• Integrating motivation


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    • Abstract: Integrating motivation1How to integrate learner motivation planning into lesson planning:The ARCS model approachJohn KellerFlorida State UniversityU.S.A.Running head: Integrating motivation

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Integrating motivation
1
How to integrate learner motivation planning into lesson planning:
The ARCS model approach
John Keller
Florida State University
U.S.A.
Running head: Integrating motivation
Paper presented at VII Semanario, Santiago, Cuba, February, 2000.
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Introduction: Issues & Problems
Every educator knows the challenge of stimulating and sustaining learner motivation and the
difficulty of finding reliable and valid methods for motivating learners. One approach to
meeting this challenge is provided by the ARCS model of motivation (Keller, 1999a, b) which
provides guidance for analyzing the motivational characteristics of a group of learners and
designing motivational strategies based on this analysis. After giving an overview of the
model, I will describe some recent developments including a simplified approach to applying
it and how it may be incorporated into lesson planning.
Characteristics of the ARCS Model
The ARCS model is based on a synthesis of motivational concepts and characteristics into
the four categories of attention (A), relevance (R), confidence (C), and satisfaction (S). These
four categories represent sets of conditions that are necessary for a person to be fully
motivated, and each of these four categories has component parts, or subcategories (Table
1), that represent specific aspects of motivation.
First, a lesson must gain the learner's attention. Tactics for this can range from simple
unexpected events (e.g. a loud whistle, an upside-down word in a visual) to mentally
stimulating problems that engage a deeper level of curiosity, especially when presented at
the beginning of a lesson. Another element is variation, which is necessary to sustain
attention. People like a certain amount of variety and they will lose interest if your teaching
strategies, even the good ones, never change.
The second requirement is to build relevance. Even if curiosity is aroused, motivation is lost if
the content has no perceived value to the learner. Relevance results from connecting the
content of instruction to important goals of the learners, their past interests, and their learning
styles. One traditional way to do this is to relate instructional content to the learners’ future job
or academic requirements. Another, and often more effective approach is to use simulations,
analogies, case studies, and examples related to the students' immediate and current
interests and experiences. For example, secondary school children enjoy reading stories with
themes of stigma, popularity, and isolation because these are important issues at that time of
their lives.
The third condition required for motivation is confidence. This is accomplished by helping
students establish positive expectancies for success. Often students have low confidence
because they have very little understanding of what is expected of them. By making the
objectives clear and providing examples of acceptable achievements, it is easier to build
confidence. Another aspect of confidence is how one attributes the causes of one’s
successes or failures. Being successful in one situation can improve one’s overall confidence
if the person attributes success to personal effort or ability. If the student believes that
success was due to external factors such as luck, lack of challenge, or decisions of other
people, then confidence in one’s skills is not likely to increase.
If the learners are attentive, interested in the content, and moderately challenged, then they
will be motivated to learn. But to sustain this motivation, the fourth condition of motivation is
required -- satisfaction. It refers to positive feelings about one's accomplishments and
learning experiences. It means that students receive recognition and evidence of success
that support their intrinsic feelings of satisfaction and they believe they have been treated
fairly. Tangible extrinsic rewards can also produce satisfaction, and they can be either
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substantive or symbolic. That is, they can consist of grades, privileges, promotions or such
things as certificates, monogrammed school supplies, or other tokens of achievement.
Opportunities to apply what one has learned coupled with personal recognition support
intrinsic feelings of satisfaction. Finally, a sense of equity, or fairness, is important. Students
must feel that the amount of work required by the course was appropriate, that there was
internal consistency between objectives, content, and tests, and that there was no favoritism
in grading.
These four categories provide a basis for aggregating the various concepts, theories,
strategies, and tactics that pertain to the motivation to learn (Keller, J. M., 1987a). They
represent the first major part of the ARCS model, which is the synthesis of the vast
motivational literature into a simple and useful number of macro-level concepts. They also
provide the basis for the second major feature of the ARCS model which is the systematic
design process that assists you in creating motivational tactics that match student
characteristics and needs (Keller, 1987b).
