• SURUHANJAYA TENAGA


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    • Abstract: SURUHANJAYA TENAGA(ENERGY COMMISSION)No. 12, Jalan Tun Hussein, Presint 2, 62100 PutrajayaTel : 03 8870 8500 Fax : 03 8888 8637Toll Free Number : 1-800-2222-78 (ST)Email : [email protected] C O N T E N T S

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SURUHANJAYA TENAGA
(ENERGY COMMISSION)
No. 12, Jalan Tun Hussein, Presint 2, 62100 Putrajaya
Tel : 03 8870 8500 Fax : 03 8888 8637
Toll Free Number : 1-800-2222-78 (ST)
Email : [email protected]
www.st.gov.my
C O N T E N T S
INTRODUCTION 2
What is energy efficiency? 2
Why do we need to use electricity efficiently? 2
YOUR MONTHLY ELECTRICITY BILL 3
Electricity consumption in your home 4
Cost of electrical appliances usage 4
Formula to calculate the cost of
using electrical appliances 5
Reducing your electricity bills 8
Auditing your home 8
BUYING EFFICIENT ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES 13
Energy labelling 15
Energy performance of electrical equipment 15
USING ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT WISELY 17
Energy Saving Tips in:
• The Kitchen 18
• Refrigerator and Freezer 18
• Kettle 20
• Oven And Microwave Oven 21
• Cooker Hoods 22
• The Laundry And Bathroom 23
• The Living Room 26
• Home Entertainment 30
• Computers 32
• Lighting 34
YOUR GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT HOME
You should benefit from using
electrical appliances at home
whilst using electricity no more
than necessary
Efficient use of electricity
is our daily practice
*Kapten EE :
INTRODUCTION Mascot of Energy Efficiency
Campaign
Electricity is the main source of energy used at home. While you
benefit from using electrical appliances at home, you should use
electricity no more than is necessary. Using electricity efficiently not
only saves money but will also protect the environment. Protecting
the environment for future generations should be built into
everything we do today.
Do you want to have lower electricity bills and do your part for the
environment? Most homes are able to easily reduce 10% of their
electricity consumption without sacrificing comfort levels.
Tips on smart use of energy to save money at home
What is energy efficiency?
Energy (electricity) efficiency means using electricity wisely in order to
accomplish the same tasks whether at home or at the workplace.
Using energy efficiently also means paying less for electricity whilst
benefiting from its use!
Why do we need to use energy efficiently?
a) To save fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) which are:
• depleting resources;
• increasing in prices; and
• emitting greenhouse gases and other dangerous gases that
have negative impact on human health and the environment
b) To preserve the environment, the only one that we have and need
to preserve for our future generation; and
c) To save on domestic electricity bills.
2
Your
Monthly
Electricity
Bill
The energy cost savings for efficient
equipment, (which may be more
expensive) over their life cycle,
can be more than
the extra cost of purchase.
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YOUR GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT HOME
Electricity Consumption in Your Home
The kitchen is a good place to start as this is where the major part of
electricity needs at home is consumed which amounts to about 45%
as shown in Table 1.
An average family in a low or medium-cost house spends about RM80
to RM170 per month respectively for electricity bill while the bill in a
typical bungalow can exceed RM450 per month.
Cost of Electrical Appliance Usage
Many of us are unaware of the contribution of different appliances to
our monthly electricity bill. We can easily carry out our own energy
audit to manage our electricity consumption to save electricity usage.
Table 1 shows the average electricity consumption costs per month in
a low cost, medium cost and bungalow home for a family of five.
The electricity consumption cost per household depends very much on
family size, living habits, number and age of electrical appliances and
duration of use of each appliance.
