• RECOMMENDED METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND SAMPLING


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    • Abstract: RECOMMENDED METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND SAMPLINGCODEX STAN 234-1999PART IMETHODS OF ANALYSIS AND SAMPLING BY ALPHABETICAL ORDER OFCOMMODITY CATEGORIES AND NAMES1 Table of ContentsCereals, Pulses and Legumes and Derived Products

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RECOMMENDED METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND SAMPLING
CODEX STAN 234-1999
PART I
METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND SAMPLING BY ALPHABETICAL ORDER OF
COMMODITY CATEGORIES AND NAMES
1
Table of Contents
Cereals, Pulses and Legumes and Derived Products
Cocoa Products and Chocolate
Fats and Oils and Related Products
Fish and Fishery Products
Foods for Special Dietary Uses
Fruit Juices
Milk and Milk Products
Natural Mineral Waters
Processed Fruits and Vegetables
Processed Meat and Poultry Products and Soups and Broths
Quick Frozen Fruits and Vegetables
Sugars and Honey
Miscellaneous Products
2
Commodity Standard Provision Method Principle Type
Cereals, Pulses and Legumes and Derived Products
Certain pulses Moisture ISO 665:1977 (confirmed 1995) Gravimetry I
Degermed maize (corn) meal and Ash AOAC 923.03 Gravimetry I
maize (corn) grits ISO 2171:1993
ICC Method No 104/1 (1990)
Degermed maize (corn) meal and Fat, crude AOAC 945.38F; 920.39C Gravimetry (ether extraction) I
maize (corn) grits
Degermed maize (corn) meal and Moisture ISO 712:1998 Gravimetry I
maize (corn) grits ICC Method No 110/1 (1986)
Degermed maize (corn) meal and Particle size (granularity) AOAC 965.22 Sieving I
maize (corn) grits
Degermed maize (corn) meal and Protein ICC Method No 105/1 (1986) Titrimetry, Kjeldahl digestion I
maize (corn) grits
Durum wheat semolina and durum Ash (semolina) AOAC 923.03 Gravimetry I
wheat flour ISO 2171:1993
Durum wheat semolina and durum Moisture ISO 712:1998 Gravimetry I
wheat flour ICC Method 110/1 (1986)
Durum wheat semolina and durum Protein (N x 5.7) ICC Method No 105/1 Titrimetry, Kjeldahl digestion I
wheat flour
Durum wheat semolina and durum Sampling Described in the Standard (According to - -
wheat flour Codex Sampling Instructions)
Maize (corn) Aflatoxins, total AOAC 979.18 Holaday-Velasco mini column II
Maize (corn) Moisture ISO 6540:1980 (confirmed 1994) Gravimetry I
Peanuts (raw) Aflatoxins, total AOAC 991.31 Immunoaffinity column (Aflatest) II
Peanuts (raw) Aflatoxins, total AOAC 993.17 Thin layer chromatography III
3
Commodity Standard Provision Method Principle Type
Peanuts (intended for further Aflatoxins, total AOAC 975.36 Romer minicolmn III
processing)
Peanuts (intended for further Aflatoxins, total AOAC 979.18 Holaday-Velasco minicolumn III
processing)
Pearl millet flour Ash AOAC 923.03 Gravimetry I
Pearl millet flour Colour Modern Cereal Chemistry, 6th Ed., D.W. Colorimetry using specific colour IV
Kent-Jones and A.J. Amos (Ed.), pp. 605- grader
612, Food Trade Press Ltd, London, 1969.
Pearl millet flour Fat, crude AOAC 945.38F; 920.39C Gravimetry (ether extraction) I
Pearl millet flour Fibre, crude ISO 5498:1981 (B.5 Separation) Gravimetry I
Pearl millet flour Moisture ISO 712:1998 Gravimetry I
ICC Method No 110/1 (1986)
Pearl millet flour Protein AOAC 920.87 Titrimetry, Kjeldahl digestion I
Sorghum flour Ash AOAC 923.03 Gravimetry I
ISO 2171:1993
ICC Method No 104/1 (1990)
Sorghum flour Colour Modern Cereal Chemistry, 6th Ed., D.W. Colorimetry using specific colour IV
Kent-Jones and A.J. Amos (Ed.), pp. 605- grader
612, Food Trade Press Ltd, London, 1969.