The ARCS model contains a ten-step design process for the development of motivational
systems in work and learning settings (Figure 1). The first two steps, which are parts of the
overall analysis components of the process, produce information about the status quo and
provide the basis for analyzing gaps and their causes which are done in the third and fourth
steps. Based on these analyses, in Step 5 one prepares objectives for the performance
improvement project and specifies how they will be assessed. There are then two steps in
design. Step 6 consists of brainstorming within each motivational category to generate a rich
list of potential solutions. Step 7 is more critical and analytical for the purpose of selecting
solutions that best fit the time, resource, and other constraining factors in the situation. The
final step includes both development and evaluation, and is similar to any other development
model.
Analysis. As in any systematic design process, motivational system development begins
with collecting information (Steps 1 and 2) and analyzing it (Steps 3 and 4) to identify
motivational characteristics and gaps which lead to objectives (Step 5). In this process, there
are two difficulties in determining the degree and nature of a motivational problem. First is
that problems resulting in symptoms of demotivation may not be due to motivational causes.
People can become demotivated as a consequence of what is, in fact, a capability or
opportunity problem. For example, people who do not have and cannot get the skills required
to perform satisfactorily will soon learn that they cannot succeed to a satisfactory degree.
They will develop low expectations for success, or even feelings of helplessness, and will be
demotivated as evidenced by lowered levels of effort and performance. However, the cause
of the problem in this example is lack of skills.
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Table 1. Modified subcategories of the ARCS model
Attention
Capture Interest (Perceptual Arousal):
What can I do to capture their interest?
Stimulate Inquiry (Inquiry Arousal):
How can I stimulate an attitude of inquiry?
Maintain Attention (Variability):
How can I use a variety of tactics to maintain their attention?
Relevance
Relate to Goals (Goal Orientation):
How can I best meet my learner’s needs? (Do I know their needs?)
Match Interests (Motive Matching):
How and when can I provide my learners with appropriate choices, responsibilities, and influences?
Tie to Experiences (Familiarity):
How can I tie the instruction to the learners’ experiences?
Confidence
Success Expectations (Learning Requirements):
How can I assist in building a positive expectation for success?
Success Opportunities (Learning Activities):
How will the learning experience support or enhance the students’ beliefs in their competence?
Personal Responsibility (Success Attributions):
How will the learners clearly know their success is based upon their efforts and abilities?
Satisfaction
Intrinsic Satisfaction (Self-Reinforcement):
How can I provide meaningful opportunities for learners to use their newly acquired knowledge/skill?
Rewarding Outcomes (Extrinsic Rewards):
What will provide reinforcement to the learners’ successes?
Fair Treatment (Equity):
How can I assist the students in anchoring a positive feeling about their accomplishments?
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The second difficulty in identifying a motivational problem lies in the nature of motivation.
Motivation follows a curvilinear relationship with performance (Figure 2). As motivation
increases, performance increases, but only to an optimal point. Afterward, performance
decreases as motivation increases to levels where excessive stress leads to performance
decrements. There is always some level of tension, or stress, associated with motivation. On
the rising side of the curve it is sometimes referred to as facilitative stress and on the
downside as debilitating stress.
Given that there is a motivational problem, one then classifies it according to the four
categories described earlier and determines whether the learners or employees are under- or
over-motivated in each case. For example, in the case of attention, people might be
demotivated because they are bored and not paying attention to the task, or because they
are so over-stimulated by the job opportunity or requirements that they are trying to pay
attention to too many things at once. In both cases they do not focus their attention on the
critical task, but solutions differ depending on whether the cause is under- or over-stimulation.
Comparable problems occur in the other categories of motivation and require tactics to
modify learner motivation into a more productive range.
In conducting motivational analysis, it is important to identify the nature of motivational gaps in
these terms, and to realize that the problems might be different in one subgroup or individual
than in another. It is also important to identify the presence of any positive motivational
factors. A motivational system has to be capable of solving motivational problems, but it also
has to sustain desirable levels of motivation. The output of analysis indicates where there are
motivational gaps to be closed and where satisfactory levels of motivation need to be
sustained rather than changed. Figure 2, for example, illustrates that the class under analysis
has learners with widely varying levels of confidence, that there are two aspects of relevance
of which one is too high and one is two low, and that the levels of attention and satisfaction
are about right. The two levels of relevance probably result from the class being required
which makes it necessary for success, but not being perceived by the learners has having
any personal value. The results of this analysis provide guidance in selecting and generating
motivational tactics.
