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NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA
SCHOOL OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
COURSE CODE:CSS 643
COURSE TITLE:PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE
AND MANAGEMENT
CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
COURSE
GUIDE
CSS 643
PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND
MANAGEMENT
Course Team Monsuru Adegboyega Kasali (Developer) – UI
Monsuru Adegboyega Kasali (Writers) – UI
&
Abisoye M. Alesinloye – OCE
Prof. P.E. Agbebaku (Editor) – AAU
NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA
ii
CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
National Open University of Nigeria
Headquarters
14 / 16 Ahmadu Bello Way
Victoria Island
Lagos
Abuja Office
No. 5 Dar es Salaam Street,
Off Aminu Kanu Crescent
Wuse II, Abuja
Nigeria
e-mail: [email protected]
URL: www.nou.edu.ng
Published by
National Open University of Nigeria 2009
First Printed 2009
ISBN: 978 – 058 – 724 – 1
All Rights Reserved
iii
CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
CONTENTS PAGE
Introduction……………………………………………… 1
What you will learn in this course……………………….. 1
Course Aims……………………………………………... 2
Course Objectives………………………………………... 3
Working through this course…………………………….. 4
Course Materials…………………………………………. 4
Study Units………………………………………………. 5
Set Textbooks……………………………………………. 6
Assignment File………………………………………….. 7
Presentation Schedule……………………………………. 7
Assessment………………………………………………. 7
Tutor-Marked Assignment………………………………. 8
Final Examination and Grading…………………………. 8
Course Marking Scheme………………………………… 8
Course Overview………………………………………… 9
How to get the best from this Course……………………. 10
Reading Section………………………………………….. 10
Tutors and Tutorials……………………………………... 11
Summary………………………………………………… 12
Introduction
CSS 643: Principles of Security Practice and Management is a 3-credit
unit course. It is a compulsory course for all postgraduate students of
Criminology and Security Studies of the University. The course is
recommended for any other student(s) particularly those in the School of
Arts and Social Sciences, who may have interest in security studies. The
course can also be taken as elective or required course by other students
whose main field(s) of discipline is not Criminology and Security
Studies.
The Course shall consist of 20 units, which include the meaning of
security, discourse on violence and violent crime, domestic violence,
theories of violence, theory of crime control, approaches to security
management, intelligence cycle, security personnel management, and
management of job stress among security personnel and trauma
management in security career: REBT. Other areas of discourse are
public relations management in security sector, operational management
and capacity planning, issue of asymmetric aggression in strategic
planning, guerilla and counter-guerilla, fortification and manoeuvre
tactics in defence and security management.
The course material draws its major case studies from the continent of
Africa with particular reference to Nigeria with the aim of promoting the
students’ desire towards developing viable analytical and conceptual
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CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
framework for addressing the security problems in Nigeria and
elsewhere.
The course has no compulsory pre-requisites for it to be registered for.
The course guide informs us on what this course is all about, what the
student should appreciate in each unit, what text materials we shall be
using and how we can make the best use of these materials. The course
guide also discerns the students need to take tutor-marked assignments
serious. However, necessary information on tutor-marked assignments
shall be made known to students in a separate file, which will be sent to
each student. This course is also supported with periodic tutorial classes.
What you will Learn in this Course
The overall aim of CSS 643: Principles of Security Practice and
Management is to introduce you to the principles of security
management and practice by looking at the meaning of security and
other prominent areas of inquiry and issues in the discourse of security
management. Your understanding of fundamentals in security
management will enable you to explain some basic concepts and
approaches security studies.
In fact, the course will also expose you to various relevant issues in the
study of security management as well as techniques, approaches and
challenges to effective security management and strategic planning. CSS
643 is a very interesting course as it stimulates our understanding of
security practice and management. It helps to expose us to some of the
fundamental ways through which effective security management can be
actualized.
