• DOWCAL N, DOWCAL 20 and DOWCAL 10


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    • Abstract: DOWCAL N, DOWCAL 20 and DOWCAL 10Heat Transfer FluidsProduct Profiles for Process Designers and System OperatorsDOWCAL Fluids Meet DOWCAL heat transfer fluids ...............................................................................................................3

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DOWCAL N, DOWCAL 20 and DOWCAL 10
Heat Transfer Fluids
Product Profiles for Process Designers and System Operators
DOWCAL Fluids
Meet DOWCAL heat transfer fluids ...............................................................................................................3
Advantages over other heat transfer fluids ...................................................................................................4
Typical applications of DOWCAL fluids ..........................................................................................................5
Table of Contents
Technical data.................................................................................................................................................7
Typical physical properties..............................................................................................................................7
Facts on corrosion protection .........................................................................................................................8
Facts on toxicity and biodegradability ............................................................................................................9
Facts on flammability and fire hazards ........................................................................................................10
Facts on compatibility with plastics and rubbers.........................................................................................10
Facts on handling, storage and disposal ......................................................................................................11
Preparing systems for use of DOWCAL fluids .............................................................................................11
Comparing DOWCAL fluids...........................................................................................................................12
Technical support and assistance ................................................................................................................12
Put DOWCAL fluids to work..........................................................................................................................12
Physical Data Physical properties...................................................................................................................................13-15
Density of aqueous solutions..................................................................................................................16-17
Vapour pressure over aqueous solutions ................................................................................................18-19
Boiling points and freezing points ................................................................................................................19
Kinematic viscosity of aqueous solutions ....................................................................................................20
Thermal conductivity of aqueous solutions.............................................................................................21-22
Specific heat of aqueous solutions.........................................................................................................22-23
2
Both ingredients of DOWCAL N
fluid are generally recognized as
DOWCAL* heat transfer fluids
safe by the U. S. Food and Drug
Meet DOWCAL Heat are formulated, industrially
Administration (FDA) as food
inhibited propylene and ethylene 160°C. The low acute oral
Transfer Fluids glycol-based fluids designed to
additives under Part 182 and
toxicity of propylene glycol makes
Part 184 of the Food Additive
provide high levels of perform- DOWCAL 20 fluid particularly
Regulations. DOWCAL N fluid is,
ance and protection in a wide suitable for applications where
therefore, an appropriate and
range of applications.The fluids toxicity is a concern.
safe heat transfer medium for
are clear, pale yellow liquids.
use in food plants.
DOWCAL 10 heat transfer fluid
DOWCAL N heat transfer is an economical, high quality
DOWCAL 20 heat transfer
fluid is an economical, high ethylene glycol-based fluid
fluid is an economical, high
quality fluid designed for a designed for a temperature
quality fluid designed for a
temperature range of -45°C range of -50°C to +120°C,
temperature range of -45°C to
to +120°C.The low acute oral but under certain conditions,
+120°C. Under certain condi-
toxicity of propylene glycol and DOWCAL 10 fluid can be used
tions, DOWCAL 20 fluid can be
of its special inhibitors makes at temperatures up to 170°C.
used at temperatures up to
DOWCAL N fluid particularly *Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company
suitable for indirect food and
beverage chilling and freezing
applications.
Table 1
Key features of DOWCAL Fluids
DOWCAL N DOWCAL 20 DOWCAL 10
Freeze protection X X X
Corrosion protection in hot and cold systems X X X
FDA-approved safe food additive X
Compatibility with commonly used elastomers X X X
Confirmed biodegradability X X X
Long fluid life X X X
Prevention of scale formation with hard water X X
Low maintenance cost X X X
Heat transfer efficiency X X
Cost-effectiveness X X X
Protection against bacterial growth X X X
3
Aren’t all heat transfer fluids
Advantages of DOWCAL DOWCAL fluids can improve
the same? Absolutely not. Heat
process efficiency, reduce costs,
Heat Transfer Fluids transfer fluids must address a As a Dow customer, you have
wide range of often vastly or both. DOWCAL fluids offer
direct access to the market-
different process-specific maximum protection against
place leader’s heat transfer
needs. Selection of the wrong frost and corrosion. If the
expertise and highly diversified
product for a given application concentration of DOWCAL fluid
industry experience. In other
may cause damage once filled in the loop remains constant,
words, when you properly
into the system. When the first the properties remain unchanged
choose a DOWCAL heat
leak occurs as the result of cor- even after many years of use.
transfer fluid, you have the
rosion or gasket decomposition, assurance that it will do the job
major equipment overhauls are long-term without jeopardizing
usually unavoidable.That’s why the integrity of the equipment
it pays to carefully select a heat in which it is used. Dow
transfer fluid. Dow offers a full specialists will assist to make
range of heat transfer fluids sure our product is exactly
with technological support for what you need.
any application.