Design. In motivational design (Figure 1, Steps 6 - 8), it is best to work on specifically defined
problems. This needs to be stated because it can be more of a problem in motivational
design than in some other performance areas. Often, people will try to deal with the global
issue of how to improve motivation by adopting a global solution, such as a new set of
curriculum materials or an entirely new approach to teaching. This approach may be
successful for awhile, but after the novelty wears off, the old motivational problems tend to re-
emerge.
After choosing a specific problem to solve, the primary task in the first design step (Step 6) is
to brainstorm possible solutions. At this point, all potential solutions should be listed without
regard to their presumed feasibility. The goal, as in any brainstorming process, is to produce
as many ideas as possible.
The second task (Step 7) is to define the ideal solution without regard to constraints. The
ideal solution might be constructed from several of the specific suggestions that were made
during the brainstorming process, or it might emerge as a new idea from the stimulation
provided by brainstorming. An important element at this point is to not worry about expense,
organizational policies, or other constraints that might inhibit the discovery of an ideal
solution.
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Figure 1. Motivational design: Ten step model
1. Obtain Course description and rationale
course Setting and delivery system
information Instructor information
2. Obtain Entry skill levels
audience Attitudes toward school or work
information Attitudes toward course
Motivational profile
3. Analyze Root causes
audience Modifiable influences
4. Analyze Positive features
existing Deficiencies or problems
materials Related issues
Motivational design goals
5. List ojectives Learner behaviors
& assessments Confirmation methods
Brainstorm list of tactics
6. List potential Begninning, during, and end
tactics Throughout
7. Select & Integrated tactics
design tactics Enhancement tactics
Sustaining tactics
Combine designs
8. Integrate Points of inclusion
with instruction Revisions to be made
9. Select & Select available materials
develop Modify to the situation
materials Develop new materials
10. Evaluate & Obtain student reactions
revise Determine satisfaction level
Revise if necessary
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Then, in Step 8, one selects the most feasible tactics listed in Step 7 and integrates them into
a motivational system. The reason for making this a multi-step process is that Step 6
encourages one to envision, without restraint, all potential solutions, including those that
might initially seem to be too grandiose or “ideal.” By so doing, one is more likely to
approximate an ideal than if one had narrowly focused from the beginning on the first
possible solution. In Step 7 of the process, one creates the best possible solutions by
combining ideas from step 6 and by applying several selection criteria pertaining to expense,
policy, acceptability, and proportionality (the motivational activities should support the learning
goals, not distract from them).
Development and evaluation of the solutions, which occurs in Steps 9 and 10, follow the
same process that one would employ for any other area of application. The first activity is to
prepare a plan of work for writing, media development, developmental reviews, and
preparations for implementation. As with any effective system development activity, it is
important to have motivational tactics and strategies well integrated with other system
components. For example, tactics such as case studies at the beginning of a lesson can be a
total waste of time if they do not meet specific needs of the audience and help prepare them
for the topics and objectives of the course. Audience evaluation provides the means for
determining the effectiveness of the tactics.
This design process is comprehensive and effective, but it has two limitations. First is that it
requires that the motivational designer or teacher have quite a bit of knowledge of the
different motivational factors represented by the four categories and all the subcategories.
Second, it can be time consuming to implement all the steps. In situations where there are
serious motivational challenges, or when it is highly critical to maximize the motivational
effectiveness of a lesson or course, then the full ten-step process can be the best approach
to follow. But, in many situations these conditions are not met. With teachers or instructional
designers who have little or no formal knowledge of motivational concepts and principles, or
in settings where a quick approach can result in adequate improvements, it would be good to
have a simpler model.
Figure 2: Curvilinear diagram for audience analysis
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A Simplified Approach
A recent development in Japan (Suzuki and Keller, 1996; Keller, 1997) provides a simplified
and effective approach to motivational design, and it has subsequently been applied in two
innovative applications to the improvement of self-directed learning. The first was in the
development of motivationally adaptive computer-based instruction (Song, 1998). In addition
to incorporating the simplified motivational design approach, it builds on concepts and
approaches initiated in the United Kingdom and Italy by del Soldato and du Boulay (1995)
and in Austria (Astleitner and Keller, 1995). The prototype of the adaptive CBI was developed
in the USA, and it will be cross-validated in Korea. The second application was in the student
support methods for a distance learning course in Europe (Visser, L., 1998). It is interesting to
note the multinational representation in these studies.