Therefore, this course is so significant as it shows how violence, both
domestic and non-domestic, constitute act(s) of criminality. The study
also draws a line in the relationship between intention and justifiability
of a violent act by examining the positions articulated by relevant
theories on the subject. The study also examines how intelligence can
impact on effective security management. In carrying out this task, a
number of issues on intelligence cycle will be discussed such as
meaning of intelligence, its collection and disciplines, its analysis and
evaluation as well counter-intelligence and intelligence security.
Owing to the importance of public relations in security business, the
study also explains the roles and the impact that public relations activity
can have on any security organization especially as it concerns attaining
its overall goals. Prior to discourse on public relations management in
security sector, this study has found it pertinent to focus on a number of
issues that bother on personnel management and the ways to assist
security personnel to have a healthy and fulfilled work life, so that they
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CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
can carry-out their functions effectively.
However, this study cannot be complete if we fail to discuss the
relationship between operational management and security management.
Security business is a very challenging one. Necessary equipment will
need to be provided by security employer to assist the employees to be
functional. We shall also focus on a number of other issues and tactics
that relate to security management.
Course Aims
The main aim of this course is to expose you to the basic concepts,
issues, approaches and practice that have attracted great attention among
scholars and policy makers in security management.
The study also beams its search-light on the issues in security discourse,
which have continued to attract growing attention among scholars in
security studies. These issues have remained subjects, which have been
trounced with several conceptual and theoretical positions of scholars.
This course also x-rays a number of security challenges that nations face
in the contemporary time as well as a shift from the traditional security
management system to non-traditional order. Several (inter)
governmental and non governmental organizations have continued to
advocate for replacement of the traditional coercion and deterrence
system of security management to a more effective non-traditional
approach, which focuses on human development measures such as
social-justice, provision of employment opportunities, social security,
among others.
Course Objectives
With utmost desire to achieve the aims set out above, the course has
some set of objectives as demonstrated in all the units of the course.
Each unit has its own objectives. Objectives are always included at the
beginning of every unit to assist the student in the appreciation of what
he or she will come across in the study of each unit and to facilitate his
or her better understanding of the course-CSS 643 (Principles of
Security Practice and Management).
The Student is therefore advised to read these objectives before studying
the entire unit(s). Thus, it is helpful to do so. You should always look at
the unit objectives after completing a unit. In this way, you can be sure
that you have done what was required of you by the unit.
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CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
Stated below are the wider objectives of this course as a whole. By
meeting these objectives, you should have achieved the aims of the
course as a whole.
At the end of the course, you should be able to:
• describe security and its types;
5.0 explain violence and violent crimes;
• discuss domestic violence and the ways to address it;
• examine the theories of violence;
6.0 analyse the theory of crime control;
7.0 examine the various approaches to security management;
8.0 describe intelligence cycle;
9.0 suggest counter-intelligence measures to prevent or mitigate attack from
the foreign intelligence service;
10.0illustrate the relationship between security personnel management and
ability of security organization to meet its overall goals;
11.0stress the importance of effective trauma management in security
career;
12.0clarify the impact of job stress on security personnel especially as it
relates to service delivery;
• discuss how REBT can help in managing trauma among security
employees;
• demonstrate the relevance of public relations in security business;
• mention the importance of effective operational management and
capacity planning in the security sector;
• analyse the growing security threat that assymetric aggression
constitutes and how it affects strategic planning;
• evaluate the methods that can be adopted to counter guerilla
threat; and
• examine the relevance of fortification and manoeuvre tactics in
security management.
Working through this Course
In completing this course, you are required to study the whole units, and
try to read all (or substantial number of) the recommended textbooks,
journals and other reading materials including electronic resources. Each
unit contains self assessment exercise(s) and you are required to submit
your assignment for the purpose of assessment.
At the end of the course, student(s) shall be examined. The time of the
final examination and venue shall be communicated to all the registered
students in due course by relevant school authorities-study centre
management. Below are the components of the course and what you are
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CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
required to do.