Tips on smart use of energy to save money at home
You can calculate the approximate electricity cost of each different
appliance if you know these:
Table 1 : Electricity Cost Per Month in Different Types of Houses
House Types Low Cost House Medium Cost House Bungalows
Cost / Percentage RM % RM % RM %
Kitchen 36 45 64.98 38 181.60 40
Living 24 30 54.72 32 177.06 39
Laundry / Bathroom 11.2 14 30.78 18 72.64 16
Others 8.8 11 20.52 12 22.7 5
TOTAL 80.00 100 171.00 100 454.00 100
Source : CETREE, Your Guide to Energy Efficiency at Home, July 2003
4
The electricity
consumption cost per
household depends
very much on family
size, living habits,
number and age of
electrical appliances
and duration of use of
each appliance.
i. Power rating of the appliance (usually found on a nameplate or
etched on the appliance) and its efficiency;
ii. Number of hours you use the appliance; and
iii. The electricity tariff in Ringgit Malaysia per kilowatt-hour
(RM/kWh).
The following formula is used to calculate the cost of using electrical
appliances:
Firstly, calculate the energy consumption in kWh
kWh = Power (in Watts) x Hours of operation
1000
Where:
kWh – unit of measurement for electricity consumption
k – 1000W = 1 kW
W – Watt, the unit of measurement for the load
(i.e. how much power is drawn)
h – hour, the unit for usage duration
Secondly, calculate the cost of energy
Energy Cost = Energy (kWh) x Electricity Tariff (RM/kWh)
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YOUR GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT HOME
Example
A nominal “1 Horse power” air conditioner (A/C) has an electrical load
of about 850 to 950 watt. The cost of using a 950 watt air-conditioner
unit for five (5) hours daily is derived as follows:
Firstly, calculate the energy consumption in kWh
kWh = 950 W x 5 h = 4.75 kWh
1000
Secondly, calculate the cost of energy per day (refer to Table 2 for
domestic electricity tariff)
Energy Cost = 4.75 kWh x RM 0.218 = RM 1.04
Assuming that the usage is constant, the cost for using the air-
conditioner for a month (assume 30 days) would be:
= RM 1.04 x 30 days = RM 31.20
Monthly electricity bills usually increase over time due to the
Tips on smart use of energy to save money at home
increased use of electricity. Increased consumption of electricity can
be caused by:
• Additional or new appliances
• Longer duration of usage of appliances.
• During festival periods when additional decorative lightings and
other appliances are used.
• Replacement of older, smaller appliances with larger units for a
growing family.
• Faulty appliances e.g. a refrigerator with faulty thermostat,
shortage of refrigerant or defective door gasket will result in
having the refrigerator working continuously for longer period
thereby wasting electricity.
6
Table 2 : Domestic Electrical Tariff
Tariff Category Unit Rates
1. Tariff A
Housing Tariff
For total use between 0-400kWh
First 200 kWh (1-200 kWh) per month sen/kWh 21.8
Subsequent 200 kWh (201-400 kWh) per month sen/kWh 34.5
Minimum charge per month is RM3.00
For total use exceeding 400kWh
First 500 kWh (1-500 kWh) per month sen/kWh 30.0
Subsequent 100 kWh (501-600 kWh) per month sen/kWh 39.0
Subsequent 100 kWh (601-700 kWh) per month sen/kWh 40.0
Subsequent 100 kWh (701-800 kWh) per month sen/kWh 41.0
Subsequent 100 kWh (801-900 kWh) per month sen/kWh 43.0
Every Subsequent kWh (901 kWh onwards) per month sen/kWh 46.0
Minimum charge per month sen/kWh RM3.00
Source : Tenaga Nasional Berhad, 2008
The primary method is
to analyse our
electricity usage and
assess where it can be
comfortably
controlled or used
more efficiently. You
can conduct your own
energy audit at home.
7
YOUR GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT HOME
Reducing your electricity bills
There are opportunities to improve the efficiency of electricity usage
at home. Wise and efficient use can conserve energy, save money and
help to protect our environment. The primary method is to analyse
our electricity usage and assess where it can be comfortably
controlled or used more efficiently. You can conduct your own energy
audit at home.
Auditing your home
The checklist below helps to audit home energy use and find out
where energy is wasted as listed in Table 3. Please refer to Table 11 at
the back of the book to help you audit your home energy usage.
Table 12 is also attached for your reference.
Table 3 : Energy Saving Tips for Household Electrical Appliances
THE KITCHEN
REFRIGERATOR AND FREEZER
Things to check What to do
Tips on smart use of energy to save moneymoney at home
Tip on smart use of energy to save at home
1. Location • The refrigerator should not be
located in at a warm place e.g.
area exposed to direct
sunlight, or near a cooker or
stove.