4
DOWCAL N fluid is an ideal
propylene glycol-based heat
Packaging of carbonated
Typical Applications of transfer fluid for defrosting, beverages
de-icing, chilling and freezing
DOWCAL Fluids For cost-effectiveness reasons,
applications, specifically in the
Conveyor roller de-icing DOWCAL N fluid is used to chill
food industry, and for many
The conveyors in food freezing carbonated beverages such
other heat exchange systems.
tunnels are often affected by as sparkling wines, champagne
frost formation on rollers and and beer prior to bottling.
DOWCAL 20 fluid is an excellent
other moving parts. DOWCAL N This prevents unwanted loss
propylene glycol-based heat
fluid offers an ideal remedy; of carbonation.
transfer fluid for heating,
ventilating and air conditioning sprayed directly onto the rollers,
(HVAC) systems, sprinkler equip- it absorbs free moisture, lowers Immersion freezing of
the freeze point of water, wrapped foods
ment, refrigeration warehouse
floor heaters, and many other prevents frost build-up and In the food industry, products
heat exchange systems, as well protects the rollers against sealed in airtight and watertight
as solar panels. corrosion. pouches are immersion-frozen in
DOWCAL N fluid baths.This
DOWCAL 10 fluid is an excellent Chilling, freezing, method is popular because it is
ethylene glycol-based heat secondary cooling fast and efficient while ensuring
transfer fluid for heating, uniform freezing.
ventilating, and air conditioning Cooling liquid foods
(HVAC) systems, solar panels, Because of its outstanding Ice skating rinks
heat pumps, and many other performance features, DOWCAL
For ice skating rinks, solutions
heat exchange systems. N fluid is widely used in the
containing DOWCAL 10 or
beverage industry to cool
DOWCAL 20 fluid are chilled by
products such as beer, wine,
refrigeration equipment and then
Applications for milk, and juices.
circulated through a network of
DOWCAL fluids pipes beneath the rink floor.The
include: Fermentation cooling cold solution causes a layer of
Breweries and wineries use water to freeze into a smooth
Defrosting and de-icing
DOWCAL N fluid to cool sheet of ice. Used in ice rinks,
Refrigeration coil defrosting fermentation and wort tanks. DOWCAL fluids provide fast
The fluid’s anti-corrosive freezing, lower operating and
When moisture from the air
properties safeguard the maintenance costs, as well as
condenses on the refrigeration
integrity of the piping systems. excellent corrosion protection for
coils of walk-in freezers and
metal pipes.
chillers, the result is frost
build-up with a corresponding
loss in refrigeration efficiency
Sprayed directly onto the coils,
DOWCAL N fluid will prevent
frost formation and, because it
is hygroscopic, DOWCAL N fluid
also absorbs condensation.
5
Phase-change HVAC
systems
Typical Applications of Solar units
HVAC systems based on salt
DOWCAL Fluids, continued hydrate mixtures for cold Secondary heat transfer Solar energy is used in industrial
storage are becoming more and commercial markets for
Snow melting systems
and more popular due to their heating purposes. Inside the col-
compactness and flexibility in A snow melting system basically lector, a solution of DOWCAL 20
terms of heat release or consists of a network of pipes fluid absorbs solar heat which is
absorption. DOWCAL 20 fluid is or tubing embedded in concrete then transported to areas where
ideal for heat transport to and or asphalt. A solution of heated the energy can be used to heat
from such systems. DOWCAL 20 and water is water or air.
circulated through the pipes in
order to remove snow and ice Process/pipeline tracing
Process chilling
from bridges, service areas,
DOWCAL 10 fluid is used to
The chemical, petrochemical, and roads, and sidewalks. DOWCAL
keep process fluids at a
food industries use secondary 20 fluid can usually be left in
constant temperature and to
cooling for chilling purposes or the system for years while
prevent freezing. Compared to
to remove heat generated during maintaining complete corrosion
conventional steam tracing,
processing. DOWCAL 10 fluid is protection.