Course Materials
Major components of the course include:
1. Course Guide
2. Study Units
3. Textbooks
4. Assignments File
5. Presentation Schedule
It is incumbent upon every student to get his or her own copy of the
course material. You are also advised to contact your tutorial facilitator,
if you have any difficulty in getting any of the text materials
recommended for your further reading.
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CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
Study Units
In this course there are twenty units, which include:
Module 1
Unit 1 Meaning of Security
Unit 2 Discourse on Violence & Violent Crime
Unit 3 Domestic Violence
Unit 4 Theories of Violence
Unit 5 Theory of Crime Control
Module 2
Unit 1 Approaches to Security Management
Unit 2 Meaning of Intelligence
Unit 3 Intelligence Collection and Disciplines
Unit 4 Intelligence Analysis and Evaluation
Unit 5 Counter-Intelligence and Intelligence Security
Management
Module 3
Unit 1 Security Personnel Management I
Unit 2 Security Personnel Management II
Unit 3 Management of Job Stress among Security Personnel
Unit 4 Trauma Management in Security Career: REBT
Unit 5 Public Relations Management in Security Sector
Module 4
Unit 1 Operational Management and Capacity planning in
Security Sector
Unit 2 Issue of Asymmetric Aggression in Strategic Planning
Unit 3 Guerrilla Warfare and Tactical Measures to Counter-
Guerilla
Unit 4 Relevance of Fortification Tactic in Security Management
Unit 5 Manoeuvre Tactic in Defence and Security Management
The first five units are centered on the meaning of security, violence,
theories of violence and theory of crime control. The second set of units
explains approaches to security management, intelligence cycle and
intelligence security management. The following set of five units
focuses on principles, approaches and strategic issues in security
personnel management and public relations management in security
sector.
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CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
The last five units emphasize the importance of operational management
and capacity planning in security management, the growing threat of
asymmetric aggression to inter-national security, counter-guerilla
(insurgency) techniques, and fortification and manoeuvre tactics in
security management.
In each segment of each unit, you have at least one self assessment
exercise, which helps you to know how far you have progressed in
understanding the content of each unit. These self assessment exercises
and tutor-marked assignments create a great opportunity for you to
achieve the overall objectives of the course.
Textbooks and References
The following textbooks are recommended for the course. The first four
textbooks are compulsory for your study of this course.
Teriff, Terry et al (1999), Security Studies Today, Massachusetts
Blackwell Publishing
Lipschutz, Ronnie D. (ed.) (1995), On Security, New York: Columbia
University Press.
Tickner, J.A. (1994). “Re-visioning Security” in Ken Booth
and Steve Smiths (eds)., International Relations Theory
Today,
Smith, Steve (2000). “The Increasing Insecurity of Security Studies:
Conceptualizing Security in the Last Twenty Years”, in Stuart
Croft and Terry Terrif (eds.), Critical Reflections on Security and
Change, London: Frank Cass.
Hannah, Greg et al (2005). Intelligence for security Legislation for
Security sector Reform, RAND.
Kent, Sherman (1965). Strategic Intelligence, Archon, Books
Imbus, Michael T. (April 2002). Identifying Threats: Improving
Intelligence and Counterintelligence Support to Force
Protection. See www.au.af.mil/au/awcgate/acsc/02-059.pdf.
Retrieved on 3rd Nov. 2007.
Wisner, Frank G. (22 Sept. 1993). On “The Craft of Intelligence”,
available on www.cia.gav/library/center-for-the-study-
ofintelligence/Kent-CSI/doc/V081a07p-0004.htm. Retrieved on
3rd November, 2007
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CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
Armstrong, M. (1981). A Handbook of Personnel Management Practice,
London: Kogan Page Ltd.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (2004). Uniform Crime Reporting
Handbook. Also available on
www.fbi.gov/ucr/handbook/ucrhandbook04.pdf.
Goode, William (1971). “Force and Violence in the Family”, Journal of
Marriage and the Family, 33.