• There has to be adequate
space above, behind and
around the refrigerator for
free air circulation
8
2. Refrigerator • Check temperature of the
Temperature Settings freezer:
a the temperature of the
fridge should be set
according to the contents of
the fridge
a ideal operating
temperature is - 18°C
a adjust control thermostat
accordingly.
• Check temperature of
refrigerator compartment:
a ideal refrigerator
temperature is 5°C at the
coldest part
a adjust the thermostat
accordingly
3. Door gaskets • Check the door gasket is in
good condition by:
a closing the door on a sheet
of paper
a replace door gasket or
adjust the alignment of the
refrigerator / freezer if the
sheet of paper is easily
removed
4. Frost build-up • If the refrigerator is not a
frost-free model:
a check for frost in the
freezer compartment
a do not let frost thickness
exceed 6 mm
a switch off to defrost and
remove excess water before
restarting
9
Your Guide To Energy Efficiency At Home HOME
YOUR GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT
5. Loading • Check on food arrangement,
allow spaces between food
items to ensure free air
circulation
6. Condenser • Check the condenser coils to
ensure they are clean to
maintain the efficiency of the
refrigerator
ELECTRIC/MICROWAVE OVEN
Things to check What to do
1. Oven door gasket • Inspect regularly the door
gasket for signs of wear and
tear
• Check for defects in the hinges
of the oven door.
• If any fault on gasket or hinges
is detected, call an authorized
person to repair/replace the
device.
AIR-CONDITIONERS
Things to check What to do
1. Installation • Make sure air conditioner is
installed away from direct sun
rays.
• Ensure that the air conditioner
is of the correct size for the
room (Please refer to Table 6)
10 Tips on smart use of energy to save money at home
2. Operating Temperature • Check and adjust the
thermostat to give comfortable
temperature - normally
comfortable temperature is
between 24°C and 26°C
3. Maintenance • Clean air filter to optimize
(is recommended to be operation.
carried out by authorised
person) • Clean the outside
coil fins twice a year.
• Clean the blower unit coils at
least once a year.
• Check and adjust the
thermostat to give a
comfortable temperature.
• Check the level of system
refrigerant once a year.
HOME ENTERTAINMENT
Things to check What to do
1. Television, personal • Ensure that the television,
computer and radio personal computer and stereo
are switched off at the plug
when not in operation
(Standby mode will consume
electricity).
• Make sure that the energy
saver function of the computer
is activated when left idle in
between activities.
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YOUR GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT HOME
LIGHTING
Things to check What to do
1. Lights • Check that the lights used are
the energy efficient (EE) type,
e.g. use fluorescent lights, or
“Energy Saving Lamps”
(Compact fluorescent lamps –
CFLs) instead of incandescent
lamps.
• Switch off lights when not
required.
12 Tips on smart use of energy to save money at home
Buying
Efficient
Electrical
Appliances
When buying electrical appliances it is
important to choose the right size.
Refrigerators, air conditioning equipment,
water heaters, televisions, and vacuum
cleaners come in various sizes. Larger size
equipment consume more energy.
13
YOUR GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT HOME
Similar comparisons can be
made for other equipment.
It is important that
equipment is selected on
the basis of “total cost” of
purchasing and operation
cost for the equipment so
as to get the best “value-
for-money”
The cost of electricity used by an appliance over its working life often
exceeds the purchase price of the appliance. Hence when purchasing
an equipment one should consider the “total cost” of owning the
equipment.
The energy cost savings for efficient equipment, (which may be more
expensive) over their life cycle, can be more than the extra cost of
purchase. Table 4 shows the cost comparison for lights.
The comparison shows that the energy efficient lamp (CFL) can save
about RM68.84 over its life time compared with the cheaper
incandescent lamps.
Tips on smart use of energy to save money at home
Table 4 : Cost saving comparison of CFL vs. incandescent lamp
Type Life (hrs, Light Output Purchase Energy Total Savings
each) Lumens/Watt Cost (RM) Cost (RM) Cost (RM) (RM)
Energy Saving
Lamps (CFL) 6,000 65 15.00 31.80 46.80 68.84
- 18 W
Incandescent
- 60 W 1,000 18 12.00 103.64 115.64 -
14
Similar comparisons can be made for other equipment. It is important
that equipment is selected on the basis of “total cost” of purchasing
and operation cost for the equipment so as to get the best “value-for-
money”.