In Sendai, Japan, a team of 25 teachers in 8 subject areas at Sendai Daichi Junior High
School had been developing computer application projects for several years as part of a
demonstration project sponsored by the Japanese national government. During the last two
years of the project, they were asked to incorporate systematic motivational design into their
process. Suzuki (Suzuki and Keller, 1996) developed a simplified approach to motivational
design because the full, seven-step model would require too much time for training and
implementation. The goal of the simplified approach was to ensure that the teachers would
identify key motivational characteristics in the learners, the content area to be taught, and the
hardware or software to be used. The teachers then evaluated this information and
prescribed tactics based on identified motivational problems. This process helped ensure that
teachers avoided the inclusion of excessive numbers of tactics, or tactics derived from their
own preferred areas of interest without regard to the characteristics of the students and the
situation.
The resulting design process is represented in a matrix (Table 2). In the first row, the designer
lists salient characteristics of the learners’ overall motivation to learn. The second row
contains the designer’s judgements about how appealing the learning task will be to the
learners. The third and fourth rows ask about learners’ expected attitudes toward the medium
of instruction and the instructional materials. Each of the entries in these rows has a “plus” or
“minus” sign to indicate whether it is a positive or negative motivational characteristic. Based
on the information in these first three rows, the motivational designers decide how much
motivational support is required and what types of tactics to use. They refer to reference lists
of potential tactics (for example Keller and Burkman, 1992; Keller and Suzuki, 1988) and also
create their own based on the identified needs.
In this example, the teacher determined that confidence is the only real problem area, and he
listed some specific things to deal with it. He also listed some specific tactics for the other
categories, but they serve to maintain motivation instead of solving a specific problem.
A benefit of his application of this process was that in his initial motivational plan, before he
applied this process, he had a much longer list of tactics that he thought would be exciting
and motivational. After doing the analysis and applying various selection criteria that are listed
in the training materials on motivational design, he realized that his list of tactics would be too
time consuming, and would actually distract from the students’ intrinsic interest in the subject
as revealed in his analysis. By using the design process, he was able to simplify the
motivational design and target it to specific needs.
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Table 2. ARCS simplified design matrix: Elective unit on using international e-mail
DESIGN ARCS CATEGORIES
FACTORS
Attention Relevance Confidence Satisfaction
LEARNER Elective course, High commitment Low skills in typing Newly formed
CHARACTERISTICS High interest (+) (+) and in group of students (-
conversational ),
English (-)
but familiar teacher
(+)
LEARNING TASK New, attractive, -High public interest -Seems difficult (-) -High applicability of
adventurous (+) to the Internet (+) acquired skills (+)
(Learners' attitudes -First exposure (-)
toward) -Useful in future (+) -Exciting outcome
(+)
-Limited access to
computers (-)
MEDIUM: Computer Interesting new Familiar as a stand Unstable network Immediate
in this lesson use as a alone learning tool connection may feedback (+)
networking tool (+) make students
(Learners' attitudes
(+) worried (-)
toward)
COURSEWARE English usage (-) Participatory for
CHARACTERISTICS every students (+)
(E-mail software)
MOTIVATIONAL Minimal tactics Minimal tactics Necessary to build Minimal tactics
TACTICS FOR THE required: required: confidence: required:
LESSON
-Emphasize -Demonstrate how -Set objectives Provide
opportunity to it extends one’s cumulatively from reinforcement by
communicate communication low to high receiving messages
worldwide capabilities from “network pals”
-Team teaching
-Demonstrate with an Assistant
immediate English Teacher
transmission and
- Use translation
response
software
features
An evaluation of the effectiveness of this motivational design process (Suzuki and Keller,
1996) verified that the teachers were able to use the matrix accurately with only a few entries
not being placed appropriately, and more than two-thirds felt that it definitely helped them
produce a more effective motivational design. Some teachers had difficulties with the analysis
phase, which indicates that this is a critical area to address in training people to use the
process.
