• Waste to Energy – The Swedish experience


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  • FileName: Usitall-TheSwedishExperience.pdf
    • Abstract: Waste to Energy – The Swedish experience- or how to turn a problem into an assetStellan JacobssonPresident Usitall ABMember of the Board,Swedish Waste Management AssociationMile ElezManager of waste to energy

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Waste to Energy – The Swedish experience
- or how to turn a problem into an asset
Stellan Jacobsson
President Usitall AB
Member of the Board,
Swedish Waste Management Association
Mile Elez
Manager of waste to energy
Emil Berggren
Project Manager
Outline of presentation
About us
The Swedish model
Waste-to-Energy
Gärstad WtE plant
District Heating/ cooling
Environmental aspects
Technology
Waste collection
Anaerobic digestion
Offer
Our vision
”Usitall will enable the society to replace
”Usitall will enable the society to replace
all refuse dumps and landfills with
all refuse dumps and landfills with
sustainable recycling and Waste-to-
sustainable recycling and Waste-to-
Energy solutions”
Energy solutions”
Usitall – created from…
Tekniska Verken i i
Tekniska Verken
Linköping AB (publ)
Linköping AB (publ)
Linköping municipality 100%
Linköping municipality 100%
• A multiutility company
• Established in 1902
• The turnover exceed 550 million Euro
• 1200 employees
Usitall AB – est. 2007
Usitall AB – est. 2007 Swedish Biogas
Swedish Biogas
Owned to 70% by Tekniska International AB
International AB
Owned to 70% by Tekniska
Verken, to 30% by Saab AB (publ)
Verken, to 30% by Saab AB (publ) Private owners
Private owners
• Export of solutions for solid waste • Export of solutions for organic
• Exclusive license agreement waste/materials
• Know-How ”Waste to Energy” • Exclusive license agreement
• Know-How ”Biological treatment”
Mother company: Tekniska Verken i
Linköping AB (publ)
Waste management/treatment for
household/industrial waste
Recycling and waste to Energy for
district heating, cooling, electricity
and industrial heat
Biogas production from biological
waste
Potable water and sewage
management
• Communication technology
Mother company: Key figures 2007
Customers:
Customers: 215,000
215,000
Employees:
Employees: 1,057
1,057
Turnover:
Turnover: SEK 5,100 billion (~820 mil. CAD)
SEK 5,100 billion (~820 mil. CAD)
Profit:
Profit: SEK 425 million (~70 mil. CAD)
SEK 425 million (~70 mil. CAD)
Investments:
Investments: SEK 648 million ((~100 mil. CAD)
SEK 648 million ~100 mil. CAD)
The fifth largest energy company in Sweden
The companies within the group are environmentally
certified in accordance with ISO 14001, as well as
all the production plants.
The Swedish system
The Swedish system
– Sustainable waste management
“The overall aim is to hand over to the next generation a society in
which the major environmental problems have been solved.”
The Swedish Parliament (Riksdagen) 1999 Unanimous decision
Sustainability Means of control
Waste Hierarchy (i.e. your 5R:s) National targets
Systems perspective Laws and regulations
Best Available Technology
Taxes
Other “steering instruments”
Means of control
National goals
Before 2010, 45% of the waste should be recycled
Regulations
Kyoto agreement
EU-directives & regulations
Producer responsibility
Taxes
Landfill tax (1 January 2000, today 435 SEK/ton, app. 68 CAD/ton)
Incineration tax depending on energy output
Bans
Ban on putting combustible waste to landfills (1 January 2002)
Ban on organic waste to landfills (1 January 2005)
Source: The ÅF Group and Swedish EPA
All Waste Treatment Methods are Necessary
Material Recycling
Biological Treatment
Energy Recovery through
Incineration
Landfill
Treatment of MSW in Europe
Material recycling 36,8 %
Biological treatment 10,4 %
Recycling Energy recovery Landfilling
WtE goes hand-in-hand with recycling
Recycled/composted and Landfill (per cent Incineration (per cent Waste per
Country other (per cent of total) of total) of total) capita (kg)
Netherlands 65 3 32 624
Austria 59 31 10 627
Germany 58 20 22 600
Belgium 52 13 35 469
Sweden* 44 5 50 464
Denmark 41 5 54 696
Ireland 31 69 0 869
Finland 28 63 9 455
France 28 38 34 567
UK 18 74 8 600
Greece 8 92 0 433
Portugal 3 75 22 434
Source: Institute for Public Policy Research http://www.ippr.org.uk/pressreleases/?id=2283 base yr: 2003/4
* 2005
Waste-to-Energy
Utilizing Energy from Waste
50+ Years of Experience in Linköping
Waste to Energy Plants in Europe
Plants operating in
2005
1 / 0,05
29 / 2,2 Thermally treated
19 / 0,6 MSW in million
tons/year
30 / 3,5
11 / 5,5 1 / 0,04
14 / 3
65 / 16
18 / 2,5
1 / 0,1 3 / 0,4
8 / 1,5 1 / 0, 3
128 / 13,6 29 / 3,3
47 / 3,1
3 / 1,1 10 / 1,7
Source: CEWEP
Why Waste-to-Energy?
