1
Jawablah pertanyaan-pertanyaan di bawah ini berdasarkan bacaan di atas
1. What is the function of sharia for Islamic banking?
2. What is the identification of Islamic banking?
3. Why Muslims do not like riba?
4. Why does the contract in Islamic bank seldomly breached?
5. What are opinions of the advocates of Islamic banking regarding riba?
6. Why does Islamic banking able to grant equal opportunity for involved
parties?
7. Islamic banking is not merely about being free of riba. It is also compatible
with Islamic teaching in other ways and principles. Can you explain that?
8. What values are they in Islamic banking system?
9. What is the responsbility of bankir in Islamic banking?
10. What role does an entepreneur or bussiness man who get loan from
Islamic bank?
Pertanyaan pemahaman 2
Pilihlah jawaban yang benar menurut bacaan di atas
1. Islamic banking is based on…
a. The abandonment of Shariah b. The implementation of Shariah
c. The rejection of Shariah d. The denial of Shariah
2. What kind of riba is forbidden?
17
a. excessive riba b. compound riba
c. nominal riba d. all riba
3. Muslims oppose riba because…
a. it is not fair b. it is forbidden by God
c. it is too expensive d. it helps poor people
4. The profit and loss sharing principle helps realize…
a. solidarity and brotherhood b. Islamic banking
c. sharia d. Islamic state
5. What is not true about Islamic banking?
a. it uses profit and loss sharing b. it is free from interest
c. it promotes entrepreneurship d. it promotes unequal opportunity
6. What makes Islamic banking superior? The substitution of loans and debt
by sharing agreements became the distinguishing factor and the basic
premise on which all claims of distinctiveness and superiority were based.
a. it has many customer b. it uses sharing of profit and loss
c. it is based on sharia d. it is different from conventional
banks
7. Islamic bankers responsible for…
a. finding profitable investment b. attracting many customers
c. getting much profit d. denying trustworthy entrepreneur
8. Entrepreneurs in Islamic banking are appreciated for…
a. their money b. their business
c. their work and expertise d. their profit
Review Tata Bahasa: Adjective Clause
Adjective clause (relative clause) adalah clause yang berfungsi sebagai kata
sifat(adjective). Adjective (kata sifat) selalu menerangkan kata benda, baik
kata benda yang berfungsi sebagai subyek ataupun yang berfungsi sebagai
obyek. Bila adjective clause memberi penjelasan subyek (contoh nomor 1, 2)
maka diletakkan setelah subyek. Bila adjective clause memberi penjelasan
obyek (contoh nomor 3, 4 dan 5) maka diletakkan setelah obyek. Sebelum
dijadikan menjadi adjective clause, sebenarnya masing-masing kalimat tersebut
terdiri dari dua kalimat seperti dalam contoh.
18
Perhatikan kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini Bagian-bagian yang dicetak miring di
bawah ini adalah adjective clause:
1. The Shariah, which dictates the activities of the Islamic banks, requires that
reward come from risk sharing.
⇒ The Shariah requires that reward come from risk sharing
⇒ It dictates the activities of the Islamic banks
2. The creditor of funds in Islamic bank who becomes a partner in a project
assumes the risk activity with the entrepreneur and shares profits as well as
losses.
⇒ The creditor of funds in Islamic bank assumes the risk activity with the
entrepreneur and shares profits as well as losses.
⇒ The creditor of funds in Islamic bank becomes a partner in a project.
3. The most distinctive element of Islamic banking is the prohibition of riba,
which is usually translated as interest.
⇒ The most distinctive element of Islamic banking is the prohibition of riba
⇒ Riba is usually translated as interest
4. Islamic economists designed a financial system which is based on the idea
of partnership and sharing of risks and rewards.
⇒ Islamic economists designed a financial system
⇒ It is based on the idea of partnership and sharing of risks and rewards.
5. Islamic banking must train professional managers who become future
experts in both theoretical concepts and practice in Islamic banking.
⇒ Islamic banking must train professional managers.
⇒ Professional managers become future experts in both theoretical
concepts and practice Islamic banking.
Seperti yang sudah diketahui, clause adalah sekelompok kata yang
mengandung sebuah subyek dan obyek. Dalam contoh di atas, clause yang
subyeknya menjadi subyek utama dinamakan independent clause atau main
clause. Sedangkan clause yang menjadi anak kalimat dinamakan dependent
clause atau subordinate clause.
Sebuah adjective clause biasanya diawali dengan who, which, that, whom,
t


Use: 0.0284