African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 4 (7), pp. 667-671, July 2005
african journal of biotechnology vol. 4 (7), pp. 667-671, july 2005
available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/ajb
issn 1684–5315 © 2005 academic journals
full length research paper
response of glycine max in relation to nitrogen fixation
as influenced by fungicide seed treatment
anupama bikrol, nidhi saxena and kiran singh*
laboratory of bioenergetics, department of microbiology, barkatullah university, bhopal-462026, india.
accepted 8 march, 2005
glycine max – rhizobium interaction is a well known symbiotic association occurring in nature and
responsible for biological nitrogen fixation. thiram a well-known fungicide has been in practice as seed
dressing in order to prevent fungal colonization. in the present study the effect of various thiram
concentrations is investigated. thiram concentration beyond 500 g/ml was observed to be highly toxic
with respect to plant growth factors and rhizobial infection to the g. max. the nodulation, nodule dry
weight, nitrogenase activity were observed to be maximum at 100 g/ml of thiram. the study is useful in
determining the threshold concentration of fungicide for soybean seed dressing for effective nitrogen
fixation and crop yield.
key words: ascorbic acid, chlorophyll content, glycine max, nodulation, nodule dry weight, nitrogenase
activity, protein content, thiram.
most of the t***estrial plants live in symbiosis with root synthetic chemicals including fungicides, biocides,
infecting microorganism. colonization of roots with insecticides and fertilizers also influence nodulation
bradyrhizobium species is beneficial because it provides process of biological n2 fixation (anderson, 1978; gaur,
n2 in fixed form as to the host and to the soil system 1980; kundu and trimohan, 1989).
(beijerick, 1888b; saffald, 1888; fred et al., 1932). the fungicide applied to leguminous plants either as
several microbial species interacts in both positive and seeds dressing or soil drench reach the soil and may
negative ways among each other (anderson, 1978, affect the symbiotic relationship. further, fungicide
gaur, 1980, kundu and trimohan, 1989). intraspecific applied to another crop may be sufficiently persistent to
interaction prevails within the species of bradyrhizobium effect nitrogen level (gaur, 1980). apart from this,
and results into nodule occupancy (burton, 1979) in several plant pathogenic microbes affects soybean plant
competitive manner by specific strain (rennie, 1986). health at different growth stages. the uses of non-
not only biological factors are involved in root nodulation mercurial fungicide tmtd (thiram) for seed dressing of
and n2 fixation (garrett, 1963, halverson and stacey, g. max have been practiced in most of the agricultural
1986; beijerick, 1888b; saffald, 1888; fred et al., 1932) operations.
but abiotic components such as soil profile and certain several deviating observation in relation to
compatibility of rhizobial strains with fungicides have
been previously demonstrated (afifi et al., 1969; rivellin
et al., 1993; grahm et al., 1980; guene et al., 2003). in
the present study the effect of thiram on rhizobium
*corresponding author. tel: +91 0755 2677729, fax: +91 0755 inoculants with respect to nodulation, n2 fixation, plant
2677729. e-mail: [email protected] factors such as chlorophyll content, ascorbic acid
concentration and protein content was investigated. g.
abbreviations: chl, chlorophyll; n2–ase, nitrogenase; tmtd, max is one of the important crops of madhya pradesh
thiram; yema, yeast extract mannitol agar.
(india) and it becomes necessary to elucidate the role of
668 afr. j. biotechnol.
thiram in field conditions effecting productivity of g. max
pot experiment tube experiment
as well as enhancement of nitrogen content of soil in
material and methods
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