This simplified design process was modified and used in two subsequent projects. The first of
these was to develop a prototype of motivationally adaptive computer-based instruction. The
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formal motivational design process requires an audience analysis which influences which
motivational tactics are included in the learning environment. However, learner motivation
changes over time, and in sometimes unpredictable ways. In a classroom or other instructor-
led setting, an expert instructor can continuously gauge the audience’s motivational condition
and make adjustments as appropriate. But in self-directed learning environments, this type of
continuous adjustment has not been a feature. Once the instruction has been designed and
“packaged,” everyone receives the same program, with the exception of limited branching
and other learner control options. These options can have a positive effect on motivation, but
they do not adequately reflect the range of motivational conditions that characterize learners
at different points in time.
It would be possible to include a large number of motivational tactics to cover a broad range
of motivational conditions, but this would most likely have a negative effect on motivation and
performance. The reason is that when students are motivated to learn, they want to work on
highly task-relevant activities. They do not want to be distracted with unnecessary
motivational activities. For this reason, it would be nice to have computer or multi-media
software that can sense a learner’s motivation level and respond adaptively.
Integration into Lesson Planning
However, there has still been a gap in the model with respect to providing guidance for
integrating the motivational tactics into a teacher’s actual lesson plan. This presentation helps
to close this gap by illustrating how motivational strategies and tactics can be incorporated
along side an outline of lesson content and instructional activities (Appendix A).
The header of the lesson plan has a place to make notes about the overall sustaining
strategy and enhancement strategy for the lesson. The distinction between sustaining and
enhancement strategies refers to the degree to which the learners will be motivated by the
lesson. If their overall motivation is high, then all that is required of the teacher or designer is
to sustain the learners’ motivation by using variety in teaching approaches, continuing to use
relevant examples, and providing appropriate types of motivating feedback. But, if you
suspect that there will be specific motivational challenges, or deficiencies, then it is necessary
to plan a motivational approach that will overcome these problems. In the example in
Appendix A, fifth and sixth grade students will be engaged in a year-long independent
research project. There will be relatively long intervals between class sessions devoted to this
project. Therefore, many learners can be expected to have serious problems with relevance
and confidence during the year. That is, the learners will have trouble sustaining interest in a
project that does not have immediate assignments and feedback, they may have doubts from
time to time as to how important the project really is, and they may doubt that they can really
do all the work that will be required. Therefore, the teacher has to include an overall strategy,
with appropriate tactics, that will counteract these motivational obstacles.
The body of the lesson plan has columns that are fairly typical, even the formats of lesson
plans vary. This lesson plan has a unique feature in that it includes a column devoted
specifically to motivational planning. It allows one to implement the results of the analysis and
design steps in the ARCS planning process (Figure 1, Steps 1 – 7)) by integrating it into the
content and instructional strategies of the lesson (Figure 1, Step 8).
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Benefits of this type of lesson plan are that it allows one to
• “See” the overall architecture of the lesson
• Check the lesson for balance of content and activities
• Easily check to see if there is variation in approach (that is, that the same pattern of
instructional or motivational techniques are not used over and over again)
• Critically review the contents, instructional tactics, and motivational tactics in terms of
internal consistency and fidelity to the lesson and course objectives, and
• Obtain reviews and feedback from other people who can easily review the structure
and content of the lesson.
Summary
There has never been any doubt about the importance of learner motivation, but there have
been difficulties obtaining methods and approaches for systematically predicting and
influencing motivation. Traditionally we have relied on compilations of personal experiences
by successful teachers and listings of results from academic studies. The ARCS model
resulted from reviews and integration of research literature and successful practices. It has
been validated in numerous research studies (for example, Means, Jonassen, & Dwyer,
1997; Small & Gluck, 1994; and Visser & Keller, 1990) and it is being used in many different
countries and cultures in the world. However, it does not offer simple, prescriptive solutions to
motivational problems. It offers problem solving approach that leads one to solutions
appropriate for a given situation. Furthermore, it is an evolving model. Just as this paper
introduces the lesson planning template for the first time, there are many areas of research
and development to be undertaken that will continue to help this model be more effective or
lead to the development of alternative approaches. The goal of the model, like the goal of
many educators, is to assist in helping learners want to learn and develop in ways that helps
them build satisfying lives that contribute something positive to their world.
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References
Astleitner, J., and Keller, J. M. (1995) “A model for Motivationally Adaptive Computer-assisted
Instruction.” Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 27(3), 270-80.
del Soldato, T., and du Boulay, B. (1995) “Implementation of Motivational Tactics in Tutoring
Systems.” Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 6(4), 337-338.
