1. HOW A CARBURETOR FUNCTIONS
A carburetor supplies the cylinder with a mixture of fuel and air, which
is brought to explosion, which in turn, releases energy. A wide pallet of
tuning combinations is available for every scooter, making each engine
and it‘s tuning highly individual. Carburetor tuning is an essential task of
every scooter afﬁcianado. Only through correct carburetor adjustment
can you get maximum performance from your scooter.
2. CHOOSING CARBURETOR SIZE
The most important aspect of a carbu-
retor is it‘s size. The value of the carbu-
retor size is based on the diameter of
the induction port (for example, PHBG
19 = 19mm induction port diameter).
Depending on how much the motor
had been modiﬁed, a larger induction
diameter guarantees a real power in-
crease in higher rpm‘s, while a smaller
carburetor diameter results in better
Attention: a larger carburetor needs
a larger main jet. Rule of thumb: the
main jet should increase 10% for every
Carbdiameter in mm
millimeter enlargement of the induc-
5. FULL LOAD SYSTEM
5.1 The Main Jet To ﬁnd the right main jet, start with a large jet and
move down number by number till you ﬁnd the right size.
If you pull the choke at full gas (fatter mix) and this leads to poorer
Performance divided by number output or lower rpm‘s, then your jet should be a smaller number. Smut
of cylinders per carburator buildup in exhaust opening, darkened exhaust, burned spark plugs or
improved motor performance with partially closed fuel tap are other
signs of a too large main jet.
3. COLD START ALIAS „CHOKE“ Your main jet is too small when your motor runs better when the choke
Getting your scooter to start at is pulled. Your spark plugs will usually look white and you motor will
low temperatures can be difﬁcult ping. In this case, simply increase the jet size till you ﬁnd the right one.
due to poorly atomized fuel or To judge if you have the right size, your motor should run smoothly
fuel condensation. You‘ll need when at full throttle and your spark plugs should be brown in color.
either a manual or electric choke
to get your carburetor the right
6. IDLE RANGE
Your carburetor can get more
fuel by installing a larger choke When idling, the motor needs a different mix with less air for lower
jet, getting your better starts in rpm‘s. When the throttle is almost closed there is a small low pressure
cold weather. Ideal for hard liners area in the upper range of the throttle, which is not enough to activate
down to minus 30° or for that fuel ﬂow to circulate in the main jet. Instead, an increased vacuum in
tour you‘re planning to the North the lower part of the throttle activates circulation in the idle jet. This
Pole circulation can be regulated through the idle jet, the fuel mix or the air
6.1 The idle range jet. To determine jet size here, open the throttle
1Choke lever 6 Choke jet slowly to about 10% (of the total). This should raise the rpm‘s smoothly.
2 Choke 7 Gas slide valve When the the rpm‘s ﬁrst fall and then return to normal, then you jet is
3 Air induction 8 Intake duct too small. If your motor sounds as though the choke is pulled (stutters),
4 Choke channel 9 Secondary channel
then your jet is too large. This can be caused by a too widely opened
5 Starter air jet bore 10 Fuel channel
mix adjustment screw or a too widely opened air adjustment screw. The
larger the idle range jet, the fatter the mix.
4. Carburetor Tuning
6.2 Mix adjustment screw.
Before you start tuning your carburetor, make sure all installed parts The mix ﬂow is regulated through the mix
remain the same. A change of air ﬁlter, cylinder, exhaust or ignition adjustment screw, which can be used to
means renewed carburetor tuning. increase or reduce your idle mix. Always
make adjustments when your
1. When tuning your carburetor, make sure to adjust the main jet in the motor is warm. >>
full throttle mode of the full load system. Fuel ﬂows through the main
jet via the mix tube and needle into the induction channel; the main jet
pre-portions fuel amount.
2. Then adjust the secondary jet in idle range.
3. Now, adjust the jet needle and venturi in partial load range.
4. Last, adjust idle range using adjustable screw.
Basics: if moderate tuning is your aim, then main jet adjustment will
sufﬁce. If you want more tuning, you‘ll have to adjust idle ranges and
partial load ranges. 1 Air adjustment screw
2 Gas slide valve
4 Mix adjustment screw
5 Idle jet
110 Disclaimer: Performance Parts affect the reliability of your scooter and are designed for racing purpose only. Any damages, direct, incidential or consequential, to
person or property, due to the installation of any performance parts are the responsibility of the purchaser. SIP Scootershop makes no warranty as to performance
parts, express or implied, including, but not limited to any implied warranties of merchantibility or ﬁtness for a particular purpose. Performance parts include, but are
not limited to, exhausts, cylinder kits, carburators etc. and related components. All parts, if not marked expressly, are not road legal! Race or exhibition use only!
