• Pemanfaatan kompos sampah plus Trichoderma harzianum sebagai media tanam


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    • Abstract: Pemanfaatan kompos sampah plus Trichoderma harzianum sebagai media tanamdan agen pengendali penyakit rebah kecambah (Rhizoctonia oryzae) padapersemaian padi organikThe use of mixed domestic waste compost and Trichoderma harzianum growth and

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Pemanfaatan kompos sampah plus Trichoderma harzianum sebagai media tanam
dan agen pengendali penyakit rebah kecambah (Rhizoctonia oryzae) pada
persemaian padi organik
The use of mixed domestic waste compost and Trichoderma harzianum growth and
effective control medium against Rhizoctonia oryzae on organic paddy seedling.
Hersanti
Department of Plant Pest and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture
Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
[email protected]
Seminar Kebudayaan Indonesia Malaysia Ke X – 2007 UKM – UNPAD
Malyasia Juni 2007
Pemanfaatan kompos sampah plus Trichoderma harzianum sebagai media tanam
dan agen pengendali penyakit rebah kecambah (Rhizoctonia oryzae) pada
persemaian padi organik
The use of mixed domestic waste compost and Trichoderma harzianum growth and
effective control medium against Rhizoctonia oryzae on organic paddy seedling.
Hersanti
Department of Plant Pest and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture
Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
Damping-off disease caused by R.oryzaei is one of the most important diseases on
paddy. One of control methods on the disease is the use of antagonistic microbe T.
harzianum. Appropriate growth medium is needed for optimal growing of this fungus.
This research was aimed to test the possibility of domestic waste compost as growth
medium of T. harzianum so that can be used as organic paddy seedling growth medium
and provide suppression of damping-off disease on paddy seedling.
The experiment was arranged in Randomized Block Design consisted of 9
treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were mixed composition dosages between
compost and T. harzianum that grown in mass culture medium of dedak and serbuk
gergaji. Inoculation of R.oryzae that growth in rice mass culture medium (dosage of 10
g/bamboo box) was in the same time of T. harzianum application.
The results showed that application of compost combined with T. harzianum in all
tested mixed composition dosages suppressed the disease incidence of damping-off on
paddy seedling with the effectiveness level above 80%. Mixed composition of 100%
compost and pure culture of T. harzianum gave the highest conidial density of T.
harzianum and suppressed the disease up to 95.94%.
Key words : domestic waste compost, T. harzianum, R. oryzae, paddy seedling.
BACKGROUND
Organic paddy is one of organic plant that is much more developed currently.
Nevertheless, many constrains are encountered in growing organic paddy include the
availability of suitable organic matter as seedling growth media and the incidence of
pathogen attack. R. oryzae is one of the most important pathogens on paddy that grown
traditionally or organically. The fungus caused damping-off disease that may occur on
pre- or post-emerged of paddy seedling and may destroy the seedlings rapidly (Winarsih
and Syarifudin, 2001).
The use of antagonist microbes can be applied in controlling R. oryzae.
Meantime, Trichoderma sp. is known well as an effective microbe in controlling plant
diseases. T. harzianum was reported to be effective to control R. solani (Elad et al., 1980;
Winarsih & Syarifudin, 2001; Suwahyono, 2000; Andayaningsih, 2002),
Plasmodiophora brassicae on cruciferae (Djatmiko, 1997; Hadiwiyono, 1999), Pythium
sp. (Suwahyono, 2000), Fusarium oxysporum (Wahyudi & Nugroho, 2000, Ambar,
2002), Alternaria solani (Hersanti, 2003), dan Rigidoporus lignosus (Wahyudi &
Suwahyono, 2000).
Domestic waste can be used as a source of organic matter that used as fertilizer.
Several microbes that been used in organic matter decomposition to produce compost
include Trichoderma pseudokoningii, Cytopaga sp. and ’pelapuk putih’ fungus. These
microbes were also have roles as control agents against soil-borne pathogens (Isroi, 2006).
Increasing the economic value of domestic waste can be gained through the utilization of
the composted waste as organic matter source and as growth medium of beneficial
microbes (Christopher, 1998 cit. Shiddeqy, 2005).
This recent research was aimed to get ideal mixed composition dosages of
compost and T. harzianum that can be used as a source of organic matter for plant,
microbe growth medium, and suppress damping-off disease on organic paddy seedling.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
The research was arranged in experimental method with Randomized Block
Design consisted of 9 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were as follow:
A. 75% of compost + 25% of mass culture medium of T. harzianum
B. 60% of compost + 40% of mass culture medium of T. harzianum
C. 50% of compost + 50% of mass culture medium of T. harzianum
D. 40% of compost + 60% of mass culture medium of T. harzianum
E. 25% of compost + 75% of mass culture medium of T. harzianum
F. 100% of T. harzianum
G. 100% of compost + pure culture medium of T. harzianum
H. Positive control (without application of compost and T. harzianum; R. oryzae
inoculation)
I. Negative control (without application of compost and T. harzianum; non
inoculation of R. oryzae)
T. harzianum was grown in a mass culture medium prepared from mixed of
sterilized serbuk gergaji and dedak. Mass culture medium of T. harzianum was applied on
14 days after incubation. A number of 50 paddy seeds were sowed on the bamboo box
contained mixed of pasteurization soil and treatment mixes (1:1). This growth medium
was inoculated by 10 g of R. oryzae that was grown in rice mass culture medium with
approximately 105 /ml of conidial density.
The assessments were made on the conidial density of T. harzianum after 8 days
incubation, incubation period, and disease incidence that assessed when plants were 10
days old after sow.