Indik, A. P., Seashere O. T. et.al. al., (1964). “Occupational Stress, its
Causes and Consequences for Job Performance”, Journal of
Applied Psychology. 71.
Ellis, Albert (1975). A Guide to Rational Living, Wilshire Book
Company. Cutlip, Scott M., Allen H. Center & Glen M. Broom
(1994), Effective Public Relations, 7th Edition, Englewood Cliffs,
N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. A Simon and Schuster Company.
Krajewski, Lee J., & Ritzman, Larry P. (2005). Operations
Management: Processes and Value Chains, Upper Saddle River,
New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Giap, Vo Nguyen (2001). People's War, People's Army, Honolulu,
University Press of the Pacific.
Assignment File
In this file, you will find the necessary details of the assignments you
must submit to your tutor for assessment. The marks you get from these
assignments will form part of your final assessment in this course.
Presentation Schedule
The Presentation Schedule included in your course materials gives you
the important dates for the completion of tutor-marked assignments and
attendance of tutorials. Remember, you are required to submit all your
assignments by the due date. You should guard against falling behind in
your work.
Assessment
There are two aspects to the assessment of the course. First are the tutor-
marked assignments; second, there is a written examination. In tackling
the assignments, you are expected to apply information and knowledge
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CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
acquired during this course.
The assignments must be submitted to your tutor for assessment in
accordance with the deadlines stated in the Assignment File. The work
you submit to your tutor for assessment will count for 30% of your total
course mark. At the end of the course, you will need to sit for a final
three-hour examination. This will also count for 70% of your total
course mark.
Tutor-Marked Assignment
There are 20 tutor-marked assignments in this course. You need to
submit four assignments out of which the best three will be used for
your assessment. These three assignments shall be 30% of your total
course mark.
Assignment questions for the units in this course are contained in the
Assignment File. You should be able to complete your assignments
from the information and materials contained in your set textbooks, and
from reading the study units. However, you are advised to use other
references to broaden your viewpoint and provide a deeper
understanding of the subject.
When you have completed each assignment, send it, together with TMA
(tutor-marked assignment) file to your tutor. Make sure that each
assignment gets to your tutor on or before the deadline. However, in
case of being unable to complete your work on time, contact your tutor
before the submission deadline of assignments elapses to discuss the
possibility of an extension.
Final Examination and Grading
The final examination of CSS 643 will be of three hours’ duration and
have a value of 70% of the total course grade. The examination shall
consist of questions which reflect the type of self-testing, practice
exercises and tutor-marked problems you have come across. All areas of
the course will be assessed.
You are advised to revise the entire course after studying the last unit
before you sit for the examination. You will find it useful to review your
tutor-marked assignments and the comments of your tutor on them
before the final examination.
Course Marking Scheme
This table shows how the actual course marking is broken down.
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Assessment Marks
Assignment 1 – 4 Four Assignments are to be submitted,
of which the three best shall be considered at
10% each, making 30% of the overall scores
Final Examination 70% of overall course marks
Total 100% of course marks
Table 1: Course Marking Scheme
Course Overview
This table brings together the entire units contained in this course, the
number of weeks you should take to complete them, and the
assignments that follow them.