Reduction of weight and
volume of the “waste mountain”
Energy recovery and replacement
of fossil fuels
Environmental control and
minimization of greenhouse
gases
Waste – a valuable fuel
Heat values
= or
1 ton oil 1.6 ton Coal/rubber waste 4.5 tons wood
or or
5 tons waste wood 4 tons waste
85 % of MSW in Sweden is of biological origin
Energy outputs
District heating
District cooling
Industrial heating
Desalination
Electricity
Utilized energy from waste in Europe
Why Sweden utilize most energy
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Condensing Power
Electricity 20 % Electricity 25 %
Waste Waste
fuel District heat fuel
100 % District cooling 100 % Waste heat 65 %
70 %
Losses in Losses in
production 10 % production 10 %
Gärstad WtE plant
50 years of evolution and experience
1964
1958
1954
2005
1982
Gärstad Waste-to-Energy plant
50 years of experience gathered in one of europe’s best-practice facility
Key figures
MSW from 600,000 citizens
Waste from
Total capacity of 420,000 tons Norway
of solid waste
1.000 GWh of District heating
200 GWh of electricity
MSW from 30 municipalities, 15% of Sweden’s total
amount of household waste
Replacement of fossil fuels for heating
The municipality of Linköping 1980-2008
GWh
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
90
08
80
82
84
86
88
92
94
96
98
00
02
04
06
19
20
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
20
20
20
20
Oil Coal Wood Waste
Gärstad WtE plant
– Sustainable Economy
50% Waste Fee’s
50% Waste Fee’s ~50% Fixed costs
~50% Fixed costs
20% Electricity*
20% Electricity*
~50% Operation
~50% Operation
30% Heating
30% Heating
Energy recovery leads to lower waste fee’s for the municipality.
Despite higher investments, owning and operating WtE plants leads to a
profitable and sustainable economy because of energy sales.
* At current price on deregulated market
District heating
&
cooling
This is district heating
Power Plant
Cold water
Hot water
Source: The Municipality of Växjö
Waste Fuelled District Cooling
Origin of Heating -comparison
Electricity Combined boiler
Oil Heat pump
District heating Other
Solid fuel
Network for heating and cooling (500km)
0 1 km
Regional district heating
The longest district heating pipeline in Sweden, 28 km
District heating & cooling production
Gärstad WtE – waste, gas, waste wood (160 MWth, 70
MWe)
KV1 – waste wood 150,000 tons/year, oil, coal, rubber,
plastics, fats (180 MWth, 70 MWe)
Katrineholm – waste wood, cogeneration under
construction (25 MWth, 6 MWe)
Borensberg – virgin wood (8 MWth)
Åtvidaberg – virgin wood (10 MWth)
Ljungsbro – virgin wood (4 MWth)
Skärblacka – waste heat from Billerud paper mill
Kisa - waste heat from Södra Timber saw mill
Environmental
aspects
European legislation for WtE plants
Examples
Each pollution has a strict emission limit
value (ELV) that can not be exceeded.
The flue gas must hold a temperature
over 850 °C (1560 °F) for more than 2
seconds.
No emission limit value may be
exceeded for more than 4 h due to
malfunction in the flue gas cleaning.
The measurement must not be lost for
any on-line measured flue gas emission
parameter for more than 10 days/year.
Incineration
Steam drum
High presure steam
Mpa (e) 400 OC
Superheater
600 OC
Boiler
> 850 OC
Feed 2 sec
Fuel control
Economizer
1.100 O C
Combustion grate
Refuse bunker
Fan Bottom ash
6 tons/hour
Emissions to air from waste
incineration in Sweden
Waste going to incineration doubled during the period 1984-2004
1985 2004 Improvement
Particulates
420 24 94,3 %
tons/year
Hydrogen chloride
8,400 101 98,8 %
tons/year
Sulphur
3,400 337 90,1 %
tons/year
Nitrogen oxides
3,400 1,707 49,8 %
tons/year
Mercury
3,300 37 98,9 %
kg/year
Cadmium
400 5 98,8 %
kg/year
Lead
25,000 54 99,8 %
kg/year
Dioxins
90 0.7 99,2 %
g/year
Dioxins – Millennial celebrations
“Environment Agency estimates that
during the Millennial celebrations in
London the emissions from one 15
minute, 35 tons of firework display
equalled 120 years of dioxin emissions
from one waste incinerator.”