Energy Labelling
When buying electrical equipment, look for energy labels. Energy
label shows energy efficiency rating of equipment and helps to make
wise choice when buying the equipment.
In Malaysia, the energy labelling system for refrigerator has been
established under the supervision of the Energy Commission with
cooperation from SIRIM since 2006.
Energy Performances of Electrical Equipment
The energy performance of some electrical equipment can be checked
at the nameplate. Air conditioners have Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER).
EER indicates the conversion efficiency of the equipment; the higher
the value, the more efficient the appliance is. EER for an air
conditioner denotes the ratio of the cooling capacity to the power
input (watt).
When buying electrical appliances it is important to choose the right
capacity. Refrigerators, air conditioning equipment, water heaters,
televisions, and vacuum cleaners come in various capacities. Larger
capacity consumes more energy.
Example:
When buying an air conditioner, look for the EER value of the unit.
One horsepower (hp) air conditioner should have a minimum EER
value of 8. The air conditioner capacity is usually stated in BTU/hour.
The higher the value, the more efficient the unit is.
15
YOUR GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT HOME
Table 5 : Imported equipment may have the following labels
USA Energy Star Labels (more
stars mean less energy
use)
Thailand Star Rating (more stars
mean lower energy
Tips on smart use of energy to save money at home
consumption)
UK Energy Star Rating
(coloured code “A-G”. “A”
means the most efficienct
and “G” the least
efficient)
Australia Energy Star Rating (the
more the stars, the lower
the energy consumption)
The energy labelling will give the energy consumption performance
of the equipment and will help in making purchasing decisions.
16
Using
Electrical
Equipment
Wisely
When buying electrical appliances it is
important to choose the right capacity.
Refrigerators, air conditioning
equipment, water heaters, televisions,
and vacuum cleaners come in various
capacities. Larger capacity consumes
more energy.
17
YOUR GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT HOME
ENERGY SAVING TIPS
THE KITCHEN
The kitchen always uses a substantial amount (of about 40%) of the
electricity in the home. If you live in a medium cost house, you can
save about 10% of electricity or RM78 per year by using energy
efficient electrical appliances in your kitchen.
REFRIGERATOR AND FREEZER
Both equipments are normally used throughout the year and are
considered the most expensive items to run in the kitchen. Therefore
they have high energy saving potential.
The reduced energy bill for a new energy efficient refrigerator or
freezer would usually compensate the cost of replacement of an old
and inefficient one.
A. Purchasing Guide
Refrigerator
• Choose the right capacity of the refrigerator to suit your family
needs. A 550W refrigerator would cost about RM 22.50 per
Tips on smart use of energy to save money at home
month to run thus, it is best to avoid buying oversized
appliances.
• Remember to check for Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) of the
refrigerator. The nameplate data will give the wattage of the
equipment.
• Look for Energy Labeling of the refrigerator. In Malaysia, the
energy label for refrigerator has been established under the
supervision of the Energy Commission with cooperation from
SIRIM since 2006.
Freezer
An upright freezer uses more energy compared to a chest freezer. On
average the electricity bill for a chest freezer will be about RM10 per
month compared to RM14 per month for an upright freezer.
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B. Installation guide
Refrigerators/freezers give off heat when they operate to cool their
contents. This heat will cause the appliance to work for a longer
period or become overheated and shorten its lifespan. Therefore, it
will consume more electricity and wear out quicker. Precautions to
take note of when installing a refrigerator/freezer:
• The refrigerator should not be placed in a very warm place e.g.
area exposed to direct sunlight or near a cooker.
• There should be adequate space above, behind and around the
sides of the refrigerator for free air circulation.
C. Operating and Maintenance Guide
Refrigerator
• When you are going away for a holiday, empty and clean the
refrigerator. Switch it off and leave its door open.
• Keep the condenser coils at the rear of the refrigerator clean.