Unit Title Week’s Assessment
Activity (end of unit)
Course Guide 1
1 Meaning of Security 1 Assignment 1
2 Discourse on Violence & Violent 2 Assignment 2
Crime
3 Domestic Violence 2 Assignment 3
4 Theories of Violence 3 Assignment 4
5 Theory of Crime Control 4 Assignment 5
6 Approaches to Security Management 5 Assignment 6
7 Meaning of Intelligence 6 Assignment 7
8 Intelligence Collection and Disciplines 6 Assignment 8
9 Intelligence Analysis and Evaluation 7 Assignment 9
10 Counter-Intelligence and Intelligence 7 Assignment 10
Security Management
11 Security Personnel Management I 8 Assignment 11
12 Security Personnel Management II 9 Assignment 12
13 Management of Job Stress among 10 Assignment 13
Security Personnel
14 Trauma Management in Security Career: 11 Assignment 14
REBT
15 Public Relations Management in 11 Assignment 15
Security Sector
16 Operational Management and Capacity 12 Assignment 16
planning in Security Sector
17 Issue of Asymmetric Aggression in 13 Assignment 17
Strategic Planning
18 Guerrilla Warfare and Tactical 14 Assignment 18
Measures to Counter-Guerilla
19 Relevance of Fortification Tactic in 15 Assignment 19
Security Management
20 Maneuver Tactic in Defence and 16 Assignment 20
Security Management
21 Revision 17
22 Examination 18
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CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
Table 2: Course Overview
How to Get the best from this Course
In distance learning, the study units replace the university lecturer. This
is one of the great advantages of distance learning; you can read and
work through specially designed study materials at your own pace, and
at a time and place that suit you best. Think of it as reading the lecture
instead of listening to a lecturer.
In the same way that a lecturer might set you some reading to do, the
study units tell you when to read your set of books or other materials.
Just as a lecturer might give you an in-class exercise, your study units
provide exercises for you to do at appropriate points.
Each of the study units follows a common format. The first item is an
introduction to the subject matter of the unit and how a particular unit is
integrated with the other units and the course as a whole. Next is a set of
learning objectives. These objectives shall let you know what you
should be able to do by the time you have completed the unit.
Thus, you should use these objectives to guide your study. When you
have finished the units, you must go back and check whether you have
achieved the objectives. If you make a habit of doing this, you will
significantly improve your chances of passing the course. The main
body of the unit guides you through the required reading from other
sources.
Reading Section
Remember that your tutor’s job is to assist you. When you need help,
don’t hesitate to call and ask your tutor to provide it.
1. Read this Course Guide thoroughly.
2. Organize a study schedule. Refer to the ‘Course overview’ for
more details. Note the time you are expected to spend on each
unit and how the assignments are related to the units. Whatever
method you chose to use, you should decide on and write in your
own dates for working on each unit.
3. Once you have created your own study schedule, do everything
you can to stick to it. The major reason that students fail is that
they get behind with their course work. If you get into difficulties
with your schedule, please let your tutor know before it is too late
for help.
4. Turn to Unit 1 and read the introduction and the objectives for the
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CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
unit.
5. Assemble the study materials. Information about what you need
for a unit is given in the ‘Overview’ at the beginning of each unit.
You will almost always need both the study unit you are working
on and one of your set books on your desk at the same time.
6. Work through the unit. The content of the unit itself has been
arranged to provide a sequence for you to follow. As you work
through the unit you will be instructed to read sections from your
set books or other articles. Use the unit to guide your reading.
7. Review the objectives for each study unit to confirm that you
have achieved them. If you feel unsure about any of the
objectives, review the study material or consult your tutor.
8. When you are confident that you have achieved the objectives of
a unit, you can then start on the next unit. Proceed unit by unit
through the course and try to pace your study so that you keep
yourself on schedule.
9. When you have submitted an assignment to your tutor for
marking, do not wait for its return before starting on the next unit.
Keep to your schedule. When the assignment is returned, pay
particular attention to your tutor’s comments, both on the tutor-
marked assignment form and also on what is written on the
assignment. Consult your tutor as soon as possible if you have
any questions or problems.
10. After completing the last unit, review the course and prepare
yourself for the final examination. Check that you have achieved
the unit objectives (listed at the beginning of each unity) and the
course objectives (listed in this Course Guide).
Tutors and Tutorials
There are between eight and 12 hours of tutorials provided in support of
this course. The dates, time and venue of these tutorials shall be
communicated to you. The name and phone number of your tutor will be
made known to you immediately you are allocated a tutorial group.