Source: APSWG briefing on Energy from Waste; UK Environment Agency 2000
Emissions of dioxins in Sweden
Source: RVF and the ÅF Group
Waste to Energy in Sweden
The contribution to Climate Protection
2.2 million
2.2 million
4.1 million 3 million tons
3 million tons
4.1 million tons of fossil
(MSW+ISW) of fossil fossil
tons of CO²
of fossil CO²
(MSW+ISW) CO²
CO²
tons of emissions ifif
emissionsif
tons of emissions if
emissions
waste coal is
coal is
waste oil is
oil is
replaced
replaced Energy system
replaced
replaced
Reducing Plus landfill Waste system
Reducing Plus landfill
landfill equal
landfill equal equal to
equal to
to 5,5 million
to 5,5 million 5,5 million
5,5 million
tons of CO²--
tons of CO² tons of CO²--
tons of CO²
equivalents
equivalents equivalents
equivalents
(total 8,5 million tons CO2) )
(total 7,7 million tons CO2
Waste collection
Swedish system
Household waste -Monopoly for Dustbins
the municipalities Containers
Collection from each property Suction systems
Financed by fees, not taxes
Recycling station (producer responsibility) Local recycling/sorting by source service
Ullstämma Recycling Center Hazardous waste reception sites, Recycling depots
Biological treatment
(Biogas production)
The process to produce biogas for vehicles
Development in Linköping
15 years experience from process-, production, and
market development of bio-methane to vehicles.
3 production plants, 13 public fuelling stations, and
1 bus depot.
Bio-methane sales represent ~6% of the total vehicle
fuel volume in Linköping.
Bio-fertilizer is sold to farmers and replace fossil
fertilizers.
Employs >40 persons in production, process, and
market, of which 9 persons within SBI.
Export of knowledge, patents, and production concepts
through Swedish Biogas International AB.
Biogas -Supply Chain Experience
Biogas train - Amanda
Biogas production sites
Linköping Biogas
2 * 3,700 m3 digester volume
55,000 tons of class 3 organic waste
6.5 M m3 feed stock gas
50,000 tons bio fertilizer
Sewage Plant Nykvarn
6,000 m3 digester volume
110,000 m3 sludge
2.35 M m3 feed stock gas
Norrköping Biogas
1* 2,000 m3 digester volume
20,000 m3 draff and crops
2.6 M m3 feed stock gas
Offer
Usitall –what we offer
”As your close partner,
”As your close partner,
we can do for you what we successfully have
we can do for you what we successfully have
been done with our own municipality for 50
been done with our own municipality for 50
years, leading the process towards a
years, leading the process towards a
sustainable solution”
sustainable solution”
Our Achievements in 50 years with
sustainable Waste-to-Energy solutions
Landfill elimination
By reducing the waste volume and with recycling only 5 % of the total waste
goes to landfills.
Efficient use of energy
Instead waste disposal in landfills the energy is recovered replacing 100.000
tons of annual fossil oil.
Environmental optimization
With replaced landfills, emissions can be controlled, cleaned and reduced far
below EU-regulations.
Profitability
Along with a sustainable solution we have a great economic track record from
which the municipality and society have benefited.
Investments in WtE plants, Sweden
Plant Including Investment Capacity
(MSEK) (MW)
Gärstad Turbine 812 68
Malmö 930 70
Uppsala 1100 63
Jönköping 1100 58
Sundsvall 1100 58
Stockholm 960 90
Uddevalla 820 34
Our achievements - Waste hierarchy
Reduce
Vancouver, Canada Reuse
52% Recycle 48%
9% Recover 47%
39% Landfill 5%
Linköping, Sweden
Usitall customer values
Values
Access to 50 years of experience and best-practice from the Gärstad
plant and the municipality of Linköping
A partner through the whole process from information to operation
A partner who has already made the journey and reached many of the
goals in accordance with “Zero waste” vision.
Usitall & Customer
Usitall & Customer
Feasibility study
Feasibility study Project preparation
Project preparation Implementation
Implementation Operation
Operation
Thank you for your attention!
Contact
Stellan Jacobsson
[email protected]
Mile Elez
[email protected]
Emil Berggren
[email protected]


Use: 0.4782