Sorghum flour Fat, crude AOAC 945.38F; 920.39C Gravimetry (ether extraction) I
Sorghum flour Fibre, crude ICC Method No 113 (1972) Gravimetry I
ISO 6541:1981 (confirmed 1996)
Sorghum flour Moisture ISO 712:1998 Gravimetry I
ICC Method No 110/1 (1986)
Sorghum flour Particle size (granularity) AOAC 965.22 Sieving I
Sorghum flour Protein ICC Method No 105/1 (1986) Titrimetry, Kjeldahl digestion I
Sorghum flour Tannins ISO 9648:1988 (confirmed 1994) Spectrophotometry I
4
Commodity Standard Provision Method Principle Type
Sorghum grains Ash AOAC 923.03 Gravimetry I
ISO 2171:1993
ICC Method No 104/1 (1990)
Sorghum grains Fat, crude AOAC 945.38F, 920.39C Gravimetry (ether extraction) I
Sorghum grains Moisture ISO 6540:1980 (confirmed 1994) Gravimetry I
Sorghum grains Protein ICC Method No 105/1 (1986) Titrimetry, Kjeldahl digestion I
Sorghum grains Tannins ISO 9648:1988 (confirmed 1994) Spectrophotometry I
Soy protein products Ash AOAC 923.03 Gravimetry I
ISO 2171:1993 (Method B)
Soy protein products Fat CAC/RM 55-1976 - Method 1 Gravimetry (extraction) I
Soy protein products Fibre, crude ISO 5498:1981 Gravimetry I
Soy protein products Moisture AOAC 925.09 Gravimetry (vacuum oven) I
Soy protein products Protein AOAC 955.04D (using factor 6.25) Titrimetry , Kjeldahl digestion II
Vegetable protein products Ash AOAC 923.03 Gravimetry, Direct I
ISO 2171:1993 (Method B)
Vegetable protein products Fat CAC/RM 55-1976 - Method 1 Gravimetry (extraction) I
Vegetable protein products Fibre, crude AACC (1982) 32-17 Ceramic fiber filteration I
Vegetable protein products Moisture AOAC 925.09 Gravimetry (vacuum oven) I
Vegetable protein products Protein AOAC 955.04D (using factor 6.25) Titrimetry, Kjeldahl digestion II
Wheat flour Ash AOAC 923.03 Gravimetry I
ISO 2171:1993
ICC Method No 104/1 (1990)
Wheat flour Fat acidity AOAC 939.05 Titrimetry I
Wheat flour Moisture ISO 712:1998 Gravimetry I
ICC Method No 110/1 (1986)
Wheat flour Particle size (granularity) AOAC 965.22 Sieving I
5
Commodity Standard Provision Method Principle Type
Wheat flour Protein ICC Method No 105/1 (1986) Titrimetry, Kjeldahl digestion I
Wheat gluten Denaturation of gluten AACC Method 38-20 Pharinography I
Wheat gluten Fibre, crude AOAC 962.09 Ceramic fiber filteration I
Wheat gluten Protein AOAC 976.05 (using factor 6.25) Titrimetry, Kjeldahl digestion II
Wheat gluten Sampling ISO 2170:1980 - -
Whole and decorticated pearl millet Ash AOAC 923.03 Gravimetry I
grains
Whole and decorticated pearl millet Fat, crude AOAC 945.38F; 920.39C Gravimetry (ether extraction) I
grains
Whole and decorticated pearl millet Fibre, crude ISO 5498:1981 (B.5 Separation) Gravimetry I
grains
Whole and decorticated pearl millet Moisture ISO 712:1998 Gravimetry I
grains ICC Method No 110/1 (1986)
Whole and decorticated pearl millet Protein AOAC 920.87 Titrimetry, Kjeldahl digestion I
grains
Whole maize (corn) meal Ash AOAC 923.03 Gravimetry I
ISO 2171:1993
ICC Method No 104/1 (1990)
Whole maize (corn) meal Fat, crude AOAC 945.38F; 920.39C Gravimetry (ether extraction) I
Whole maize (corn) meal Moisture ISO 712:1998 Gravimetry I
ICC Method No 110/1 (1986)
Whole maize (corn) meal Particle size (granularity) AOAC 965.22 Sieving I