tracing using DOWCAL 10 fluid
often used for process chilling
offers better temperature control
because it is nonflammable in Batch processing systems
over a wider range, eliminates
aqueous solutions and features
In batch processing environments, waste disposal problems, and
low corrosivity. DOWCAL 10 fluid
reactors must be cooled and requires less maintenance.
is not recommended for applica-
heated. Because of its wide
tions in the food and beverage
temperature range, DOWCAL 20 Heat recovery
sector. A propylene glycol-based
fluid can be used in both hot
product — DOWCAL N fluid — Many industries operate heat
and cold loops.
is available for processes which recovery systems to improve the
may involve accidental or overall thermal efficiency of their
inadvertent food contact. Floor heating
processes. In this application,
Massive damage can be inflicted DOWCAL 10 fluid collects waste
on warehouse floors due to heat, which would otherwise be
frost heaving.This risk is reduced expelled to the environment, and
by embedding a grid of tubing in pumps it to places where this
the soil beneath the floor and thermal energy can be put to use.
heating it with a solution of
DOWCAL 20 fluid.
6
Table 2
Technical data
Delivery specifications DOWCAL N DOWCAL 20 DOWCAL 10
Density at 20°C, g/cm3 1.045-1.055 1.045-1.055 1.124-1.134
Reserve alkalinity (min.), ml 10 8 10
Water content (max.), wt% 4 4 4
pH
50% vol. in water 9-10 7.2-8.2 7.6-8.2
33% vol. in water 8.8-9.8 7.0-8.0 7.9-8.4
Freezing point, °C (min.)
50% vol. in water -30 -30 -33
40% vol. in water -20 -20 -25
Flash point (PMCC), °C 101 101 120
Table 3
Typical physical data
DOWCAL N DOWCAL 20 DOWCAL 10
Composition, wt%
Propylene glycol 95.5 94 —
Ethylene glycol — — 94
Inhibitors and water 4.5 6 6
Boiling range at 1013 mbar, °C ±170 ±170 170
Viscosity at 20°C dynamic, mPa·s 73-78 73-78 16
Viscosity at 20°C kinematic, mm2/s 69-74 69-74 14
Refractive index nD 20°C 1.432 1.434 1.433
Specific heat at 20°C, kJ/kg·K 2.45 2.33 2.33
Thermal conductivity at 20°C, W/m·K 0.22 0.21 0.27
Pour point, approximately, °C ±-50 ±-50 -42
Specific electrical conductivity at 20°C
(33% vol. in demin. water), mS/cm 2.3 3.1 4.3
7
DOWCAL fluids protect commonly Otherwise, demineralized or
used metals and alloys in cooling distilled water should be used.
and heating systems, reducing Due to a special chelating
Facts on Corrosion maintenance costs and extending DOWCAL fluid/water mixtures agent which prevents scaling,
the life of the process equipment. retain excellent anticorrosion DOWCAL 20 and DOWCAL 10
Protection
The following table shows the performance when diluted up fluids can be mixed with local tap
comparatively low corrosion of to 30% vol. Further dilution is water. However, demineralized
widely used metals caused by not recommended. water is recommended.The tap
DOWCAL fluid/ water mixtures water should not contain more
in comparison with water and DOWCAL fluid/water mixtures than 25 ppm chlorides and total
uninhibited propylene glycol or can dissolve zinc when hot and hardness should not exceed 100
ethylene glycol/water mixtures. should therefore not be used in ppm.This is particularly significant
The results were derived from galvanized pipelines. At service if systems contain aluminum or
tests performed according to the temperatures in excess of 65°C, aluminum alloy components. If
widely known ASTM 1384 DOWCAL fluids should not be water of adequate quality is
corrosion test method and used in systems with exposed not available, Dow can supply
represent the weight loss of aluminum components. ready-to-use solutions of
the materials in milligrams per DOWCAL fluids.
specimen due to corrosion DOWCAL N fluid can be mixed
(ASTM D 1384, 88°C for 2 with local tap water if the
weeks, glycol concentration 30% available water is extremely soft.
by volume, air bubbling).