Your tutor will mark and comment on your assignments, keep a close
watch on your progress and on any difficulties you might encounter and
provide assistance to you during the course. You must mail your tutor-
marked assignments to your tutor well before the due date (at least two
working days are required). They will be marked by your tutor and
returned to you as soon as possible. Do not hesitate to contact your tutor
by telephone, e-mail, or discussion board if you need help. You will
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CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
definitely benefit a lot by doing that. Contact your tutor if:
•you do not understand any part of the study units or the assigned
readings,
•you have difficulty with the self-tests or exercises,
•you have a question or problem with an assignment, with your tutor’s
comments on an assignment or with the grading of an assignment.
You should make an effort to attend the tutorials. Thus, it is the only
opportunity you have to enjoy face to face contact with your tutor and to
ask questions which are answered instantly. You can raise any problem
encountered in the course of your study. To gain the maximum benefit
from course tutorials, prepare a question list before attending them. You
will learn a lot from participating in discussion actively.
Summary
CSS 643 aims to expose you to basic principles, approaches, theories
and efforts in security practice and management. As you complete this
course, you should be able to answer the following questions:
• How do you describe security?
• What is violence?
• What are the theories of violence?
• How do you explain theory of crime control?
• What are the approaches to security management?
3 How do you describe the relationship between intelligence cycle and
security management?
4 What are the measures to counter-intelligence?
5 How can you explain security personnel management?
• What are the principles of managing security personnel?
• What are the tasks to manage job stress among security
personnel?
• In what way(s) can REBT help to address the problem of trauma
among security employees?
• What are the roles of public relations management in security
management?
• Is there any significant impact played by operational management
and capacity planning on security management and the ability of
any security organisation to attain its overall goals?
• How does assymetric aggression constitute threat to security?
• What are the measures that can be adopted to counter guerilla?
• What is the importance of fortification and manoeuvre tactics to
security management?
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CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
Finally, you are advised to read the course material appreciably well in
order to prepare fully and not to be caught pants down by the final
examination questions. So, we sincerely wish you success in your
academic career as you will find this course (CSS 643) very interesting.
You should always avoid examination malpractices!
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CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
Course Code CSS 643
Course Title Principles of Security Practice and Management
Course Team Monsuru Adegboyega Kasali (Developer) – UI
Monsuru Adegboyega Kasali (Writer) – UI
Abisoye M. Alesinloye (Co-writer) – OCE
Prof. P.E. Agbebaku (Editor) – AAU
NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA
xviii
CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
National Open University of Nigeria
Headquarters
14/16 Ahmadu Bello Way
Victoria Island
Lagos
Abuja Office
No. 5 Dar es Salaam Street,
Off Aminu Kanu Crescent
Wuse II, Abuja
Nigeria
e-mail: [email protected]
URL: www.nou.edu.ng
Published by
National Open University of Nigeria 2009
First Printed 2009
ISBN: 978 – 058 – 293 – 2
All rights reserved
xix
CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
CONTENTS PAGE
Module 1…………………………………………………
Unit 1 Meaning of Security……………………… 1
Unit 2 Discourse on Violence & Violent Crime…. 11
Unit 3 Domestic Violence………………………... 22
Unit 4 Theories of Violence……………………… 34
Unit 5 Theory of Crime Control………….. …….. 44
Module 2…………………………………………………
Unit 1 Approaches to Security Management…….. 53
Unit 2 Meaning of Intelligence…………………... 63
Unit 3 Intelligence Collection and Disciplines…... 73
Unit 4 Intelligence Analysis and Evaluation…...… 83
Unit 5 Counter-Intelligence and Intelligence
Security Management……………………... 94
Module 3………………………………………………….
Unit 1 Security Personnel Management I………… 103
Unit 2 Security Personnel Management II……….. 118
Unit 3 Management of Job Stress Among Security
Personnel…………………………………... 125
Unit 4 Trauma Management in Security Career:
REBT……………………………………… 136
Unit 5 Public Relations Management in Security
Sector.…..………………………………….. 149
Module 4………………………………………………….