Dust and dirt on the condenser coils will reduce the working
efficiency of the refrigerator.
• Allow space around food stored in the refrigerator to permit
free air circulation. Leave hot food to cool down naturally
before storing in the refrigerator.
• Avoid opening refrigerator frequently. Do not leave door open
for a long time.
The reduced energy
bill for a new energy
efficient refrigerator
or freezer would
usually compensate
the cost of
replacement of an
old inefficient one.
19
YOUR GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT HOME
Freezer
• Use vapour-proof, air tight wraps and containers when packing
food for freezing to ensure food is not dehydrated.
• Decide on what you need to keep or remove from freezer
before opening the door, repeated opening of the door wastes
energy.
• Defrost the freezer when there is a 6 mm (1/4 inch) frost build-
up.
Energy Saving Tip
If the temperature of the freezer is correctly adjusted to -18°C, a
saving of 60kWh per year equivalent to RM13 per year can be
obtained.
KETTLE
Electric kettle is a cost-saving equipment. It uses less electricity
compared to boiling water in a traditional kettle on an electric
hotplate. In an electric kettle, the heating element is placed directly
in the water to be boiled and heat loss is thus avoided. The heating
element must be regularly cleaned to reduce electricity
comsumption.
Tips on smart use of energy to save money at home
Other option:
Use a gas stove to boil water. This is much cheaper and more energy-
efficient. Heat source from the gas stove is directly used to boil water
instead of the double stage of using gas to generate electricity and
then using electricity to boil water. You will definitely save money
since gas is cheaper than electricity
Cooker hoods don’t cost much to
run, but they will extract heated
or cooled air out of your house
quickly. Turn them off as soon as
the job is done.
20
Purchasing Guide
Choose an appropriate electric kettle size for your use. The bigger the
size the longer it takes to boil water. Therefore, the electricity
consumption is higher.
OVEN AND MICROWAVE OVEN
The traditional oven is a heavy energy consumer, so it has to be
utilized in the best possible way. Alternatively you should consider a
microwave oven if it can fulfill your cooking requirements. It is
efficient, simple to operate and an energy saver.
A. Purchasing Guide
• Microwave ovens use less energy and cook faster than
conventional electric ovens. They are also useful for heating (or
re-heating) food quickly and can save up to 10-25%.
• A microwave oven saves up to 75% of energy for cooking
compared to a conventional electric oven because of its lower
power demand and quicker cooking time.
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YOUR GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT HOME
B. Operating and Maintenance Guide
Oven
• Preheating of oven is normally not necessary and the oven can
be switched off 5 to 10 minutes before the normal cooking time
limit to use the retained heat of the oven. This can save 10-25%
electricity required for the cooking.
• The oven door should be kept closed. If inspection is required,
peek through the oven window.
• Thaw frozen food before cooking. This will save energy which
otherwise would be needed to thaw food in the oven (and may
not cook evenly).
• Plan oven meals and cook several dishes at one time, if possible.
By doing this approximately 60% electricity can be saved.
Microwave Ovens
• Avoid operating the oven when it is empty as this can damage
the magnetron.
• Avoid using metallic containers in the microwave oven.
Tips on smart use of energy to save money at home
• Food in a microwave oven continues to cook or heat up even
after the oven is switched off.
COOKER HOODS
Cooker hoods don’t cost much to run, but they will extract heated or
cooled air out of your house quickly. Turn them off as soon as the job
is done.
Choose energy efficient cooker hoods (by looking for energy label)
because it can reduce electricity bill. Efficient cooker hood that uses
high performance motor will save energy and lasts longer.
22
LAUNDRY AND BATHROOM
Electrical appliances in the laundry and bathroom can cost up to RM
400 per year. You can save money by using them according to the
recommended operation and maintenance guide.
Water Heater
• There are two types of electric water heaters.
• Instant water heaters heat water as it is used, while storage
water heaters (less commonly used), store heated water for
later use; and
• The storage type of heaters tend to waste energy as they
attempt to keep the stored water hot all the time, even when
the water is not used.
A. Purchasing Guide
• Choose an instant water heater because it consumes less energy
than storage water heater.
• Should a storage hot water system be needed, select the correct
size.