Whole maize (corn) meal Protein ICC Method No 105/1 (1986) Titrimetry, Kjeldahl digestion I
Cocoa Products and Chocolate
Cocoa products and chocolate Arsenic AOAC 952.13 (Codex general method) Colorimetry (diethyldithiocarbamate) II
Chocolate Ash, total AOAC 972.15 Gravimetry (at 600°C) I
6
Commodity Standard Provision Method Principle Type
Chocolate Cocoa butter, percentage of AOAC 963.15 (Gravimetry (Soxhlet extraction) I
IOCCC 14-1972
Chocolate Cocoa solids, fat-free AOAC 931.05 Oven evaporation and factor I
Chocolate Copper AOAC 960.40 (Codex general method) Colorimetry (diethyldithiocarbamate) II
Chocolate Fat, total AOAC 963.15 Gravimetry (Soxhlet extraction) I
Chocolate Lead AOAC 986.15 (Codex general method) Anodic stripping voltammetry II
Chocolate Moisture / Loss on drying AOAC 931.04 Gravimetry I
IOCCC 1-1952
Cocoa (cacao) nib, cocoa (cacao) Ash insoluble in HCl AOAC 972.15 Gravimetry (at 600°C) I
mass, cocoa press cake and cocoa dust
(cocoa fines), for use in the
manufacturing of cocoa and chocolate
products
Cocoa (cacao) nib, cocoa (cacao) Ash, total AOAC 972.15 Gravimetry (at 600°C) I
mass, cocoa press cake and cocoa dust
(cocoa fines), for use in the
manufacturing of cocoa and chocolate
products
Cocoa (cacao) nib, cocoa (cacao) Cocoa shell AOAC 968.10 and 970.23 Spiral vessel count, Stone cell count I
mass, cocoa press cake and cocoa dust
(cocoa fines), for use in the
manufacturing of cocoa and chocolate
products
Cocoa (cacao) nib, cocoa (cacao) Copper AOAC 971.20 (Codex general method) Atomic absorption spectrophotometry II
mass, cocoa press cake and cocoa dust
(cocoa fines), for use in the
manufacturing of cocoa and chocolate
products
7
Commodity Standard Provision Method Principle Type
Cocoa (cacao) nib, cocoa (cacao) Lead AOAC 972.25 (Codex general method) Atomic absorption spectrophotometry II
mass, cocoa press cake and cocoa dust
(cocoa fines), for use in the
manufacturing of cocoa and chocolate
products
Cocoa butter confectionery Ash, total AOAC 972.15 Gravimetry (at 600°C) I
Cocoa butter confectionery Cocoa butter AOAC 963.15 Gravimetry (Knorr tube extraction, I
IOCCC 14-1972 Soxhlet extraction)
Cocoa butter confectionery Copper AOAC 971.20 (Codex general method) Atomic absorption spectrophotometry II
Cocoa butter confectionery Lead AOAC 972.25 (Codex general method) Atomic absorption spectrophotometry II
Cocoa butter confectionery Milk protein IOCCC 17-1973 Titrimetry, Kjeldahl digestion; after II
AOAC 939.02 extraction of milk proteins
Cocoa butter confectionery Milkfat IOCCC 5-1960 Titrimetry/Distillation I
AOAC 945.34; 925.41B; 920.80
Cocoa butter confectionery Moisture IOCCC 26-1988 Karl Fischer II
AOAC 977.10
Cocoa butter confectionery Sugars AOAC 980.13 Liquid chromatography II
Cocoa butters Copper AOAC 990.05 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry II
ISO 8294:1994 (direct graphite furnace)
IUPAC 2.631
(Codex general method)
Cocoa butters Copper AOAC 960.40 (Codex general method) Colorimetry (diethyldithiocarbamate) III
Cocoa butters Fatty acids, free IUPAC 2.201 Titrimetry II
Cocoa butters Iodine value IUPAC 2.205 Titrimetry I
Cocoa butters Iron AOAC 990.05 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry II