Unit 1 Operational Management and Capacity
Planning in Sec. Sector…………………….. 161
Unit 2 Issue of Asymmetric Aggression in
Strategic Planning…………………………. 169
Unit 3 Guerilla and Tactical Measures to Counter-
Guerilla…...................................................... 179
Unit 4 Relevance of Fortification Tactic in
Security Management……………………… 192
Unit 5 Manoeuver Tactic in Defence and Security
Management……………………………….. 199
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CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
MODULE 1
Unit 1 Meaning of Security
Unit 2 Discourse on Violence and Violent Crime
Unit 3 Domestic Violence
Unit 4 Theories of Violence
Unit 5 Theory of Crime Control
UNIT 1 THE MEANING OF SECURITY
CONTENTS
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Objectives
3.0 Main Content
3.1 Definition of Security
3.2 Types of Security
4.0 Conclusion
5.0 Summary
6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment
7.0 References/Further Reading
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Security has been a subject that has attracted a rapidly growing interest
and concern among scholars in social science in which a wide spectrum
of issues on the subject – security has remained persistent. New
breakthroughs and findings are still being made, showing the strategic
importance of security in the development of nations and actualization
of peace and order in all levels of human relations.
It is no surprising that the increasing research attention given to the
concept and practice of security has brought about invocation of
different types, dimension of analytical explanations and theoretical
approaches. In this unit, we shall be focusing on the meaning of
security. It is our belief, that, it is when we do this, that other issues or
topics of discourse can be meaningfully appreciated by you.
2.0 OBJECTIVES
At the end of this unit, you should be able to:
• define the term, security, and
• discuss types of security
CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
3.0 MAIN CONTENT
3.1 Definition of Security
A layman’s definition of security is that it is the protection of life and
property of a person. The concept of security has undergone a transition
from traditional conceptualization to a non-traditional meaning,
Traditionally, security management was the unilateral function of the
state especially if we consider the intellectual view(s) of some political
theorists like Thomas Hobbes who argued that the essence of a state is
to provide law and order, which are attained through (effective) security
management.
However, in an attempt by the state to actualize the purpose of its
creation (through social contract), it has found it necessary to acquire
legitimate use of force (violence). This idea has made security issue a
function of effective monopoly of violence, which the state applies to
engender strict conformity and complaisance to state laws by the
peoples for effective security management.
But in contemporary time, definition of security goes beyond the
traditional military ways of protecting the state against internal and
external aggression. The fact is that since the end of the cold war,
security management has assumed a new dimension. External threat to
security resulting from international hostilities and aggression that
characterized the cold war era has been replaced with non-traditional
security threats like information warfare, drug trafficking, nuclear
pollution, disease epidemics like HIV-AIDS, corruption, human
trafficking, (internal) insurgency among others.
Nevertheless, this situation has led to multidimensional approach in
security discourse and management. Now, governments have now
realized that they can no longer monopolize the business of security in
local domains as well as the world at large. This has led to extending the
security community to include private players in security business, non-
governmental organisations (NGOS) and above all the civilians take the
centre stage in security management. This we shall discuss further in the
subsequent segment of this unit. Well, on the question of definition of
the term security, it is not a mischief to say that there are various
definitions of the term (security) without any consensus among scholars
in their conceptualization. And thus, to some, security can be defined as:
… an all-encompassing condition in which individual citizens
live in freedom, peace and safety; participate fully in the process
of governance; Enjoy the protection of fundamental rights; have
access to resources and the basic necessities of life; and inhabit
2
CSS 643 PRINCIPLES OF SECURITY PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT
an environment which is not detrimental to their health and
wellbeing (see South Africa White Paper on Defence, 1996).
Not only in terms of the internal security of the State, but also in
terms of secure systems of Food health, money and trade
(Tickner, 1994:180).
SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 1
Define the term Security.
3.2 Ty


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