• A water heater with a storage capacity of 23-27 litres is
sufficient for a family of 4-5 members.
• Switch off the heater after use (but use its stored water
capacity), to save on its energy consumption.
• Solar storage water heaters do not consume electrical energy.
However, they are relatively expensive.
23
YOUR GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT HOME
B. Installation Guide
• Always install hot water system according to the
manufacturer’s instructions.
• For maximum efficiency, the hot water system should
be installed as close as possible to the point of most
frequent use (especially for the storage type).
• Fit a “low flow fitting” that can reduce water
consumption by up to 70%.
C. Operating and Maintenance Guide
• Encourage quick showers instead of baths. Less hot
water is used in a shower.
Bathroom Tips:
• Install a quality, low flow showerhead.
• Insert a plug into the basin to avoid hot water running down
the drain.
• Fix dripping taps quickly.
• Turn off all appliances at the power point.
Tips on smart use of energy to save money at home
• Use the hair dryer on the low heat setting.
• Dry hair with towel before using the hair dryer.
Washing Machine
Washing machine is a common household appliance, which is used to
alleviate house chores. The following provides purchasing and
operational and maintenance guide for efficient use of energy.
A. Purchasing Guide
• Select a washing machine that is the right size and has the
appropriate features to suit your family’s needs.
• Top loading automatic washing machine consumes less energy
than the front loading automatic machine.
24
B. Operational and Maintenance Guide
It is a waste of electricity and water to use the washing machine just
to wash a pair of trousers or a few shirts. Gather the laundry, so that
the machine can be filled up. The electricity consumption is almost
the same for full or part load washing.
• Washing machines use relatively the same amount of energy
regardless of the size of the laundry load. Run full loads
whenever possible.
• Do not overload the washing machine.
• Choose the correct wash cycle.
• Avoid using the pre-wash programme.
• Use optimum temperature setting. Avoid hot washing cycle, if
possible.
Energy Saving Tip
One full load wash will cost RM 0.18.
Cost per week for partial load in a daily wash is
RM 0.18 x 7 = RM 1.26
Washing 3 times a week on full load will save about RM 37 per year.
Iron
An electric iron can be an “energy guzzler” if it is not used optimally
as it usually has a demand load of 1000 Watts.
Iron large batches of clothing
at the same time to avoid
wasting energy in reheating.
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YOUR GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT HOME
A. Purchasing Guide
• Steam iron consumes more energy than dry iron.
• A lighter iron will heat up quicker and uses less energy while a
heavy iron takes a long time to heat up before it can be used.
B. Operational and Maintenance Guide
• Iron low temperature fabrics first to reduce the warm-up time
and switch the iron off before finishing the last garment.
• Iron large batches of clothing at the same time to avoid wasting
energy in reheating. Remember an iron takes energy to heat up
and this energy is wasted if the iron is used for frequent ironing
of a few items at a time.
• Turn the iron off if interrupted.
Tips on smart use of energy to save moneymoney at home
Tip on smart use of energy to save at home
• Fold washed items carefully to avoid the need for ironing where
possible.
THE LIVING ROOM
According to Table 6, many families spend RM300 per year on
electricity in the living area where a 10% savings would mean RM30
savings in a year.
Air Conditioners
Home air conditioning which was once a luxury is now becoming a
necessity or an affordable convenience to the middle income
population as air conditioners become cheaper and more energy-
efficient.
26
The cheaper window type air conditioners are now losing out to the
“split” type, which have the advantage of separating the compressor
from the cooling unit thus reducing the noise level in the cooled
room.
The lower energy costs of the more efficient new air conditioners can
often justify replacement even if existing ones are still in good
condition.
A. Purchasing Guide
• Choose the correct size of the air conditioning unit that you
require. Table 6 is a guide for the suitable unit size for air
conditioner according to room size.
• Look for the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) of the air conditioner.
EER for 1 hp unit ranges from 8 to 10. The higher the EER, the
more efficient is the unit. The air conditioner output is usually
stated in BTU/hour (1 hp is about 9200 BTU/hr).
Table 6 : Guide for Appropriate Air Conditioning and Room Size
Room Size Air Conditioner Unit Size (Hp)
12 x 12 feet


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