Keller, J. M. (1987a). “Strategies for Stimulating the Motivation to Learn.” Performance &
Instruction, 26(8), 1-7.
Keller, J. M. (1987b). The systematic process of motivational design. Performance &
Instruction, 26(9), 1-8.
Keller, J. M. (1997). “Motivational Design and Multimedia: Beyond the Novelty Effect.”
Strategic Human Resource Development Review, 1(1), 188-203.
Keller, J. M. (1999a). Motivational systems. In H. D. Stolovitch, & E. J. Keeps (Eds.),
Handbook of human performance technology, 2nd Edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Inc., Publisher.
Keller, J. M. (1999b). Using the ARCS motivational process in computer-based instruction
and distance education. In M. Theall (ed.), New Directions for Teaching and Learning:
Motivation from Within: Approaches for Encouraging Faculty and Students to Excel. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass, (#78).
Keller, J. M. 1987b). “The Systematic Process of Motivational Design.” Performance &
Instruction, 26(9), 1-8.
Keller, J. M., & Suzuki, K. (1988). Application of the ARCS model to courseware design. In D.
H. Jonassen (Ed.), Instructional Designs for Microcomputer Courseware. New York:
Lawrence Erlbaum, Publisher, 401 -434.
Keller, J. M., and Burkman, E. (1993). “Motivation Principles.” In M. Fleming and W. H. Levie
(eds.), Instructional Message Design: Principles from the Behavioral and Cognitive
Sciences. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Press.
Keller, J. M., and Suzuki, K. (1988). “Use of the ARCS Motivation Model in Courseware
Design.” In Jonassen, D. H. (Ed), Instructional designs for microcomputer courseware.
Hillsdale N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Means, T. B., Jonassen, D. H., & Dwyer, F. M., (1997). Enhancing relevance: Embedded
ARCS strategies vs. purpose. Educational Technology Research and Development,
45(1), 5 – 18.
Small, R. V. & Gluck, M. (1994). The relationship of motivational conditions to effective
instructional attributes: A magnitude scaling approach. Educational Technology. 34 (8),
33-40.
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Song, S.H. (1998 ). “The Effects of Motivationally Adaptive Computer-assisted Instruction
Developed through the ARCS Model.” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, College of
Education, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.
Suzuki, K., & Keller, J. M. (1996). Creation and cross cultural validation of an ARCS
motivational design matrix. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Japanese
Association for Educational Technology, Kanazawa, Japan.
Visser, J., and Keller, J. M. (1990 ). “The Clinical Use of Motivational Messages: An Inquiry
into the Validity of the ARCS Model of Motivational Design.” Instructional Science, 19,
467-500.
Visser, L. (1998). “The Development of Motivational Communication in Distance Education
Support.” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Educational Technology Department, The
University of Twente, The Netherlands.
Appendix A: Detailed Lesson Guide
1. Course Title: English (5th & 6th grade special project) 4. Lesson Motivational Strategy Overview
2. Module Title: Independent Project Development a. Sustaining strategy: The overall assignment will be motivating, but it will be
necessary to use a variety of approaches to sustain interest and high levels of
Module Objective: Plan, conduct, and report the results of an independent sharing results to keep them interested and productive.
research project.
b. Enhancement strategy: They will have trouble seeing the relvance of this
assignment at some points, and their confidence will waver during the extended
time required to complete all parts of the project. Therefore, the overall
3. Lesson Title: 1. Identifying a research topic and goal. enhancement strategy is to (1) organize assignments on an increasing level of
difficulty from knowledge and comprehension at the beginning to synthesis and
evaluation at the end, (2) provide encouragement at points in the process that
Lesson Terminal Learning Objective (TLO): Learners will obtain background you know to be challenging or discouraging, (3) provide timely, positive feedback
information in their areas of interest and define their topic and objective. at every interval that an assignment is completed.
NOTE: This is the first of three lessons pertaining to this independent project. 5. Primary Delivery System: Classroom meetings from time to time combined with
Each lesson covers several class meetings spread at intervals during the email or snail mail to sustain interest and progress.
year-long project.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.
Sequenced Intermediate Content Outline Instructional Tactics (Activities, Self- Motivational Tactics (Activities) Materials Time
Learning Objectives


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