ISO 8294:1994 (direct graphite furnace)
IUPAC 2.631
(Codex general method)
8
Commodity Standard Provision Method Principle Type
Cocoa butters Iron BS 684 Section 2.17:1976 Colorimetry III
Cocoa butters Lead AOAC 934.07 Colorimetry (dithizone) II
Cocoa butters Lead IUPAC Method (Pure and Appl. Chem. 63) Atomic absorption III
Spectrophotometry, graphite furnace
Cocoa butters Melting behaviour (i) Slip IOCCC 4-1961 Melting point measurement I
point (ii) Clear melting point
Cocoa butters Refractive index IUPAC 2.102 Refractometry II
Cocoa butters Saponification value IUPAC 2.202 Titrimetry II
Cocoa butters Unsaponifiable matter IUPAC 2.401 Gravimetry I
Cocoa powders (cocoa) and dry cocoa- Ash, total (in cocoa mass and AOAC 972.15 Gravimetry (at 600°C) I
sugar mixtures cocoa press cake)
Cocoa powders (cocoa) and dry cocoa- Cocoa butter IOCCC 14-1972 and 18-1973 Through total fat and total sterol I
sugar mixtures content by GLC
Cocoa powders (cocoa) and dry cocoa- Copper AOAC 960.40 (Codex general method) Colorimetry (diethyldithiocarbamate) II
sugar mixtures
Cocoa powders (cocoa) and dry cocoa- Lead AOAC 986.15 (Codex general method) Anodic stripping voltammetry II
sugar mixtures
Cocoa powders (cocoa) and dry cocoa- Lead AOAC 934.07 Colorimetry (dithizone) III
sugar mixtures
Cocoa powders (cocoa) and dry cocoa- Moisture / Loss on drying AOAC 931.04 Gravimetry I
sugar mixtures IOCCC 1-1952
Cocoa powders (cocoa) and dry cocoa- Sugars AOAC 980.13 Liquid chromatography II
sugar mixtures
Composite and filled chocolate Centre in composite and filled Method described in ALINORM 83/23, p. Gravimetry III
chocolate 27
Composite and filled chocolate Coating in composite and Method described in ALINORM 83/23, p. Gravimetry III
filled chocolate 27
9
Commodity Standard Provision Method Principle Type
Fats and Oils and Related Products
Fats and oils Acidity IUPAC 2.201 Titrimetry I
ISO 660:1996
Fats and oils Arsenic AOAC 952.13 (Codex general method) Colorimetry (diethyldithiocarbamate) II
IUPAC 3.136
Fats and oils Arsenic AOAC 942.17 (Codex general method) Colorimetry (molybdenum blue) III
Fats and oils Arsenic AOAC 985.16 (Codex general method) Atomic absorption spectrophotometry III
Fats and oils Baudouin test (modified AOCS Cb 2-40 Colour reaction I
Villavecchia or sesameseed oil
test)
Fats and oils Carotenoids, total BS 684 Section 2.20 Spectrophotometry II
Fats and oils Copper AOAC 990.05 Atomic absorption II
ISO 8294:1994 Spectrophotometry (direct graphite
IUPAC 2.631 furnace)
(Codex general method)
Fats and oils Crismer value AOCS Cb 4-35 Turbidity I
Fats and oils Fatty acid composition IUPAC 2.301+2.302+2.304 Gas chromatography of methyl esters II
ISO 5509:1978+5508:1990
Fats and oils Halphen test AOCS Cb 1-25 Colorimetry I
Fats and oils Insoluble impurities IUPAC 2.604 Gravimetry I
ISO 663:1992
Fats and oils Iron AOAC 990.05 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry II
ISO 8294:1994 (direct graphite furnace)
IUPAC 2.631
(Codex general method)
10
Commodity Standard Provision Method Principle Type
Fats and oils Lead AOAC 994.02 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry II
IUPAC 2.623 (direct graphite furnace)
ISO 12193:1994
(Codex general method)