Disease incidence of damping-off was measured as follow:
P = a/b x 100%.
P = Disease incidence.
a = number of diseased paddy seedling.
b = number of assessed paddy seedling.
Efficacy level (effectiveness) of assessed treatments on damping-off disease suppression
on paddy seedlings was measured as follow:
TE = (ISK – ISP) (ISK)-1 x 100%
TE = Efficacy level
ISK = Disease incidence on control treatment
ISP = Disease incidence on assessed treatment
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Trichoderma harzianum conidial density
Assessment on conidial density of T. harzianum was made after assessed
treatments were incubated for 8 days. The results showed that the higher percentage of
compost the higher T. harzianum conidial density.
Table 1. T. harzianum conidial density on assessed treatments
No. Treatment Conidia/ml
1 75% compost + 25% T. harzianum 77.56 x 105 c
2 60% compost + 40% T. harzianum 57.66 x 105 d
3 50% compost + 50% T. harzianum 39.57 x 105 e
4 40% compost + 60% T. harzianum 31.0 x 105 e
5 25% compost + 75% T. harzianum 23.26 x 105 e
6 0% compost + 100% T. harzianum 125.96 x 105 b
7 100% compost + pure culture of T. harzianum 167.96 x 105 a
Numbers followed by the same letter were not significantly different (LSD test at 5%).
The highest conidial density was gained on treatment of 100% compost mixed
with the inoculation of pure culture of T. harzianum. Treatments that T. harzianum
prepared as mass culture (serbuk gergaji dan dedak) showed to have high conidial density
but lower than and significantly different with 100% compost treatment. There are many
factors influence the development of T. harzianum, includes soil pH, soil aeration and
nutrition sources. It is considered that the compost used in the experiment has optimum
condition for the development of T. harzianum either on structure or the temperature
during the experiment. Assessment result on structure of tested compost showed the
compost to have good aeration so that assure rapid colonization of T. harizianum and fast
spore production. According to Chet (1987), soil pH influences the growth of
Trichoderma sp. in soil. In low soil pH and high humidity, Trichoderma sp. develops
optimally. Meanwhile, the optimum temperature and relative humidity range for
Trichoderma development is 250 – 300 C and 70% - 80%.
Incubation Period of Damping-off Disease (R. oryzae) on Paddy Seedling
Table 1 shows the data on the assessment of incubation period of damping-off
disease on paddy seedling. First symptom appeared on 4 days after sow (DAS) as rot on
lowest stem of paddy seedling. The faster incubation period occurred on positive control
treatment. The shortest incubation period was on treatment of 100% compost that
inoculated by T. harzianum in pure culture that was 10 DAS. Generally, the DAS was
approximately 6 DAS in all tested treatments.
Table 1. Incubation period of damping-off disease (R. solani) on paddy seedling
No. Treatment Incubation
period (day)
1 75% compost + 25% T. harzianum 6
2 60% compost + 40% T. harzianum 6
3 50% compost + 50% T. harzianum 6
4 40% compost + 60% T. harzianum 6
5 25% compost + 75% T. harzianum 6
6 0% compost + 100% T. harzianum 7
7 100% compost + pure culture of T. harzianum 10
8 Positive control (R. oryzae) 4
9 Negative control (non R. oryzae) -
The ability of T. harzianum in prolong the incubation period of damping-off
disease was presumed cause by competition on space and nutrition. The population
density of T. harzianum on organic paddy was also higher compared to R. oryzae (10 g,
conidial density of 105/ml) so that the T. harzianum initially occupied paddy roots.
Results of this experiment supports previous research conducted by Andayaningsih (2002)
that mentioned Trichoderma sp. growth is faster than R. solani on soybean.
Percentage of Damping-off Disease on Paddy Seedling
Percentages of damping-off disease in all tested treatments were lower than and
significantly different with control treatment. The lowest percentage was found on the
application of 100% compost and pure culture of T. harzianum (1,66%). The percentage
of the disease incidence on control treatment reached up to 36%.
Table 3. Percentage of damping-off deisease (R. oryzae) and efficacy level on paddy
seedling
Disease Efficacy level
No. Treatment
incidence (%) (%)
1 75% compost + 25% T. harzianum 6.0 b 83.33
2 60% compost + 40% T. harzianum 5.33 b 84.33
3 50% compost + 50% T. harzianum 5.,66 b 84.27
4 40% compost + 60% T. harzianum 3.33 b 90.75
5 25% compost + 75% T. harzianum 2.66 b 93.16
6 0% compost + 100% T. harzianum 3.33 b 90.75
7 100% compost + pure culture of T. harzianum 1.66 b 95.94
8 Positive control 36.0 a 0
9 Negative control
0 b 0
Numbers followed by the same letter were not significantly different (LSD test at 5%)
The result on efficacy level of T. harzianum application showed that the fungus
was highly effective with the average of efficacy level was upper than 80%. This
condition shows that T. harzianum is potential as antagonistic agent of R. oryzae. High
ability of T. harzianum in suppressing the development of damping-off disease is caused
by multiple antagonistic mechanisms provided by the fungus. According to Harman
(2007) several antagonistic mechanism of Trichoderma sp. include mycoparasite,
antibiosis, space and nutrition competition, unfavorable condition tolerance, inorganic
matter decomposition, induce resistance, and pathogen enzymatic activity disturbance.
CONCLUSSION
Mixed composition of waste compost and T. harzianum in all testes dosages
suppressed the percentage of damping-off disease (R. oryzae) on organic paddy seedling.
Dosage of 100% compost and pure culture of T. harzianum gave the highest
conidial density of T. harzianum and suppressed the disease in efficacy level of 95.94%.
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