Table 4
Metal weight loss due to corrosion, in milligrams
DOWCAL N & 20 Propylene glycol Water DOWCAL 10 Ethylene glycol
and water and water only and water and water
Copper 3 4 2 3 4
Solder 1 1095 99 4 1780
Brass 4 5 5 3 11
Mild steel 1 214 212 1 974
Cast iron 3 345 450 3 1190
Aluminum +2 15 110 4 165
Samples with a “+” showed weight gain
8
For DOWCAL N and DOWCAL
20 fluids, the oral LD50 for rats
DOWCAL N fluid is based on is 21,000 to 33,700 mg/kg.
propylene glycol which is DOWCAL fluids are readily
Facts on Toxicity and Propylene glycol is also relatively
generally recognized by the biodegradable (BOD greater
harmless to the skin as it is not
Biodegradability than 60%). It is therefore
United States Food and Drug absorbed in toxic amounts. At
Administration (FDA) as a safe possible to biologically degrade
room temperature or less, the
food additive. In the USA, its DOWCAL fluid/water mixtures in
product’s vapour pressure keeps
ingredients are approved by the a biological sewage plant pro-
vapour concentrations minimal.
FDA under Part 182 of the Food vided this is acceptable under
The concentrations attained if
Additive Regulations.The the relevant legal provisions on
propylene glycol is heated or
regulation for propylene glycol water and waste.
sprayed as an aerosol may be
is found at 21 CFR 184.1666. sufficient to cause irritation and
The FDA clears only individual For additional information,
other effects.
ingredients, not proprietary please refer to the relevant
products. DOWCAL N is further Material Safety Data Sheet.
DOWCAL fluid/water mixtures
listed by the US Department of show no acute harmful
Agriculture (USDA) as well as by effects on fish and bacteria in
the relevant German regulatory concentrations up to 1000 mg/l.
authorities as chemically DOWCAL N and DOWCAL 10
acceptable for use in closed fluids contain no amines and
systems in food processing nitrites, so harmful products
plants. such as nitrosamines are
not formed.
Table 5
Biodegradability of DOWCAL fluids
DOWCAL N and 20 DOWCAL 10
Total oxygen demand (TOD) 1.68 gram/02/gram PG —
for propylene glycol (PG)
Total oxygen demand (TOD) — 1.29 gram 02/gram EG
for ethylene glycol (EG)
Biological oxygen demand (BOD)
After 5 days 1.11 gram 02/gram PG 0.78 gram 02/gram EG
After 10 days 1.22 gram 02/gram PG 1.06 gram 02/gram EG
After 20 days 1.42 gram 02/gram PG 1.15 gram 02/gram EG
The rate of degradation as defined by BOD/TOD
5 days 66% 60%
10 days 73% 82%
20 days 85% 89%
9
When mixed with water in they pose no fire hazard in most
concentrations of up to 80%, applications.The following
Facts on Flammability flashpoint and firepoint values
DOWCAL fluids are non-
and Fire Hazards flammable since they have no apply to pure DOWCAL fluids.
measurable flash points.Thus,
Table 6
Flash and Ignition Points of DOWCAL fluids
DOWCAL N and 20 DOWCAL 10
Flashpoint (DIN 51758) 101°C 120°C
Ignition temperature (DIN 51794) 420°C 435°C
The plastics and elastomers Polyethylene (soft / hard) LDPE/HDPE
Facts on Compatibility listed are suitable for components Polypropylene PP
likely to come into contact with Polyvinylchloride (hard) PVC
with Plastics and
DOWCAL fluid/water mixtures. Polyester cross-linked UP
Rubbers Information on unlisted materials Butyl rubber IIR
can be obtained from any Dow Fluorocarbon rubber (Viton®) FPM
sales office. Polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE
Polyamides PA
Ethylene – Propylene – Diene rubber EPDM
Nitrile – Butadiene rubber† NBR
Polychlorobutadiene CR
Styrene Butadiene rubber up to 100°C †† SBR
Natural rubber up to 80°C NR
† Up to 40°C for DOWCAL N fluid.
††Up to 100°C for DOWCAL N fluid .
When handling DOWCAL fluids shelf life does not necessarily Spent DOWCAL fluid/mixtures
avoid ingestion and practice make the fluid unsuitable for use. can be disposed of in a special
Facts on Handling,
reasonable caution. Dow offers a fluid analysis waste incineration plant or
Storage and Disposal service in such cases. biological sewage treatment
When stored in original drums, plant in accordance with local
DOWCAL fluids will meet sales No special storage precautions requirements.
specification requirements for a are needed. However, zinc is not
period of at least 24 months from resistant to undiluted DOWCAL
date of shipment. Continued fluids.Therefore, exposure of zinc
storage beyond the designated or zinc coatings to pure DOWCAL
fluids should be avoided.
10
When preparing new equipment When changing from anothe


Use: 0.0403