Fats and oils Matter volatile at 105°C IUPAC 2.601 Gravimetry (open-drying) I
ISO 662:1996
Fats and oils Peroxide value IUPAC 2.501 (as amended) Titrimetry using iso-octane I
AOCS Cd 8b-90
Fats and oils Refractive index IUPAC 2.102 Refractometry II
ISO 6320:1995
Fats and oils Reichert & Polenske values IUPAC 2.204 Titrimetry I
Fats and oils Relative density IUPAC 2.101 Pycnometry II
Fats and oils Saponification value IUPAC 2.202 Titrimetry I
ISO 3657:1988 (confirmed 1992)
Fats and oils Slip point ISO 6321:1991 Open ended capillary tube I
Fats and oils Soap content BS 684 Section 2.5 Gravimetry I
Fats and oils Sterol composition ISO 6799:1991 Gas chromatography II
IUPAC 2.403
Fats and oils Titre IUPAC 2.121 Thermometry I
ISO 935:1988
Fats and oils Tocopherol composition IUPAC 2.432 HPLC II
Fats and oils Unsaponifiable matter IUPAC 2.401 (part 1-5) Titrimetry after extraction with I
ISO 3596-1:1996 diethyl ether
Margarine Fat IUPAC 2.801 Gravimetry I
Margarine Milkfat CAC/RM 15-1969 Titrimetry I
Margarine Sodium chloride AOAC 971.27 (Codex general method) Potentiometry II
Margarine Vitamin A AOAC 960.45 Spectrophotometry II
11
Commodity Standard Provision Method Principle Type
Margarine Vitamin D AOAC 936.14 Bioassay II
Margarine Vitamin E IUPAC 2.411 TLC followed by spectrophotometry II
or GLC
Margarine Water CAC/RM 17-1969 Gravimetry I
Minarine Fat IUPAC 2.801 Gravimetry I
Minarine Milkfat CAC/RM 15-1969 Titrimetry I
Minarine Sodium chloride AOAC 971.27 (Codex general method) Potentiometry II
Minarine Vitamin A AOAC 960.45 Spectrophotometry II
Minarine Vitamin D AOAC 936.14 Bioassay II
Minarine Vitamin E IUPAC 2.411 TLC followed by spectrophotometry II
or GLC
Minarine Water CAC/RM 17-1969 Gravimetry I
Olive oil Sesameseed oil test AOCS Cb 2-40 Colorimetry I
Palm oil Density, apparent ISO 6993:1995 with the appropriate Pycnometry I
conversion factor
Palm oil Slip point AOCS 3-25 (1992) Open ended capillary tube (for 60°C) I
Fish and Fishery Products
Fish and fishery products Mercury AOAC 977.15 Flameless atomic absorption III
spectrophotometry
Fish and fishery products: Frozen fish Thawing and cooking Described in the Standards Thawing and heating I
and fishery products procedures
Canned crab meat Drained weight Described in the Standard Weighing I
Canned crab meat Net weight Described in the Standard Weighing I
Canned finfish (mackerel and jack Net weight Described in the Standard Weighing I
mackerel)
12
Commodity Standard Provision Method Principle Type
Canned salmon Defectives Described in the Standard Classification I
Canned salmon Net weight Described in the Standard Weighing I
Canned sardines and sardine-type Net weight Described in the Standard Weighing I
products
Canned shrimps or prawns Drained weight Described in the Standard Draining I
Canned shrimps or prawns Net weight Described in the Standard Weighing I
Canned shrimps or prawns Size, determination of Described in the Standard Number per 100 g I
Canned tuna and bonito Net weight Described in the Standard Weighing I
Quick frozen blocks of fish fillet, Net content of frozon fish Described in the Standard Gravimetry I
minced fish flesh and mixtures of blocks covered by glaze
fillets and minced fish flesh