>> First, turn the mixture jet screw out 4-5 turns. The motor will run too
1 Air duct fat and will probably die. Now, with the motor running, slowly turn the
2 Gas slide mixture screw back, which will raise idle somewhat. Continue to screw in
further until idle reaches the highest point, then turn back one quarter
4 Air duct adjustment screw
5 Fuel mix adjustment screw of a turn. Now, readjust idle using the idle adjustment screw. That‘s all
6 Idle jet there is to it!
6.3 Air adjustment The air adjustment screw controls the amount of
air to the fuel mix - which also controls the idle mix. Turning the screw
closed creates a fatter mix, turning the screw out gives a leaner mix.
This adjustment, as all adjustments, should be made when the motor is
warm: screw air adjustment screw until closed, then a half turn out. Your
motor will run too fat and will probably quit. Now adjust the idle. Turn
the air adjustment screw slowly out with the motor running. Idle rpm‘s
will increase by itself. Turn the screw out until the rpm‘s are highest,
now turn back a quarter turn. Now adjust the idle rpm‘s and you‘ve got
If you take a look at the carburetor from the side, you‘ll see the position
of the gas slide valve. The mix adjustment screw is located (from the gas
slide valve) staggered towards the manifold, the air adjustment screw is
staggered in the direction of the air ﬁlter.
PHB Main Jet
7. PARTIAL LOAD
Partial load or half gas can be reached when the gas slide valve is 1/4 to
Ø Jet Area
3/4 open. Jet needles and mix tube are responsible for regulating the
mix in this area.
7.1 Needles The needle can be adjusted with a clip in 4 different posi-
tions. If the motor runs ﬁne with completely opened gas slide valve, but
stutters at half, then it‘s running too fat. You can hang the jet needle
lower (move the clip higher up the needle) and so reduce the mix in this
area. If the needle is already at it‘s lowest position and the mix is still too
fat, then use either a thicker needle or a smaller mix tube. If your perfor-
mance is too low at full gas then hang the needle higher.
Needles come in a variety of thicknesses, lengths and grades. We recom-
mend trying out several needle sizes to ﬁnd which one is best for your
personal tuning needs.
7.2 Venturi Tubes Together with the jet needle, the venturi tube is re-
sponsible for partial load adjustment. If the adjustment is too fat (motor
stutters and throttles) and the jet needle already is in the lowest slot,
then it‘s time for a small venturi tube. The rule applies here as well: the
higher the number, the fatter the venturi rube. In the partial load range
with a barely opened gas slide valve your motor should purr not stutter.
If it doesn‘t get hiccups when gas is turned up, then you‘ve got it right.
8. AIR PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES
The fuel mix in your carburetor is inﬂuenced externally by changes in air
temperature or air pressure. If the air pressures is reduced (for example
when driving over a mountain pass), the mix is enriched and you motor
stutters - which means a smaller jet is needed. If the air pressure is higher
(sea level), your motor will starve. Careful - motors can freeze up! Lower
temperatures raise the air pressure, your mix is too lean and larger jets
are called for. A highly tuned motor needs a fatter mix in winter/season
change than in summer.
Your mix is inﬂuenced by four factors:
changes in the mix ratio, air pressure, amount of air and air induction
Technical illustrations are taken from:
Carburetor Tuning Handbook
A must for everyone who wants more technical
information about carburetors. The carburetor
handbook is available is German, English and
Italian. 32 pages crammed with info and lots of
illustrations - how to, functions and tuning of
the DELL‘ORTO carburetor.
Handbook 32 pages, illustrated, english.
(also available in italian, Art. 995500)
Art.-Nr. 995400 | Carburetor Tuning Handbook
More technical books on page 207 14,90 €
www.sip-scootershop.com Hotline: +49 8191 96999 69 all prices include 16% german VAT! Outside 111
+49 8191 96999 55 the EU we will charge net w/ out VAT
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