Quick frozen blocks of fish fillet, Parasites Described in the Standard Visual examination I
minced fish flesh and mixtures of
fillets and minced fish flesh
Quick frozen blocks of fish fillet, Proportion of fish fillet and AOAC 988.09 Physical separation I
minced fish flesh and mixtures of minced fish
fillets and minced fish flesh
Quick frozen blocks of fish fillet, Sodium chloride AOAC 971.21 (Codex general method) Potentiometry II
minced fish flesh and mixtures of
fillets and minced fish flesh
Quick frozen fish fillets Net weight of products Described in the Standard Water spraying and sieving I
covered by glaze
Quick frozen fish sticks (fish fingers) Histamine AOAC 977.13 Fluorimetry II
and fish portions - Breaded or in batter
Quick frozen fish sticks (fish fingers) Net weight Described in the Standard Weighing I
and fish portions - Breaded or in batter
Quick frozen fish sticks (fish fingers) Proportion of fish fillet and AOAC 988.09 Gravimetry I
and fish portions - Breaded or in batter minced fish
13
Commodity Standard Provision Method Principle Type
Quick frozen fish sticks (fish fingers) Proportion of fish fillet and Described in the Standard Gravimetry IV
and fish portions - Breaded or in batter minced fish (for certain fish
species with soft flesh, such as
hakes from the Southern
Hemisphere)
Quick frozen fish sticks (fish fingers) Sodium chloride AOAC 971.27 (Codex general method) Potentiometry II
and fish portions - Breaded or in batter
Foods for Special Dietary Uses
Special foods Ash AOAC 942.05 Gravimetry I
Special foods Calcium AOAC 984.27 ICP emission spectrometry III
Special foods Calories by calculation Method described in CAC/VOL IX-Ed.1, Calculation method III
Part III
Special foods Carbohydrates Method described in CAC/VOL IX-Ed.1, Calculation III
Part III
Special foods Chloride AOAC 971.27 (Codex general method) Potentiometry II
Special foods Dietary fibre, total AOAC 985.29 Gravimetry (enzymatic digestion) I
Special foods Fat CAC/RM 55-1976 Gravimetry (extraction) I
Special foods Fat in foods not containing CAC/RM 1-1973, B-2 Gravimetry I
starch, meat or vegetable
products
Special foods Fill of containers CAC/RM 46-1972 Weighing I
Special foods Folic acid AOAC 944.12 Microbioassay II
Special foods Linoleate (in the form of AOAC 922.06; 969.33; 963.22 Acid hydrolysis, preparation of II
glycerides) methyl esters and gas
chromatography
Special foods Linoleate (in the form of AOAC 922.06; 979.19 Acid hydrolysis and III
glycerides) spectrophotometry
14
Commodity Standard Provision Method Principle Type
Special foods Loss on drying AOAC 934.01 Gravimetry I
AOAC 925.23
Special foods Loss on drying (milk based) AOAC 925.23 Gravimetry I
IDF Standard 21B:1987
ISO 6731:1989
Special foods Nicotinamide for foods not AOAC 961.14 Colorimetry II
based on milk
Special foods Nicotinamide for milk-based AOAC 944.13 Microbioassay II
foods
Special foods Pantothenic acid/enriched AOAC 945.74 Microbioassay II
foods
Special foods Pantothenic acid/non-enriched The Analyst 89 (1964):1, 3-6, ibid. 232 Microbioassay IV
foods US Dept Agr., Agr. Handbook 97 (1965)
Special foods Phosphorous AOAC 986.24 Colorimetry (molybdovanadate) II
Special foods Pro


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